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Organization and Control

Cooperative Societies 1
Cooperative Societies 1. Importance Of Cooperative 8ocieties.—no Ac Count Of The Methods Of Controlling Business Concerns Would Be Complete Without Some Description Of The Co Operative Societies, Altho Of Themselves They Are Com Paratively Unimportant. The United States Census Reported That In 1909 Cooperative Societies Gave Em Ployment To Only ...

Corporations 1
Corporations 1. History.—the Origin Of The Idea Of A Group Of Persons Having A Collective Existence, With Rights And Liabilities Somewhat Distinct From Those Of The Indi Vidual Constituents, Is Lost In Antiquity. Such Groups Existed As Collegia In Roman Law. The Institutions Have Not Always Had The Same Attributes. ...

Directors And Officers 1
Directors And Officers 1. Theory Of Corporate Managentent.—the Part Nership, As We Have Seen, Is A Business Institution In Which Each Part Of The Mariagement Is As Great As The Whole, Or To Put It In Another Way, In Which Each Mem Ber Is A General Agent Of The Concern. ...

General Partnerships 1
General Partnerships 1. History Of Partnership.—in No Way Can One Bet Ter Learn To Appreciate The Modernity Of Strictly Busi Ness Associations Than By Studying The History Of Part Nerships. While Such Cooperative Groups As Families, Clans And Guilds Have Existed For Many Centuries, They Have Bad More Than A ...

Holding Companies 1
Holding Companies 1. Rise Of The Holding Company.—shortly After The Arrangement Of Intercorporate Relations Thru The Use Of Voting Trusts Had Been Declared Illegal In The Oil And Sugar Industries The Device Of The Holding Company Became Popular And Was Widely Heralded As The Ultimate Scheme Of The Trust Lawyers ...

Illegal Combinations 1
Illegal Combinations 1. History Of The Co111111011 Law Of Monopolies.—it Is Unnecessary To Treat At Length The Legal History Of Monopolies. But It Must Not Be Supposed That They Are An American Product Of The Nineteenth Century. They Were As Virile And As Strongly Condemned In The Seventeenth Century As ...

Incorporation And Dissolution Of
Incorporation And Dissolution Of Companies 1. The Corporate Charter.—in Early Times Corporate Charters Were G,ranted By The King. Later This Pre Rogative Was Taken Over By Parliament, And When The Colonies Became Independent The Right -was Vested In The State Legislatures. The Federal Congress Has Power To Incorporate Companies To ...

Individual Proprietorship 1
Individual Proprietorship 1. Origin Of Individual Ownership.—the Primi Tive Man Who First Picked Up A Stone And Threw It, Made A Long Stride Toward Civilization. But, When Another Fixed A Stone On The End Of A Stick, Modern Man Bad Arrived. This Contrivance, Indeed, Was The First Bit Of Capital ...

Intercorporate Relations 1
Intercorporate Relations 1. Causes Of Coneentration.—it Is Generally Recog Nized That Concentration In Industry, The Massing Of Great Quantities Of Capital Under A Common Owner Ship, Has Been The Outstanding Feature Of The Economic Development Of The United States Since The Civil War. The Civil War Itself Contributed To This ...

Joint Stock Companies 1
Joint Stock Companies 1. Nature Of Joint Stock Companies.—what Is The Difference Between A Joint Stock Company, A Massa Chusetts Or Business Trust, Described In The Previous Chapter, A, Partnership And A Corporation? The Dif Ference, As Has Been Stated By A Modern Cyclopedia Of Law, "has Become Obscure, Elusive ...

Limited Partnerships 1
Limited Partnerships 1. History.—tho The Limited Partnership Came Into General Use Only Recently, Its History Is Perhaps More Ancient Than That Of The Ordinary Partnership. It Is Undoubtedly An Outgrowth Of The Roman Law Which Provided That One Or More Persons Might Turn Over Property To A Slave And Avoid ...

Massachusetts Electric Companies
Massachusetts Electric Companies. By Treasurer. Countersigned: Old Colony Trust Company, Transfer Agent. Bv Assistant Secretary-. By Transfer Clerk. Countersig,ned: American Trust Company, Agent To Register Transfers. By Assistant Secretary'. (form Of Transfer) For Value Received, I Hereby Sell, Assign, Transfer And De Liver To Of The Within Named Shares Of ...

Meetings Of Stockholders 1
_meetings Of Stockholders 1. Stockholders' Ineetings.—stockholders Are In Most Cases Required To Act In Meeting, Altho In Some Matters Written Approval Of A Question Brought For Ward By The Directors Is All That Is Required By Law. Areiy Frequently Corporations Place Matters Before The Stockholders Which Do Not Require Their ...

Organizations 1
Organizations 1. Plan Of The Text.—this Text Is To Treat Things As They Are. Definite Reasons Will Be Given When There Are Any, But No Attempt Will Be Made To Go Into Abstract Theory. The Problem Is Simple Enough—a Discussion Of Tbe Ownership Of Business En Terprises. This Ownership May ...

Sales And Leases Of
Consolidations, Sales And Leases Of Assets 1. "'leaning Of Term Consolidation.—the Word Con Solidation Has Been Used Indiscriminately To Indicate All Processes Of Forming Intercorporate Relations. Careful -writers, However, Restrict Its Use To Describe A Complete Fusion Of Corporations Under The Pro-, Visions Of Some Statute. This Fusion May Result ...

Stock And Tockholders
Stock And $tockholders Stock.—the Aggregate Of All The Interests Of All The Owners Of A Corporation Is Called Stock. It Is Divided Into Units Known As Shares. A Share Of Stock Is A Unit Of Ownership In A Corporation, Not In The Corporate Property, But In The Corporation Itself. It ...

Syndicates 1
Syndicates 1. Syndicates Defined.—a Syndicate Is A Group Of Persons Who Form A Combination, Not To Carry On A Business Continuously, But To Transact Some Business In Connection With A Specific Piece Of Property. Thus, It May Be Formed To Take An Option On A Piece Of Land And To ...

Syndicates 63
Syndicates 63 Organization, In A Word, Provides The Means Of Con Centrating Control. 7. Rules Governing Administration Of The Syndicate Is Usually Governed By A Manager Whose Powers Are Practically Unlimited. Certain Rules, How Ever, Are Generally Laid Down In The Agreement, Or Are Set Forth In A Separate Document. ...

Trusts 1
Trusts 1. People Think Of The Word Trust As Synonymous With Monopoly. When Industrial Mo Nopolies Were First Widely Discussed In The Eighties, The Two Most Important Monopolies—the Oil And Sugar Combinations—existed In The Legal Form Of Trusts. In Each Case The Stockholders Of Several Companies Which Bad Previously Competed, ...

Voluntary Associations 1
Voluntary Associations 1. Definition.—a Voluntary Association Has Been Defined As "a Body Of Persons Acting Together, With Out A Charter, But Upon The Methods And Forms Used By Incorporated Bodies, For The Prosecution Of Some Com Mon Enterprise." 1 Some Other Terms Used To Desig Nate These Associations Are Society ...