MILK. This wonderfully constituted, nat ural product of the females of mammalia, pro duced in the precise proportions as to constitu ents, for the most perfect assimilation by the systems of young animals is now acknowledged by scientists as being not only a perfect food for infants, but also as being capable of sus taining life perfectly in mature age. In old age it is well known to be one of the most valuable in the whole category of foods. Cow's milk is composed of water, eighty-seven to eighty-eight parts, the twelve to thirteen parts remaining in 100, being fat, (butter,) caseine, (cheese). milk sugar, a substance analagous to glucose, and earthy (mineral) matter. Milk is not only capa ble of supplying—theoretically—every tissue of the animal body, keeping the whole system in vigor and health, but then there is no waste. The constituents necessary to form bone, mus cle, fat, hair, in fact the whole economy of the system, is contained, and in the proper propor tiOns for all growing animals, and again mixed with the proper proportion of water, for perfect digestion and assimilation. Hence, milk warm from the cow, but preferably from the mare or goat has always been regarded as one of the best foods for consumptives, or dyspepties, that could be given. In wild breeds of animals, the specific gravity of milk, as well as its composi tion, is pretty constant since each and every ani mal is constant to a given type. Animals improved by careful crossing, feeding and selec tion, however, differ very materially in their milk, some breeds, as the Jersey, being espec ially rich in butter, and others again, as the Ayrshire, and Dutch cows, being rich in cheese. When the lactometer was brought into use—an instrument for testing the specific gravity of milk—it was thought by many that a perfect check had been discovered to the watering, of milk, and the courts of New York are said to have come near convicting a man of adultera tion on this test. Yet a particular cow may give milk lighter or heavier than the average standard. In faet, as between individual cows, the variation may be ten per cent. So, as we have said before, some breeds will give milk rich in butter, and consequently lighter, while others will give milk rich in cheese, and conse quently heavier. So cows fed on watery food will be largely increased in quantity, and from naturally containing an abnormal quantity of water will be heavier than the standard. Nev ertheless, the milk of a mixed herd, taken as a whole, will always be uniform. Again, rich food, with a proper quantity of water, will increase the flow of milk up to the point of assimilation by the animal. Poor food will diminish the yield to a minimum. Yet, poor food does not necessarily produce poor milk, only a reduced flow, nor rich food richer milk, but an increased flow. Thus the improved lac tometer is the most valuable, as showing the specific gravity of milk. Knowing the gravity of a particular herd, if it vary much, it is pretty ' conclusive evidence that the milk has been tampered with, and should become a fit subject for analysis. Nevertheless, the lactometer should not be used to convict a man of crime, for there are plenty of means, known to scoun drels, of keeping adulterated milk up to its standard, so far as specific gravity is concerned, and the test by gravity is not a sure test of purity. As to the average quantity of milk given by cows and the cream as between the herd Ayrshires and natives with which he has carefully experimented, Dr. Sturtevant of Massachusetts gives the follow ing data: With reference to the average yield of milk in Massachusetts, (because we wish to get a basis by which we can ascertain the comparative yield of milk,) I find, on looking over the Agricul ture of Massachusetts, a record of seventy-six different experiments, carried on by nineteen different people, in Worcester county, during a series of years, by which it appears that it took, on the average, 20.9 pounds of milk to make a
pound of butter. In 1864, the statistics of 425 cheese factories in the State of, New York gave the proportion of milk to the pound of cheese as 9.11. In the statements, I make, I butter and cheese to the milk valuation by allow ing twenty-five pounds of milk for a pound of butter, and nine and one-half pounds of milk for a pound of cheese, which will certainly be fair. I find, then, that according to the census of Massachusetts, in 1865, the amount of milk sold from each cow was 691 quarts. In nine towns. in the Hoosac Valley, with 7,480 cows, the aver age yield, in 1865, was 1,179 quarts per cow. The average premium dairy of seven cows in Essex county, is reported, in 1865, to have given about 1,750 quarts. Another dairy of nine cows, in Danvers, in 1856, is reported to have given about 2,000 quarts per cow. Another gentle man, who feeds daily five quarts of a mixture of rye,. corn, and cotton-seed meal to his herd, reports a sale of 2, 274 quarts per cow for one year. Another premium herd of six grade Dur hams reports 2,460 quarts per year. The only of yearly yields of single cows that I find in ,the Massachusetts Reports are four native cows, four owners, 3,189 quarts per cow, and forty-four native cows, in four herds, 2,160. quarts per cow ;—that is the average of the herd, counting all as in milk. These are the records. 'of premium cows and competing herds, with but one exception, and must manifestly be far above the average. I now go outside of the State of Massachusetts, having exhausted all the definite facts that I can find in our Reports, to the State of New York. I, will not give the particulars from which I draw my conclusions; I will state it as probable, and have you take it upon trust, that the average. yield of dairy cows in the State of New York, is not far from 1,300 quarts. The average of the best dairies in the State, 1,800 quarts. The possible average. which can be attained by the best farmers, with their best herds, 2,300 quarts. Here, you will notice, there is a common difference of quarts, between common, best and superior dairies. I speak not of the yield of individual cows, but of the average of a herd of cows. Dr. Sturtevant also relates that; of the purchase of Waushakum Farm by himself and brother, they procured the very best native cows they could find, continually disposing of poor cows and replacing them by better, and breeding in stock. The outcome was as follows: In 1866, with an average of 35.7 cows, we produced 2,160 quarts. per cow, on an average. In 1867, with an aver age of 36.3 cows, the average yield per cow, was 2,229 quarts. In 1868, with an average of 27.4 cows, the average yield per cow was 1,850. quarts. The average yield for the three years, from thirty-three cows, was 2,079. quarts per cow. We then imported some Ayr shire cows, and these with other Ayrshires pur chased in this country, comprised our herd for the next three years. As we were now breeding, we had to change our system of feed. A sys tem which would allow us to send a cow to the butcher when injured, would never answer with a breeding herd of valuable animals. In 1870, average number of cows, 19.8; average yield per cow, 2,616 quarts; 1871 average number of cows 18.7; average yield per cow 2,300 quarts. Mr. Miles, of Fitchburg, who makes a very candid and apparently fair record of his herd of 9.3 cows for three years, gives his average as 2,587 quarts per cow per year. In order to bring the matter into the most simple showing, he represents the facts reduced in another form, as given in the table below: Breed. Possible Av-1 Average of Common erage. beat Dairies. Average.