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Absorption 1ch Machines
Absorption 1ch-machines Can Be Built And Operated At Less Cost Than The Superior Types Of Compression Apparatus, And It Is Further Claimed In Favor Of The Former That It Is Easier To Pump The Water Of Ammonia Used In That Machine Than To Pump The Highly Elastic, Gaseous Ammonia Used ...

Air Compressors
Air-compressors. Improvements In Apparatus For Compressing Air Have Recently Been Made. Ehiefly In The Direction Of Increasing The Speed Of Rotation, So As To Lessen The Size And Consequent First Cost Of It Machine To Do A Given Quantity Of Work. The Limitation To The Speed Of An Air-compressor Has ...

Air Engines
Engines, Air. The Air-engine Described Below, Built By The Ticonderoga Machine Co., At Ticonderoga, N. Y., Is Based On The Well-known Stirling Principle, In Which The Working-air Is Confined To The Machine, And Originally Compressed To A High Press Ure. Fig. 1 Is A Perspective View, And Fig. 2 Is ...

Air Hoist
Air-hoist. Fig. 1 Shows A Pneumatic Hoist That Has Recently Been Introduced By Pedrick & Ayer, Of Philadelphia, As A Substitute For The Commonly Used Chain Hoists And Blocks. The Cylinder Is Made Of Extra Strong Wrought-iron Pipe, Which Is Carehilly Reamed Out ; To The Upper Head Is Fastened ...

Air Tool
Air-tool. Mccoy's Pneumatic Tool Consists Of An Automatic Hammer Reciprocated In A Cylinder By Compressed Air, Or By Steam, Which Delivers A Rapid Succession Of Blows Neon Tool-holder Into Which Are Inserted Suitable Hits Or Chisels For (idling Wood, Metal, Or Stone. Il Embraces In Its Details Valves For Admitting ...

Alloys
Alloys. Prof. Thurston's Researches On Copper-tin And Copper-zinc Alloys Are Referred To In Vol. 1 Of This Work. Llis Later Researches, On The Triple Alloys Of Copper, Tin. And Zinc, Have Since Been Published (see Report Of The U. S. Board Appointed To Test Iron, Steel. And Other Metals, And ...

Alternating Motors
Alternating Motors.- The Testa Alter Nating Motor.—mr, Nikola Testa Was The First To Build A Practical Motor Employing Currents Of Different Or What Are Now Termed " Polvphasal ' Currents. One Of The Types Of The Testa Motor, As Built By The Westinghouse Co.. Is Shown In Perspective In Fig. ...

Aluminum Or Aluminium
Aluminum Or Aluminium. Webster And Worcester Sanction Either Way Of Spell Ing—webster Giving Aluminum " Us Preferable, Worcester V Aluminium." German, Alionitun ; I" Tench, Alnmiaiinm. In England, Aluminium Has The Preference. In America, Aluminum Is Most Used, And The Shorter !mine Alinto Is Being Strongly Urged In Preference To ...

Amalgamating
Amalgamating ?flachinery.—x. P. Boss's Special Used For Grinding The Pulp As It Comes Fi.om The Battery In The Boss Continuous Process. Is A Solid, Shallow Cast-iron Pan, 4 Ft. In Diameter, Having Solid Ring Shoes And Dies Slotted For A Short Distance From Their Inner Edges To Better Admit The ...

Armature
Armature Winuings.—in The Ring, Disk, And Pole Type Of A-rmature The Winding Or Wind Ings Are Practically Continuous And Symmetrical. But In The Drum-armatnre There Is Touch Scope For Devising Combinations, In Order To Secure, First, An Equal Length Of Wire In Each Coil ; And, Second, The Shortest Length ...

Armor
Armor. Early In The Eighties Iron Was Still To Be Found As A Material For The Con Of The Hulls Of Battle-ships, And Compound Armor Was In Use By All The Leading Powers ; The Complete Belt And Minor Had Not Yet Begun Its Reaction Toward Special Gun Position Protection, ...

Ators Reiwi
Reiwi,ators, I. Damper 11.ditmatruits.— The Mason ;gram Damper Regulator Is Shown In Fig. 1. It Is Designed To Automatically Maintain Any Desired Pressure In It Steam Boiler By Controlling The Draft. 'lite Operation Of The Regulator Is As Follows: The Boiler Pressure, Which Is Connected At The Pipe. G. Comes ...

Automatic
Automatic Signals.—the Best Known Automatic Signals Are The Union Electric Signal And The Westinghouse Pneumatic Signal, Both Owned And Manufactured By The Union Switch And Signal Co , And The Hall Signal, Owned And Manufactured By The Hall Signal Co. The Hall Signal Is Described In ...1ppletoa Cr&tullio Of Applied ...

Band
Band Saws.--while The Hand Saw Was Invented About The Year 1808, It Did Not Come Into Use Until 1835, Since Which Time There Has Been A Gradual But Steady And Satisfactory Devel Opment Along, Various Lines Of Design And Work, Its Use Takes In Practically Nearly Every Kind Of Wood ...

Belts
Belts. Recent Experiments On Belting (see Trans. A. S. If. E., Ii, 91 And 224; Vii. 347 And 540; Viii. 520; And X. 765) All Tend To Confirm The Statement Made In Vol. I Of This Work, That On The Amount Of Power That Can Be Transmitted By A Belt ...

Bending M Ci1 I
Bending M Ci1 I Nem% It Be Taken As A Proof Of Advance In Matters Mechani Cal When Bent Construction Is Substituted For Cut, As, For Example, In The Making Of Crank Shafts, In Bent-wood Furniture, And In Machines For Making Shafts And Poles From Bent Wood. The Shaft And ...

Bendino Rolls
Rolls, Bendino. Flew?, Plate-bending Rolls.—the Full-page Illustration, Fig. 1, Represents The No. 12 Power Bending Rolls Made By The Niles Tool Works, Hamilton. 0., For Bending Plates Imp To 2 In. In Thiekness. This Machine Is 22+ Ft. Between The Housings, And Has Four Wrought-iron Forged Rolls, 22i Ft. Long ...

Blast
Blast). For The Reduction Of Zinc And Quicksilver Ores Retort-furnaces Are Employed. The Shaft-furnaces Used In Lead And Copper Smelting Are Known As Furnaces If Their Horizontal Section Is Circular, Or Rasehette Furnaces If It Is Rectangular Furnaces Are Now Very Little Used. Although The Circular Form Possesses Certain Advantages, ...

Blocks
Block's. Bait's Differential Pulley-block. Made By The Boston & Lockport Block Co., Is Shown In Fig. 1. The Disk-pulley Carrying The Hand-chain Has Cast Upon Its Side A Scroll Or Spiral Groove Which Meshes Into The Teeth Of A Wheel Placed At Right Angles To It Which Carries Upon Its ...

Blowers
Blowers. (see Air Compressors, Boilers, Steam, And Engines, Blowing.) Fan-blow Ers.—fig. 1 Shows A Type Of Fan Which Has Come Into Extensive Use For Ventilating, Dry Ing, And Similar Purposes Where A Large Volume Of Air Is To Be Moved At A Slight Press Ure. The Shapes Of The Blades ...

Blowing Engines
Engines, Blowing. No Important Improvement In Type Of Blowing-engines Used At Blast-furnaces Has Been Brought Into Use In This Country In Recent Years, It Having Been Generally Considered That As The Fuel Used To Drive These Engines Was The Furnace-gas Which Would Otherwise Go To Waste, Attempts To Economize This ...

Bolt Cutter
Bolt-cutter. The Merriman Boll-cutler, Or Threading Machine, Is Shown In Figs. 1 And 2. The Vital Portion Of The Machine Is The Head Or Chuck, Which Consists Of Four Principal Parts. As Shown In Fig. 2. 1. The Die-box, Which Is Made Of Steel And Contains The Four Die-slots, In ...

Book Bin Ding Mach Ines
Book-bin Ding Mach Ines. The Art Of Book-binding Has Witnessed Few Changes So Far As Theory Is Concerned During The Past Decade, And Consequently The Efforts Of Inventors In This Trade Have Been Mainly Directed To Ward Perfecting And Improving The Ma Chinery And Appliances Used In The Work, The ...

Brakes
Brakes. The Westinghouse Quick-action Brake.—in 1s86 A Practical Test Was Made Upon A Train Of 50 Freight Cars, To Determine The Applicability Of Existing Brake Ap Paratus To Such A Train Service. This Test Was Made Upon The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Under The Direction Of The Iklaster Car-builders' ...

Brick Machines
Brick-machines. Three Classes Of Machines For The Manufacture Of Bricks, Tiles, Etc., May Be Distinguished 1. Soft-clay Or Sand-molding Machines. The Clay Is Taken From The Bank, Mixed With Water, And Thoroughly Tempered In The Machine, And Pressed Into Molds, Which Are Then Taken From The Machine, And The Brick ...

Car Couplers
Couplers, Car-. The Requirements Of An Efficient Car-coupler Are Thus Summed Up By Prof. S. W. Robinson : 1. That They Be Coupled And Uncoupled Without Requiring Men To Go Between Cars. 2. That, Whatever The Relative Heights Of The Couplers, They Couple And Uncouple Equally Well. :3. That Free ...

Car Heating
Car-heating. Car-heating, In The Genera] Acceptance Of The Term, Has Come To Mean The Heating Of Railway-cars By The Use Of Steam From The Locomotive, It Is Also Technically Described As Continuous Heating. Tire Commingle?. System Of The Consolidated Car-heating Co., Of Albany, N. V., De Pends Upon The Direct ...

Carriages And Wagons
Carriages And Wagons. Combination Vehicle, Having The Appear Ance Of The Brewster Buggy, But Said To Excel It In Riding Qualities, Is Constructed With The Timken Body Cross-springs And The Brewster End-springs (see H'ig. 1). The End-springs Act As A Cushion When The Buggy Strikes Any Obstruction, And The Long ...

Chlorination
Chlorination Machinery.—the Chlorination Barrel Used At The Golden Reward Chlorina Tion Works. Deadwood. S. D., The Methods Employed At Which Represent The Best American Practice In Barrel Chlorination, Is Thus Described By Mr. John E. Rothwell In The Engineering And111ining Journal, Vol. Li, 105, Ng: The Chlorination Barrel Used In ...

Circular
Circular Saws.—in Taking Up The Subject Of Circular Saws, We May First Consider The Log Mill, Board-mill, And Resawing Machines, These Being The First In Order Of Action Upon The Wood, In Its Conversion From The Log To The Finished Prodnet, No Matter What It Is. As Circular Saw Mills ...

Clay Crushers And
Clay-crushers And Granitlators.—nachines For Crushing And Granulating Clay Embody Rotary Crushing-rolls, And Are So Constructed As Automatically To Separate Out The Stones Naturally Contained In The Material. The Brewer Clay-crusher, Manufactured By Messrs. El. Brewer & Co., Of Tecumseh. Mich., Is Illustrated In Pig. 1. This Apparatus Has Two Conical ...

Clutches And Couplings
Clutches And Couplings. The Bill Friction-mich Pulley Is Shown In Fig. I. The Pulley Is Cast With A Rim Projecting From The Arms, Inside Of And Concentric With The Or Dinary Rim, Which Rim Is Gripped On Both Sides By Wooden Blocks. These Are Moved By A Com Bination Of ...

Coa Ining Machines
Coa Ining Machines, The Principal Inducement To Operators To Use Coal-cutting Machinery In Preference To Mining By Hand-labor Is Naturally Due To A Reduction In The Cost Of Getting Out The Coal To Be Gained The Former Method. With It. It Is Possible To Effect A Larger Saving Of Coal ...

Coal Breakers
Coal-breakers. Coal-breakers And The Machinery Used In Them For The Preparation Of Anthracite Coal For The Market Have Been Ably Described By Mr. Eckley B. C'oxe, In The Trans Actions Of The American Institute Of Alining Engineers, Six, 398, Of Which This Article Is Largely An Abstract. Anthracite Coal As ...

Coke Ovens
Coke-ovens. The Coke-ovens In Use In The United States Are Almost Exclusively Of The Old Beehive Type, 101 Ft. To 12 Ft. In Diameter And 5 Ft. To 7 Ft. In Height. It Is Recognized That They Are Very Wasteful, A Large Proportion Of The Value Of The Coal Used ...

Comm
Comm Ufidor Or Collector.—these Are Usually Built Up Of Segments Of Copper Or Phosphor Bronze, Insulated From Each Other As Well As From The Shaft. The Insulation Now Generally Preferred To Separate The Segments Is Mica, Though In Some Recent Machines Of Siemens The Collector-bars, Made Of Iron, Are Separated ...