GREGORY VIII. ( Pope 1187). He succeeded Ur ban III., October 21, 1187, and died eight weeks later. His Epistolm et Primilegia are in Migne, Patrol. Lat., ccii. Consult the dissertation of Nadig, Gregors VIII. 57 tagiger Pontifilcat (Basel, 1890 ) VIII. was also the title taken by Mauritius Burdinus, Archbishop of Braga, set up as antipope to Gelasius II. by the Emperor Henry V. in 1118. He was taken prisoner by the successor of Gelasius, Calixtus IL, in 1121, and died in captivity, 1125.—GREGORY IX. (Ugolino, Count of Segni) (Pope 1227-41). He followed the policy of Gregory VII., and had a long dispute with the Emperor Frederick 11. (q.v.), whom he twice excommunicated. The Emperor marched upon the Papal territories, took Ravenna, and in tercepted a fleet from Genoa which was conveying a hundred Church dignitaries to Rome. Gregory died before the trouble was settled. He instituted the Inquisition and gave it in charge to the Do minicans. For his life, 'consult: Balan (Mo dena, 1872-73) ; J. Marx, Die Vita Gregorii IX. quellenkritisch untersucht (Berlin, 1890) ; Au vray (editor), Les registres de Gregoire IX., 1227 35 (Paris, 1890-96). His Epistolce are in D'Achery, Spieilegium, vol. iii. (Paris, 1723).— GREGORY X. (Teobaldo de' Visconti) (1210-76) (Pope 1271-76). He was born at Piacenza, Italy, 1210; at the time of his election (1270) he was in the Holy Land as a crusader. He arrived at
Rome, March 13, 1271, and was consecrated Pope March 27th. He held at Lyons the fourteenth gen eral synod for action upon (1) the Greek schism, (2) the Saracen oppression of the Holy Land, and (3) the moral degeneracy of the times. The synod was opened by the Pope in person, May 7, 1274. He exerted himself to attain the ends sought, and succeeded as far as the council was concerned. But the plans for a crusade came to nothing; the union with the Greeks was short lived, and the times did not noticeably improve. He died in Rome, January 10, 1276. Consult J. Guiraud (editor), Les registres de Gregoire X. (Paris, 1892-98).—GREGORY XI. (Pierre Roger de Beaufort) (1331-78) (Pope 1370-78). He was born in 1331, chosen Pope at Avignon, Provence, 1370, and was the last of the French popes. At the request of the Romans, and influenced by the pleadings of Saint Catharine of Siena, he re turned to Rome in 1377, and there he died, March 27, 1378. The works of Wiclif came under his XII. (Angelo Corrario) (1327 1417) (Pope 1406-15). He was a Venetian, and was chosen Pope in 1406. He was deposed by the Council of Pisa (1409), but held on till at the Council of Constance (1415) he voluntarily ab dicated. (See CONSTANCE, COUNCIL OF.) He died as Cardinal Bishop of Porto, October 18, 1417.