FAUNA. Germany, by its northerly situation, exposed to cold airs of the north and cut off from the south by lofty mountains, has a decidedly northern fauna, and the fastnesses of the Harz and the mountains of Bavaria. Saxony, and Silesia have preserved several wild forms ex tinct or nearly so elsewhere in Europe. Thus there may still be found there bears, wolves (oc casionally, along the Russian border), foxes, martens, weasels, badgers, otters, and rarely a wildcat. Fallow deer are known only in a few parks, but the roe and wild boar are obtainable in many forests, and the elk still exists along the Polish border. All these, together with the Alpine chamois, are 'preserved.' The birds are those of Europe, with the absence of several semi tropical species common south of the Alps. Most of them are migratory, and traverse the Empire along two great 'highways.' One leads to and from Africa along the Rhine-Rhone Valley, and thence east in spring and west in winter along the Baltic shore to and from Northern Russia; the other follows the Danube Valley to and from Asia Minor and India. Of the resident birds the most remarkable is the great capereailzie of the eastern districts. Reptiles are not as well rep
resented in Germany as in warmer and more diversified France and Italy; and the adder is no where common. One of its frogs, called the 'fire bellied,' is well known. Germany shares in the fish and fisheries of the North Sea, and possesses the larger part of the south shore of the Baltic. This inland sea seems some thousands of years ago to have admitted the ocean more freely, and then, as is shown by prehistoric shell-heaps, marine fishes, oysters, and edible mollusks gener ally abounded in its waters. Now there are no sea fisheries of consequence in any part of the Baltic, which seems to be growing steadily shal lower and fresher, with consequent alteration of its biological character. The rivers of Germany abound in fishes of large variety, among which the salmon and trout that ascend the larger streams from the Baltic are prominent. The carp family is largely represented; and the catfishes (Siluridx) of Germany are especially big, numer ous, and edible. insects are numerous, and bees are raised in some provinces to an extent hardly equaled elsewhere in Europe.