Full figures are made at about fr ft.
Three-quarters figures are made at about 7 ft. Medium busts " " " " 4 ft.
Large size busts " " " ft.
If you have one of the small fixed focus Kodaks and are using it with a portrait attachment, the Kodak should always be set at exactly ft. from subject ; otherwise, it will be out of focus.
If you are using a No. 3, No. 3A or No. 4 Folding Pocket Kodak, No. 4A Folding Kodak or Cartridge Kodak, with the Portrait attachment, the directions furnished will enable you to place the Kodak at any distance desired away from the subject and obtain a portrait of any size you choose.
In portraiture, always use the largest diaphragm there is in the lens in order to diffuse the background and to gain speed in the exposure. With those Kodaks which have rapid rectilinear lenses and shutters with stop openings numbered on the U. S. System, use stop No. 4. With the other Kodaks use the largest stop.
In the following pages are given diagrams showing the position in which to place the subject with reference to the light, together with the proper location of camera and reflectors. A careful study of these diagrams and of the portraits accompanying them will be of the utmost advantage in home portraiture work.
With the subjea placed in the position desired it will be seen that the light on the window side of the face is much stronger than on the shadow side. The contrast must be lessened by the aid of one or more reflectors, marked "R" in the diagrams. White towels will answer the purpose well. In your first experimenting, move this reflector close to and then away from the face, noticing the absolute control it gives you over the strength of the shadows. In the " line " lighting and the " three-quarters " view it may
be necessary to insert a dark cloth somewhat between the face and the window so as to reduce the strength of light on the front of the face. This should be done only after the reflectors arc in place and it is seen that the contrast is still too great. The reflectors and screens may be held in place by assistants. Look at the illustrations and see what a great number of different lightings may be obtained. Illustration No. 5 shows the subject against the casing, and Nos. 3 and 4 almost against the window glass. It is seen therefore that there need be no fear of having the subject close to the window. With children it is advisable to raise the lower part of the sash and place them against the side of the window farthest from the Kodak. Keep the direct light from the sky from shining into the lens. Never allow the lower edge of the reflector to drop lower than the lower part of the face ; otherwise, the reflected light coming up from below will " flatten " the cheek on the shady side. Also keep the reflector well forward.
See that the position of the subject is natural and characteristic. Forced positions should be avoided. Vary slightly the positions of head and body.
When working with Cartridge Kodaks for busts, the Kodak cannot be aimed by looking in the finder but must be "sighted." The question of height can be easily determined by standing back a few feet so as to view both camera and sitter. To center the image stand behind the camera and sight over the top. A pencil laid over the top of the Kodak should point at the eyes.