TIMBER TREES. Oak, ash, elm, in all places, and, by local custom, such other trees as are used in building. 2 Bla. Com. 281; also beech, chestnut, walnut, cedar, fir, asp en, lime, sycamore, and birch trees ; 6 George III. eh. 48; and also such as are used in the mechanical arts. Lewis, Cr. L. 506. Timber trees, both standing, fallen, and severed and lying upon the soil, constitute a portion of the realty, and are embraced in a mortgage of the land ; 1 Washb. R. P. 13 ; Gore v. Jenness, 19 Me. 53; and pass, by a judiCial sale under such mortgage, to the purchaser; Hutchins v. King, 1 Wall. (U. S.) 53, 17 L. Ed. 544 ; Brackett v. Goddard, 54 Me. 313 ; Pattison's Appeal, 61 Pa. 294, 100 Am. Dec. 637. Some contracts for the sale of timber trees are contracts for the sale of an interest in lands ; McGregor v. Brown, 10 N. Y. 117 ; Huff v. McCauley, 53 Pa. 206, 91 Am. Dec. 203; Hostetter v. Auman, 119 Ind. 7, 20 N. E. 506 ; and, as such, within the statute of frauds ; Birth v. Graham, 50 Ohio St. 57, 33 N. E. 90, 19 L. R. A. 721, 40 Am. St. Rep. 64]. When both the land and standing timber are vested in one person, the latter are real es tate ; France v. Logging Co., 140 Pac. 361.
The interest of a grantee of growing tim ber to be removed within a certain period is a determinable fee in real estate and will pass to his heirs and not to his admin istrator; Midyette v. Grubbs, 145 N. C. 85,
58 S. E. 795, 13 L. R. A. (N. S.) 278. It is held that an oral contract for the sale of standing timber, to be cut at once and re moved in a reasonable time, relates to per sonal property ; Strause v. Berger, 220 Pa. 367, 69 Atl. 818.
The right of a grantor of land who re serves to himself timber standing thereon, to be removed within a specified time, ter minates at the expiration of such time; Ad kins v. Huff, 58 W. Va. 645, 52 S. E. 773, 3 L. R. A. (N. S.) 649, 6 Ann. Cas. 246. Where only the timber is granted, it is incumbent on the grantee to cut and remove it within a reasonable time; McRae v. Stillwell, 111 Ga. 65, 36 S. E. 604, 55 L. R. A. 513. A parol sale of standing timber is but a license to enter, cut and remove, which may be revok ed; Hodsdon v. Kennett, 73 N. H. 225, 60 Atl. 686, 111 Am. St. Rep. 607. Where tim ber is sold and no time is fixed for cutting and removing, such sale passes an equitable interest in the real estate; McCoy v. Fraley (Ky.) 113 S. W. 444.
The better action for damages for cut ting and carrying away timber trees seems to be that of trespass quare clausum fregit et de bonis asportatis (unless otherwise des ignated by statute) ; 2 Greenl. 173, 387. See WASTE; SALE; TREE; TIMBER.