DISINFECTION. Disinfection is very differ ent in its action from deodorizing, previously treated of, since to properly disinfect we must absolutely destroy the poison germs, many of them of the most virulent nature. These sources of infection are generally so subtile as to be entirely unobserved by our special senses. Thus, the water of a well, limpid, sparkling, pleasant to the taste, and apparently pure, may have been contaminated with sewage, the steep ings of privies, etc., and contain deadly typhus, and other germs. Hence the care now used in guarding against this in cities, by supplying the water from the purest sources„ and ing thoroughly where infectious or contagious diseases are prevalent. The drainage of barns, stables, and the outbuildings of farm yards, find ing its way into wells, have often been prolific sources of disease on farms; so, foul cellars have been especially prolific of disease. The want of disinfection in stables has caused germs of disease to linger and spread, costing large sums of money from mortality in stock Thus the disinfection of all barns, stables, sheds, or other places where malignant disease is suspected, should receive the most careful attention. Every part should be stopped tight, and flowers of sul phur and wood tar, in the proportion of one pound of the former to two quarts of the latter, mixed with tow,and allowed to smoke thoroughly until the whole building is thick with smoke. So the hospital should be fumigated with the same, two or three times a week, but not suffi ciently to set the animals coughing. Every part of the building should also be thoroughly washed with dilute carbolic acid, and the clothing also wet with it. All discharges should be treated
with chloride of zinc, dissolved in water, in the proportion of one ounce to one or two gallons of water. The attendants taking care of animals with malignant diseases should never approach or handle the well ones. A disinfectant that has no smell and is not poisonous, known as chloralum, is made by dissolving three pounds of chloride of aluminum in two gallons of water, or in like proportions. Another cheap and powerful disinfectant, but poisonous, if taken, is made of eight ounces of chloride of zinc, sixteen ounces of sulphate of iron and one gallon of water. Dissolve and, to each pint used, add one gallon of water. Among disinfecting sub stances may be named, chlorine. This is set free by adding oil of vitriol and a little black manganese to common salt, as a disinfectant of the air, but must be used in vacated buildings, and is better if used in the full light of day. So flowers of sulphur, burned by a heat only suffi cient to produce smoke, will accomplish the same purpose and, if used carefully, it will not injure stock. A disinfectant that may be used in occupied buildings is formed by adding a little chlorate of potassa, at short intervals, to half a pint of strong muriatic acid, in a strong vessel, as a thick tumbler. if pure carbolic acid is used for sprinkling floors or washing walls, 100 parts of soft water may be added to one pint of acid. The impure Carbolic acid of gas works may be Used undiluted.