PLAINTIFFS. In general, all persons who have a just cause of action may sue, unless some disability be shown; Dicey, Part. 1. An action on a contract, of whatever de scription, must be brought in the name of the party in whom the legal interest is vest ed; 3 B. & P. 147; Crawford v. The William Penn, 1 Pet. C. C. 109, Fed. Cas. No. 3,372; Buckbee v. Brown, 21 Wend. (N. Y.) 110. See Saltmarsh v. Candia, 51 N. H. 71.
On simple contracts, by the party from whom (in part, at least) the consideration moved ; 1 Stra. 592; Anderson v. Blakely, 2 W. & S. (Pa.) 237; although the promise was made to another, if for his benefit; Cabot v. Haskins, 3 Pick. (Mass.) 83; Sailly v. Cleveland, 10 Wend. (N. Y.) 156; Clarke v. McFarlands' Ex'rs, 5 Dana (Ky.) 45; and not by a stranger to the consideration, even though the contract be for his sole benefit; Browne, Act. 101. On contracts under seal, by parties to the instrument only ; Spencer v. Field, 10 Wend. (N. Y.) 87 ; Co. Litt. 231.
Agents contracting in their own name, without disclosing their principals, may, in general, sue in their own names; 3 B. & Ald. 280 ; 5 M. & W. 650; Gilpin v. Howell, 5 Pa. 41, 45 Am. Dec. 720; or the principals may sue; Corlies v. Cumming, 6 Cow. (N. Y.) 181; Broom, Part. 44. See, generally, Ans. Contr. 352.
So they may sue on contracts made for an unknown principal; 3 E. L. & E. 391; and also when acting under a del credere commission;, 4 Maule & S. 566; White v. Chouteau, 10 Barb. (N. Y.) 202; but not an ordinary merchandise broker. An auction eer may sue for the price of goods sold ; 1 H. Bla. 81; Hulse v. Young, 16 Johns. (N. Y.) 1; but a mere attorney having no bene ficial interest may not sue in his own name; Gunn v. Cantine, 10 Johns. (N. Y.) 387.
Alien enemies, unless resident under a li cense, or contracting under specific license, cannot sue, nor can suit be brought for their benefit ; 1 Campb. 482; 1 Kent 67; Jackson v. Decker, 11 Johns. (N. Y.) 418. License is presumed if they are not ordered away; Clarke v. Morey, 10 Johns. (N. Y.) 69 ; Rus
sel v. Skipwith, 6 Binn. (Pa.) 241. See, also, Co. Litt. 129 b; 15 East 260; 1 Kent 68.
Alien friends may bring actions concern ing personal property ; Bac. Abr. Aliens; for libel published here ; 8 Scott 182; and now, in regard to real estate generally, by Statute; Ellice v. Winn, 12 Wend. (N. Y.) 342; and, by common law, till office found, against an intruder; Jackson v. Beach, 1 Johns. Cas. (N. Y.) 399. But see People v. Folsom, 5 Cal. 373. See WAR. As a general rule, an alien may maintain a personal ac tion in the federal courts; Taylor v. Car penter, 3 Story 458, Fed. Cas. No. 13,784; Coffeen v. Brunton, 4 McLean, 516, Fed. Cas. No. 2,946.
Assignees of choses in action cannot, at common law, maintain actions in their own names; Broom, Part. 10; Pollard v. Ins. Co., '42 Me. 221. Promissory notes, bills of exchange, bailbonds, and replevin bonds, etc., are exceptions to this rule; Hamm. Part. 108. Assignees of a note and mortgage can maintain an action thereon, whether they pail" any consideration for the assignment, or not; Whitney v. Traynor, 74 Wis. 289, 42 N. W. 267.
An assignee of real estate may have an action in his own name for breaches of a covenant running with the land, occurring after assignment ; Bane v. Sanger, 14 Johns. (N. Y.) 89; and he need not be named in an express covenant of this character; Broom, Part. 8.
An assignee in insolvency or bankruptcy should sue in his own name on a contract made before the act of bankruptcy or the assignment in insolvency ; 1 Chitty, Pl. 14; Com. Dig. Abatement (I) 17) ; Kennedy v. Ferris, 5 S. & R. (Pa.) 394. Otherwise of a suit by a foreign assignee; Raymond v. Johnson, 11 Johns. (N. Y.) 488. The dis charge of the insolvent pending suit does not abate it ; id. But see Bird v. Pierpont, 1 Johns. (N. Y.) 118.
An assignee who is to execute trusts may sue in his own name; 4 Abb. 106. Cestuis que trustent cannot sue at law; 3 Bouvier, Inst. 135.