FOOT, ANATOMY OF. In the article Horse's Limbs and Feet, the importance of these mem bers of the body, and something of their anatomi cal structure is discussed. The present article will deal only with the feet as organs of locomo tion, and the successive stages by which the com plex five-toed animal has been carried into the no less complex and delicate structures, four-toed, three-toed, two-toed, or hoofed, and single hoofed quadrupeds. Fig. 1 will show these several gradations as successive parts were di opped until we at last have a so-called solid, single hoofed animal (soliped) as in the horse. Whatever parts In the first table given above, the amount of nitrogen in 100 parts is found,, which gives the quantity, of fibrin, albumen, and caseine, by mul tiplying by 6.3; thus, in the table, the nitrogen in good hay is 4.34 per cent., which is equiva lent to bight and one-half nearly of fibrin. The practical values are ascertained by weighing the feed and animal, and giving enough of all fod ders to maintain him in good condition. They are less true than the theoretical or chemical values, because not so well performed; hut the theoretical values have been fully sustained by subsequent examination. One hundred pounds of ordinary bay is made the standard, other fodders being compared with this in their power of sustaining life in animals. The difference are dropped, are from the sides, with correspond ing modifications of the carpal (wrist) and tarsal (instep of the foot) elements. This drop ping of digital elements to contribute to greater simplicity of structure is not confined to the foot of the horse, but has its most complete manifes tation, short of obliteration, in this animal, but is seen to a less extent in other animals. An ana tomical authority says, taking the five toes as the highest number presented in any land mammal, we have a reduction to four in the hippopotamus, Fig. 1 b, to three in the rhinocerus, Fig. 1 e, and two in the ox, Fig. 1 d. The elements not used
are frequently prese t in a rudimentary form, as seen in the splint bones of the horse,, and the two corresponding bones of the posteriors. This would include the carpal hones (the knee) and the bones below of the anterior, and the tarsal .bones (the bock) and bones below of the posterior ties. In point of fact, however, uses considered, the foot of the horse is much more limited in its extent, including only the terminal phalanx. Fig. 2 will give a correct idea, including the foot of the horse and splint bones. To recapitulate, Fig. 1 shows the digits present in the feet of different animals. Fig. 2 shows the plan of construction of the horse's foot. Fig. 3 shows the bone of fore leg including those of the hoof, being a front view; a, the bones of the knee, b, the leg bone, and c, d, e, the bones of the fetlock and hoof To bring these up more clearly; 4, shows the splint hones; Fig. 5 the tern bone; Fig. 6, the lower pastern or coronet bone; Fig. 7, the coffin bone; Fig, 3, a side view small toes in the ox and hog, Fig. 1.d. Fossil skeletons of hones show that, in previous geolog ical eras long pia, horses have lived having, to the fully developed single digit, two others per fect as to form but smaller in size. The anatomi cal foot of quadrupeds consists of all the parts beyond the radius, or radius and ulna, (lesser and larger bones of the fore arm) of the anterior extremities, and the tibia, or tibia and fibula, of a nearly perfect hoof, and Fig. 9, a vertical section of the hoof interior view, show ing the horny lam me Thus from what we have shown the reader will get a correct idea of the anatomy of the foot of animals, or at least one sufficiently clear, to assist all to a correct understanding who do not wish to study anatomy as a science.