YEAR. The period in which the revolution of the earth round the sun, and the accom panying changes in the order of nature, are completed.
The civil year differs from the astronom ical, the latter being composed of three hun dred and sixty-five days, five hours, forty eight seconds and a fraction, while the for mer consists sometimes of three hundred and sixty-five days, and at others, in leap-years, of three hundred sixty-six days.
The year is divided into half-year, which consists, according to Co. Litt. 135 b, of one hundred and eighty-two days ; and quarter of a year, which consists of ninety-one days. Id.; 2 Rolle, Abr. 521, 1. 40. It is further divided into twelve months.
The civil year commences immediately after twelve o'clock at night of the thirty first day of December, that is, the first mo ment of the first day of January, and ends at midnight of the thirty-first day of Decem ber twelve months thereafter. See Coin. Dig. .4notus; 2 Chitty, Bla. Com. 140. Before the alteration of the calendar from old to new style in England (see BISSEXTILE) and the colonies of that country in America, the year in chronological reckoning was supposed to commence with the first day of January, although the legal year did not commence until March 25, the intermediate time being doubly indicated ; thus February 15, and so on. This mode of reckoning al tered by the statute 24 Geo. c. 23, which gave rise to an act of assembly of Pennsyl vania, passed March 11, 1752, 1 Smith, Lawl, 217, conforming thereto, and also to the re peal of the act of 1710.
In New York it is enacted that whenever the term "year" or "years" is or shall be used in any statute, deed, verbal or written contract, or any public or private instrument whatever, the year intended shall be taken to consist of three hundred and sixty-five days; half a year, of a hundred and eighty two days; and a quarter of a year, of nine ty-two days ; and the day of a leap year, and the day immediately preceding, if they shall occur in any period so to be computed, shall be reckoned together as one day. Rev. Stat. vol. 2, c. 19, t. 1, § 3. The meaning of the term "year," as used in a contract, is to be determined from the connection in which it is used and the subject-matter of the contract ; Brown v. Anderson, 77 Cal. 236, 19 Pac. 487 ; Knode v. Baldridge, 73 Ind. 54.
See AGE; ALLOWANCE; TIME; REGNAL YEARS; OLD STYLE.
The omission of the word "year" in an indictment is not important, provided tne proper numerals are written after the month and day of the month; State v. Munch, 22 Minn. 67. An, indictment which states the year of the commission of the offense in fig ures only, without prefixing "A. D.," is in sufficient ; Com. v. McLoon, 5 Gray (Mass.) 91, 66 Am. Dec. 354; but it has been held otherwise in Maine under a statute; State v. Bartlett, 47 Me. 388.
See YEAR OF OUR LORD.