BOTS. These are the larvae of the two-winged dipterous insects, of the family (Esbrida, named from the principal genus in the family. Harris says of these: Bot-flies do not seem to have . any mouth or proboscis; for although these parts do really exist in them, the opening of the mouth is 'extremely small, and the proboscis is very short, and is entirely concealed in it, so that these insects, while in the winged state, do not appear to be able to take any nourishment. They somewhat resemble the Syrphians in form and color, and in the large size of their heads; but the eyes are proportionally small, and there is a large space between them. The face is swollen or puffed out before. The antennaeare very short, and almost buried in two little holes, close to- , gether, on the forehead. The winglets are large and entirely cover the poisers. The hind body of the females ends with a conical tube, bent under the body, and used for depositing the eggs, which the insect lays whilst flying (poised), The larvae or young of bot-flies live in various parts of the bodies of animals. They are thick, fleshy, whitish maggots, without feet, tapering towards the head, which is generally armed with two hooks; and the rings of the body are surrounded with rows of smaller hooks or prickles. When they are fully grown, they drop to the ground and burrow in it a short distance. After this, the skin of the maggot becomes a hard and brownish shell, 'within which the insect turns to a pupa, and finally to a fly, and comes out by pushing off a little_piece like a lid from the small end of the shell. Many farmers suppose that the Trimerous; consiating of three parte.
Tripetalous; having three petals.
Tripinnate; thrice-pinnate ; the common petiole three times divided, or with hi-pinnate divisions on each side. Tripinnatijld; ely dissected, with the primary divisions twice pinnatifid.
Triplinerved; having three principal nerves from the base.
/Wondrous; having three angles and three flat sides, as the calms of many cyperacece.
Trisepalous; having three sepals.
Triternale leaf. When the petiole is twice divided ter nately, and each final branch bears three leaves. • Truncate; having the end blunt, as if transversely cut off. Tube. A pipe or cylinder.
Tuber. A. solid fleshy knob attached to roots.
Tubercle. A small excrescence, knob, or point on a sur face, making it rough or uneven.
Tuberculate; covered with tubercles.
Tuber ferons; bearing or producing tubers.
Tuberous, consisting of, or fleshy and solid like tubers. Tubular; having a tube, or constructed like a tube.
Tuft. A bench or fascicle growing from the same root, or originating nearly at the same point.
Timed; swelled, or enlarged like a swelling.
Tunicate. Coated; having concentric coats, or thin layers. Turbinate.' Top shaped; resembling an inverted cone. Turf. The gr•en sward, or grassy soil.
Tumid; s Aut not inflated.
Tuna'. A thick, 'tender, young shoot of a plant, as of asparagus, hop, etc.
Tussock. A. dense tuft or bunch formed at the root, as in some species of carer, grasses, etc.
Twin; two of the same kind connected, or growing to gether.
Twining; winding round and ascending spirally. Two-ranked, or rowed. (See Diatiehous.) Type. A model or form ; a pattern individual which unites in itself moat completely the characters of a group. A kind of intioreacence, in which the flower , stalks proceed from a common centre, like ram or the braces of an umbrella. Umbels are simple or corn bot-flies infesting various animals are all one species. Such, however, is not the fact. More than twenty different kinds of bot-flies are al ready known, and several of them are found in this country. Some of them have been brought here with our domesticated animals from abroad, and have here multiplied and increased. Three of them attack the horse. The large bot-fly of the horse (Gasterophilus equi) has spotted wings. She lays her eggs about his knees; the small, Red tailed species ((i. heentorrhoidalis) on his lips; and the Brown Farrier Bot-fly (G. veterinus) under his
throat, according to Dr. Roland Green. By rubbing and biting the parts where the eggs are laid, the horse gets the maggots into his mouth, and swallows them with his food. The insects then fasten themselves, in clusters, to the inside of his stomach, and live there till they are fully grown. The following are stated to be the symp toms shown by the horse when he is much in fested by these insects. He loses flesh, coughs, eats sparingly, and bites his sides; at length he has a discharge from his nose, and these symp toms are followed by a stiffness of his legs and neck, staggering, difficulty in breathing, convul sions, and death. No sure and safe remedy has yet been found sufficient to remove hots from the stomach of the horse Bracy Clark, who has published some very interesting remarks on the bots of horses and of other animals, maintains that hots are rather beneficial than injurious to the animals they infest. The maggots of the Ostrus bads, or Ox Bot-fly, live in large, open boils, sometimes called wornils or wormals, that is, worm-holes, on the backs of cattle. The fly is rather smaller than the Horse Bot-fly, although it comes from a much larger maggott. The Sheep Bot-fly (Cepha/entyia ads) lays its eggs in the nostrils of sheep, and the maggots crawl from thence into the hollows in the bones of the forehead. Deer are also afflicted by bots pecu liar to them. Our native hare, or rabbit, as it is commonly called, sometimes has very large bots, which live under the skin of his back. The fly ((Estrus buccatus) is as big as our largest bumble bee, but is not hairy. It is of a reddish-black color; the face and the sides of the hind body are covered with a bluish-white bloom; there are many small black dots on the latter, and six or eight on the face. This fly measures seven eighths of an inch or more in length, and its wings expand about three-quarters of an inch. It is rarely seen. The larvm, when hatched in the stomach of animals, fasten themselves by the hooks or tentacles, and when mature are expelled with the dung of the animal. The bots infest ing horses are the larvae of four species of gad fly. The various species lay their eggs in the hairs of horses on the breast, shoulders and fore limbs. The animal in licking itself swallows the eggs, or else when deposited between the gums, they fall in the food and are swallowed, or else are taken when the animals lick each other. They are hatched, grow, mature and are expelled as we have stated, when they burrow in the soil to again transform into the perfect fly. When the hots have once fastened themselves to the stomach and acquired their hard, horny coating, they can not be dislodged, since they resist the strongest acids, alkalies, narcotics and mineral poisons. In autumn and early winter they are yet soft, and if suspected, in numbers sufficient to reduce the animal, give the following vermi fuge: Two drachms powdered assafmtida, one and a half drachms powdered savin, one and a half drachms calomel, thirty drops oil of Male Shield Fern. Make into a ball with molasses Follow this at the end of twelve hours with a purge of four drachms of Barbadoes aloes. Or, in lieu of the above, give one-quarter ounce of sulphate of copper, made into a ball, for three or four mornings in succession, and follow with the aloes purge, and repeat at the end of a week, if necessary. If the bots produce colic, give four drachms of tobacco, and repeat if necessary, fol lowing with a mild laxative. Say one ounce of rheubarb and one-quarter pound of epsom salts. Feed liberally to support the strength of the ani mal. In the summer when the hots are being expelled, this may be aided by a purge of aloes. To prevent the entrance of bots, trim off the long hairs in which the eggs are attached, or wash the places infested with soap suds. A daily application of oil will prevent the eggs from being fastened.