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government, absence, political and ernment

ANARCHY. The absence of all political government; by extension, Confusion in gov ernment.

The absence of government ; a state of so ciety where there is no law or supreme pow er. Spies v. People; 122 Ill. 253, 12 N. E. 865, 17 N. E. 898, 3 Am. St. Rep. 320.

A social theory which regards the union of order with the absence of all direct gov ernment of man by man as the political ideal ; absolute individual liberty. Cent. Diet.

Taken in its proper sense, the word has nothing to do with disorder or crime, but in the Act of Congress of March 3, 1903, the word "anarchists" is used synonymously with "persons who believe in or advocate the overthrow by force or violence of the gov ernment of the United States or of all govern ment or of all forms of law or the assassina tion of public officials," and this would seem to be the popular sense attaching to the word. In the address of U. M. Rose, Presi dent of the American Bar Association in 1902, criminal anarchy is defined as the doc trine that organized government should be overthrown by force and violence, or by as sassination of the executive head or of any of the executive officials of the government, by any unlawful means. 15 Rep. Am. Bar Assn. 210.

In U. S. v. Williams, 194 U. S. 294, 24 Sup. Ct. 719, 48 L. Ed. 979, it was held that

even though an alien anarchist only regard ed the absence of government as a political ideal, yet when he sought to attain it by ad vocating a universal strike and discoursing upon "the legal murder of 1887" (Spies v. People, 122 Ill. 1, 12 N. E. 865, 17 N. E. 898, 3 Am. St. Rep. 320) there was a justifiable inference that he contemplated the ultimate realization of his ideal by, the use of force, or that his speeches were incitements to that end. And further, that even if "anarchists" should be interpreted to mean political philosophers innocent of evil intent, yet the tendency of the general exploitation of such views is so dangerous to the public weal that aliens who hold and advocate them would be undesirable additions to the population and their exclusion infringes none of the constitutional guaranties respecting freedom of speech, etc. See ALIEN.

A punishment by which a person is separated from the body of the church, and forbidden all intercourse with the faithful.

It differs from excommunication, which simply forbids the person excommunicated from going into the church and taking the communion with the faithful.