WEEVIL. A name applied to various insects including many of the curculios, also to the pea weevil, and also to those attacking the bean. The Grain weevil, which attacks grain and the Rice weevil are similar. During the centennial exhibition the samples from some portions of Europe, especially from Spain, were literally honey combed with the European weevil and this pest was widely disseminated thereby. Various weevils and their habits,and remedies from their attacks have been collected from various sources as follows: The Northern granary and the South ern rice weevil differ but little in form to the ordinary observer, the latter being merely smaller, and having light brown spots on the wing cases. Curtis states a curious fact, that the granary weevil in England is destitute of the organs of flight, whilst the rice weevil has a pair of serviceable wings. Both of them are very injurious to grain and corn, and the rice weevil is very destructive to the Southern rice. The egg of the Northern granary weevil is deposited on the grain; the larva?burrow inside and feed upon its inner substance; the perfect weevil makes its escape from a small hole bored through the outer skin. Curtis says, it is calculated that 6,045 individuals may be reared from one pair of European weevils in one summer. Dr. Harris says, that these insects are effectually destroyed by kiln-drying the wheat; the grain that is kept cool, well ventilated, and frequently moved, is said to be free from their attack; also by win nowing and shifting rice in the spring, the bee tles can be separated, and should be immediately gathered and destroyed. Curtis states that plac ing the grain in close cellars is the worst of all proceedings, as the weevils delight in darkness and being undisturbed. He recommends fre quently stirring or turning over the heaps of wheat; he also says that the scent of spirits of turpentine, or the fumes of sulphur, did not appear to incommode the insects. In an experi ment tried, the odor of a few drops of chloro form killed both larva and weevil in some closely corked bottles of samples of wheat in the agri cultural department; the same bottles being opened a year afterwards, retained the scent. Benzine would,perhaps, have the same effect,and be much cheaper, but, most probably, would also impart a nauseous taste and smell to the grain. Wheat kept in bottles, thus treated with chloro form for a week, germinated when Curtis says that the larva; as well as the weevils are destroyed at 190° Fahr. but it also scorches the grain; and that a room heated to 130° by hot water pipes has been constructed in Madeira. which answers every purpose and wheat subjected to this high temperature vegetated in the ground. He also says that fleeces of wool laid on the grain heaps attract and kill the insects. A larger weevil called the hunter-weevil, has been much complained of in certain localities, as eating the leaves of corn. A very similar insect is found near the Pedee river, in South Carolina, the larva of which feeds in the stalk of corn, thereby entirely destroying the plant. This is merely mentioned to warn farmers, in case they should find individual plants among their corn wither ing. and in a yellow, sickly state, that perhaps the larva of a hunter-weevil, or one very nearly allied to it, may be the cause of all the damage. The only remedy at present recommended is hand-picking and burning the infested plants.
Another curculio (Epiccerus fullaz) is rious in the neighborhood of Washington, in the weevil or perfect state, to the leaves of young cabbages, clover, and various other plants. It appears, however, says our authority, to be lo cal, no complaints were received except from Iowa, where it injures the foliage of the cherry and apple trees, and gooseberry bushes also. No remedies, however, have been recommended, as its habits have not been much investigated. The larvm of the white-pine weevil injure pine trees by boring into the leading shoot, thus destroying the growth and symmetry of the tree. Harris recommends the injured leading shoot to be cut off in August, or as soon as it is perceived to be dead, and to burn it, together with its inhab itants. The larvae of the pitch-eating weevil, and others, devour the substance under the bark of pine trees, and perhaps the method used for decoying the pine eating beetles in Europe may be practiced here with advantage. T.nis consists in sticking some newly cut branches of pine trees in the ground in an open space during the season when the insects are about to lay their eggs; in a few hours these branches will be cov ered with the beetles, which may be shaken in a cloth and burned. The weevils inhabiting nuts, acorns, chincapins, and chestnuts, are distin guished by their very long projecting and slender hills or trunks. The egg is deposited in the young fruit, and the grubs are found in the interior. They afterwards enter the earth and change to pupae and perfect weevils. No remedy has yet been found. The pea weevil destroys the interior substance or future seed-leaves of the pea, seeds of locust and other leguminous plants. The egg is deposited singly in punctures made by the female, on the pod. The larva', when hatched, penetrate through the pod and bury themselves in the pea opposite the puncture where they eat the interior of the pea. The pupa is formed in the pea itself, and in spring the per fect insect comes out of a round hole eaten through the skin. Many of these-worm eaten peas will gerininate, as the germ is seldom injured by the larva. Latreille and others recomthend putting the seed peas in hot water a minute or two just before planting, by which means the weevils will be killed and the sprout ing of the peas be quickened. Curtis states that an immersion of four minutes in boiling water will kill almost all the peas. The water should not be above 170 to 180° Fahr. Late sown peas escape their attacks, and if sown as late as the middle of June, are seldom infested with this weevil. If the peas are kept over the year, they are free from this pest, the beetle having deserted them. Mr. Curtis states that kiln-dry ing at a heat of 133° to 144° will kill the insects without altering the quality of the peas, but such seed will no longer vegetate. The New York weevil is a very large cumuli° of a gray color, marked with whitish lines and black dots. It destroys the buds and gnaws the young twigs of the pear, plum, cherry, maple, oak, etc. As they are not very numerous yet, and appear to be local, no remedy has been proposed. Hand picking and shaking them off the trees in a sim ilar manner to the plum weevil might answer, if they should increase so as to become very injurious. (See articles Curculio, Thrips, etc.) WEIGHTS. (See Measures.)