AGRICULTURE. Owing to the northern situation and tho very limited cultivable area, as well as the primitive methods employed. Finland's home sup ply of agricultural products falls far short of the demand. In 1896 the number of land-holdings was 117.704, of which 2694 embraced over 250 acres each, and 32,162 less than 1214 acres. In other words, the proportion of large landholders is small. The influence of the landed aristocracy as a class, once considerable. has greatly waned since the law of 1863-64, which enables every citi zen to buy tax-exempted land from the nobility. There are 70,000 tenants, partly on private and partly on Government land. The State owns about one-third of the whole area, and rents land on very advantageous terms, giving lessees every reasonable opportunity for purchase. Rent of private lands is paid mostly in labor. Though the laws governing the relations between tenant and landlord leave much to he desired, the con dition of tenants was perhaps better during the last century than that of the average in the countries of Europe. After Finland became a Russian duchy, its agriculture underwent a sig nificant change. Owing to the excess of pasture over arable land, the dairying industry has al ways been more or less important. but prior to 1850 agriculture in Finland meant chiefly the rais ing of rye, corn, oats, barley. and potatoes. Since then dairy products have become more prominent, and the use of machinery in their production, in troduced by the example of owners of the larger estates and followed by the col)perative societies, is now very general. Finland exports annually
about $6,000,000 of animal products, chiefly but ter. The live stock of the country in 1899 numbered 3(18.486 horses, 1,457.423 cattle, 1,031. 185 sheep, 214,206 swine, 119.917 reindeer, and 908:3 goats. In the development of its fisheries, as well as of its live-stoek interests, the country has greatly advaneed.
AlAxi'FAcrimrs. Naturally Finland is not fa vorably situated for ma 1M faeturing, although the numerous streams offer an abundant supply of power. During the period of 1887-98. however, the number of manufacturing establishments grew front 5615 to 7757 (39 per cent. gain) ; the number of workmen employed increased from 43,085 to 91,055 (111 per cent.) ; and the value of products, exclusive of flour, rose from about $22,500.000 to about $56,700.000 t 150 per cent.). The chief manufactured products are lumber and wooden articles (about 25 per cent.), iron prod ucts. mechanical appliances, etc. (15 per cent.), textiles (12 per cent.), paper (10 per cent.), leather (7 per cent.). By far the leading export is timber, the value of which for 1900 was about $22,780,000.