Paste, Pies, Puddings, etc. Farinaceous' foods are characterized by their large amount of starch, but the proportion of carbon and nitrogen will give a better idea of the relative value of different starchy substances com monly used as food: One pound of house hold bread yields 1,994 grains of carbon and eighty-nine grains of nitrogen. One pound of oat-meal contains 2,800 grains of carbon and 140 grains of nitrogen. One pound of pearl barley contains 2,660 grains of carbon and ninety-one grains of nitrogen. One pound of maize contains 2,800 grains of carbon and 121 grains of nitrogen. One pound of rice contains 2,730 grains of carbon and seventy grains of nitrogen. One pound of potkoes contain 770 grains of carbon and twenty four grains of nitrogen. Oue pound of sago and arrowroot contain 2,555 grains of carbon and thirteen grains of nitrogen. One pound of peas, or beans, contains 2,730 grains of carbon and 255 grains of nitrogen. When substances containing a large proportion of starch are used as food, i milk a valuable and almost a necessary andi tion. If we bear in mind the quantity of carbon, twelve and one-half ounces, and of nitrogen, 250 grains, required daily by a laboring man, we can form some idea of the relative value of cereals as food substances. The form in which they are chiefly used is as wheaten bread. In the conversion of wheat into bread we grind the grain and reject the lining membrane of the bran, which is rich in nitrogen and phosphates; but the presence of this inner lining of the bran and small portions of the bran itself give a brown color to the bread, and in our craze for white flour and white bread, a prejudice difficult to overcome, (especially among the poor), we waste a considerable portion of our food. The utility of finely bolting meal, by which all the bran and pollards are removed, is very doubtful, because you not only get rid of much nitrogen, but also of the salts which are especially valuable in the nourishment of the young.
Puff Paste. - This paste can not be made with certainty in summer time without a refrigerator, because the butter is liable to become oily. Wash your hands using a nail brush, and place on a clean paste-board or marble slab one pound of fine sifted flour, make a hollow in the center of it, then add half a teaspoonful of salt and about half a pint of water. Mix the flour and water gradually, and when about half mixed sprinkle the paste with a little more water so as to collect all the flour. Work the paste lightly till it ceases to stick either to the board or the fingers. Take three-quarters of a pound of but ter, work it in a clean cloth to remove the water. Have the paste about one inch in thick ness, place the butter in the center of it and fold over the four sides of the paste so as to enclose the butter in a square. The paste will now be from two to three inches in thickness. Put it aside for five minute in a cold place or a refrig erator. Then roll the paste to a length of three feet, fold over from one end one-third of this length, and now fold over the other end. There are now three' thicknesses of paste of equal lengths. and this folding into three is called one turn. Put the paste aside for ten minutes, then give it two turns, beginning at right angles to the first rolling, then in the same direction as the first rolling. Put it aside for another ten min
utes, then give it two more turns, in all five or six turns. Gather the paste into a lump and finish by rolling to the required thickness, about a quarter of an inch.
Short Paste. -Wash your hands and place on a clean paste-board or marble slab one pound of sifted flour, make a hole in the center and add two tablespoonfuls of pounded loaf-sugar, and half, or better three-quarters, of a pound of but ter, previously freed from water Mix gradually with half a pint of water. Work thoroughly but lightly with the hands. Rol/ it into a smooth lump, and, if you have time, it will be the bet ter if put aside for one hour. Then roll it out two or three times, folding ever each time, and the paste is ready. If fresh butter has been used, a small pinch of salt may be added.
Suet Crust. To every pound of flour allow five or six ounces of beef suet. Free the suet from the skin and mince it finely, then rub it well into the flour with a pinch of salt; work the whole to a smooth paste with a half pint of water, roll it out, and it is ready. This crust is quite rich enough for most purposes; but when a better one is desired, use from a half to three quarters of a pound of suet to every pound of flour. For rich crusts pound the suet in a mor tar, with a Small quantity of sweet butter. It should then be laid on the paste in small pieces, the same as for puff crust, and will be found exceedingly good for hot tarts. Five ounces of suet to every pound of flour will make a good crust, and even a quarter of a pound will answer very well where the crust is wanted very plain.
Suet Padding. Put a pound of sifted flour in a basin with half a pound of beef suet, finely chopped; add two eggs with a pinch of salt and a quarter of a pint of Water ; beat well together with a wooden spoon, making a rather thick batter; flour a pudding cloth and lay it in a small round-bottomed basin, pour in the mixture, tie the cloth tightly, and put the pudding to boil in boiling water; an hour and a quarter would be sufficient to cook it. When done, remove the cloth, turn the pudding over upon a dish, and serve very hot. The water must be kept boiling.
Pease Pudding. Soak a pint of peas for ten hours in rain or soft water—the bad ones float and can be removed. Drain them and tie them up loosely in a clean cloth, and put them into plenty of cold rain water; let them come to the boil and then simmer till the peas are tender; the time will vary with the kind of peas, but never less than two hours. Drain them over a colander and pass them ihrough a clean wire sieve. Season the pulp with pepper and salt, beat up one or two eggs with an ounce of sweet butter and stir it into the pulp. Thoroughly mix with a wooden spoon. Have a clean cloth, and tightly tie up the pudding. Let it boil for another half hour. Turn it on to a dish and serve. This is usually served with fat pork, and is a very sensible and nutritious dish for work ing people. Be careful in the selection of the peas, and be sure that they are soft enough to pulp before turning them out.