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Arizona

mexico, territory, congress and boundary

ARIZONA. One of the states of the Ameri can Union.

This region was first visited by the Spanish in 1526, and was afterwards explored under the direc tion of the viceroy of Mexico in 1540; nothing was done, however, towards settling the country until the year 1580, when a military post was established by the Spanish on the site of the present city of Tucson. Under the untiring efforts of the Jesuits, an unbroken •line of settlements sprung up from Tucson to the Sonora line, the northern boundary of Mexico, a distance of about one hundred miles ; but owing to the frequent attacks of the Indians,I and the Mexican revolution of 1821, these settlements were abandoned. The first United States settlers were persons on their way to California in 1849. The United States acquired, by the treaty of Glia dalupe Hidalgo, Feb. 2, 1848, a large extent of coun try from Mexico, including California and the ad jacent' territories, and by the Gadsden purchase, Dec. 30, 1853, another large tract south of the for mer. Until 1863, the territory of New Mexico in cluded Arizona and also about 12,225 acres, which were detached and included in Nevada. Arizona was organized as a separate territory by the act of congress of Feb. 24, 1863, U. S. Stat. at Large, 664.

By this act, the territory .embraced "all that part of the territory of New Mexico situated west of a line running due south, from the point where the southwest corner of the territory of Colorado joins the northern boundary of 'fife territory of New Mex ico, to the southern boundary of the territory of New Mexico." The frame of government was sub stantially the same as that of New Mexico, and the laws of New Mexico were substantially extended to Arizona.

The Enabling Act for its admission to the Union was passed by Congress June 20, 1910. On August 21, 1911, the joint resolution of Congress for its ad mission was passed, to take effect upon Proclama tion by the President that certain conditions had been complied with. The Proclamation was made February 14, 1912. Arizona became a state and adopted the constitution proposed for it by the con stitutional convention held in the fall of 1910. The constitution was amended in 1912 by providing for the recall of public officers and granting to each municipal corporation within the state the right to engage in industrial pursuits, and providing for woman suffrage.