The length of line and body of the type bar may be altered very quickly, and the machine may be converted from a minion to a nonpareil, or to any other face for which extra sets of matrices and extra casting boxes may be supplied. An eight-page section of the New York Sunday World was. with the exception of the displayed advertisements and heads, set up on a Rogers tvpograph. The composition was done entirely on one machine, by three oper ators, working in turn, 8 hours at a time, in 4 days, 23 hours, and 35 minutes, in which time the proof was read, corrections were made, the heads set, and the type plaeod in chases and made ready for stereotyping, by the same operators, at a total cost of $07.22, the operators being paid atkhe rate of $27 a week, the regular rate for time work on morning, newspapers set by the " piece" in this city. This work, had it been done by hand, it is estimated, would have cost, including time, making ready, and proof reading, V73.01. A speech of over 7,000 ems an hour has been attained in setting memorized matter on a sixteen-tin pica line, million machine, and this seems likely to be excelled.
The Linotype (Afergenthader's patent) is a machine now extensively used, and which enables an operator working at a keyboard attached to the machine to set lines of type of any required length ; such lines, upon completion and perfect justification mechanically, are then cast as solid lines, and dropped into a galley while the succeeding line is being set and justified. The Linotype has a keyboard of 107 separate keys, arranged in six rows, and this number of keys is said to be sufficient to cover not only all required faces of type to be used as from one font, but also, on some machines, to meet the requirements of many logo types with faces set bodyways, such logotypes being much used in printing addresses for wrappers, thus : John Jones : the twelve months, expressed by three letters each, Jan , Feb., Mar., etc. ; Mr., Mrs., Dr., Prof., etc., to the extent perhaps of 20 additional keys. The fundamental parts of the machine are a series of female type or matrices, each con a single letter or character, and a series of spacing devices or guides. each of which is capable of movement to variable thickness. The assorted matrices are arranged in the channels of a magazine. provided with escapement devices connected with finger keys, so that the operation of a key is followed by the discharge of a matrix bearing the same char acter. The space bars are arranged in a magazine, and discharged in like manner.
As the matrices emerge from the magazine, they are received on an inclined traveling belt, by which they are delivered one after another into a receiver, in which they are composed or assembled in line together with the spaces. The composition continues until all the char acters to appear in a line are assembled. The operator then depresses a lever, and the assembled line of. matrices and spaces is transferred to the Lee of a mold having the internal dimensions of the required linotype. The matrices and spaces thus assembled act jointly to
close the face of the mold, and while in this position the spaces are automatically adjusted to elongate the line to the required limit, or, as technically termed by the printer, to " justify the line." A melting pot, containing at all times a supply of molten type metal, and pro vided with a force pump. is connected with the mold. and after the line of matrices is pre sented to the font, the pump causes the molten metal to flow into and fill the mold, where it solidifies in the form of a bar or " linotype," bearing on its edge the impress of the matrices which are, for the time being, assembled in the front. After the linotype is thus formed, the matrices are withdrawn, the mold moved, and the linotype automatically ejected and added to the series which preceded it. As soon as the line of matrices and space bars is removed from the mold, the spaces are separated and returned to their magazines, while the matrices are transferred to a distributing mechanism, by which they are returned to the magazine channels from which they started.
The distributing mechanism is of extreme simplicity. It consists, essentially, of a single bar extending horizontally above the upper ends of the magazine channels, and having along its sides a series of horizontal ribs, which differ in number and arrangement, over the respective channels. The matrices have their upper ends notched and provided with teeth, by which they may be suspended from this bar while being moved lengthwise thereunder. As each matrix is thus moved along the bar, its teeth may engage and disengage certain of the ribs, and when the matrix reaches a point directly over its appropriate channel, all of its teeth are, for the time, disengaged, and it is permitted to descend by gravity into the magazine, there to remain until all of its predecessors in that channel have been called into use.
A simple mechanism is provided for transferring the matrices, one at a time. in rapid succession, to the distributor bar, and for carrying them along the bar to the points of dis charge. The organization of the machine is such that the manipulation of the keys to assemble the characters for one line, the casting of the preceding line, and the distribution of a still earlier line. are curried on concurrently and independently. The machine is operated by a small expenditure of power. Its principal parts move slowly, and the task of the operator is limited to the manipulation of the finger-keys and the simple movement required to start the line. As soon as one line is completed and started to the caster, he proceeds to set up another line. The keys are operated with a lighter touch than those of a typewriter. The capacity of this machine, as now speeded, is from 8,000 to 10,000 ems per hour.