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Photography Theory and Practice

An Outline Of Cinematography
An Outline Of Cinematography 896. The Origins Of Cinematography. The First Attempts To Show Animated Images Made Use Of Drawings Representing The Various Phases Of A Simple Movement Presented Successively To The Eye, Each During A Very Short Moment Of Time, In The Phenakistiscope Of Plateau (1829-1833), And In Its ...

Biciironlated Gelatine 674
Biciironlated Gelatine 674. General. If Bichromated Gelatine Is Coated On A Support Impermeable To Aqueous Solutions, Dried, Exposed Under A Positive, And Then Rinsed With Water To Remove Excess Of Bichromate, The Aqueous Solutions Of Certain Dyes Will Penetrate The Gelatine Where It Has Been Protected Against The Action Of ...

Carbon Printing Without Transfer
Carbon Printing Without Transfer 664. The Artigue And Fresson Processes. Used For His Own Private Work From 1878 By F. Artigue, A Carbon Paper To Be Used Without Transfer Was Placed On The Market In 1894 By V. Artigue, Under The Name Of " Charbon Velours." The Coating Of Pigment ...

Chemicals Preparation Ofsolutions
Chemicals ; Preparation Of Solutions 268. Choice Of Chemicals. Substances Which Are Entirely Free From Chemical Impurities Cannot Be Obtained As Ordinary Commercial Products, And Are Only Necessary For Certain Scientific Investigations, For Which Purposes They Are Specially Prepared By Elaborate Processes Of Purification. Intermediate Between The Purest Chemical Products ...

Choice Of A Lens
Choice Of A Lens : Testing : Care Of Lenses 94. Preliminary Remarks. The Qualities Looked For In A Lens, At Least In Certain Types, Are Very Different, According As It Is Required For Artistic Photography, Record Work, Process Work, En Largement, Or Measurement By Photography. The Construction Of An ...

Coimur Screen Plates And
Coimur Screen Plates And Films 884. Various Commercial Forms. The Auto Chrome Plate Was The First Practical Application Of A Sensitive Emulsion Coated On An Irregular Tricolour Mosaic For The Direct Photography Of Colours By Permanent Additive Synthesis. Since 1933 The Autochrome Has Ceased To Be Supplied In The Form ...

Colour
Colour Sciwax Plates And Films 885. The Autochrome Plate A And Films. The Microscopic Particles Of The Mosaic' Which Forms The Tricolour Screen Of The Autochrome Are Grains Of Potato Fined By Levigation, So That Only Those Grains Are Retained Which Are Between 8 And 20p, (thousandths Of A Milli ...

Colour Photography 864
Colour Photography 864. The Various Processes. Since The Begin Nings Of Photography There Has Been The Wish To Reproduce Not Only The Shape And The Tones, But Also The Colours Of The Objects Photographed, And A Long List Could Be Compiled Of Rogues Who, By Pretending To Have Invented Marvellous ...

Copying Restorations Tothe
Copying ; Restorations To The Vertical ; Deformations 733. Copying By Contact Printing. An Original On Paper Of Homogeneous Structure, Even Though Rather Thick, May Be Copied By Transmitted Light, Provided The Back Of The Paper Bears No Imprint Or Note. This Is Often The Quickest Way Of Reproducing Originals. ...

Darr Room Accessories 262
Darr-room Accessories 262. Tanks And Dishes. If Only One Or A Very Few Negatives Are Treated At A Time, The Plates Or Cut Films May Be Laid Flat In A Shallow Dish, But When Large Numbers Are Often Treated At Once Much Time Is Saved If They Are Placed In ...

Desensitizing Of Photographic Emulsions
Desensitizing Of Photographic Emulsions 329. Use Of Coloured Developers. Carey-lea, As Far Back As 1877, Showed That After Immersing A Photographic Plate In Ferrous Oxalate Developer It Was Possible, Without Risk Of Fog, To Illuminate The Dark-room Much More Brightly Than Would Have Been Possible During The Handling Of The ...

Developing Solutions 358
Developing Solutions 358. Organic Developers. The Table On Page 241 Is A List Of Developers In General Use. It Gives Their Common Names, The Corresponding Commercial Names, Their Chemical Formulae, Dates Of Introduction For Photographic Use, The Names Of Their Authors, Reduction Potentials (as Stated By A. H. Nietz, 1922) ...

Diaphragms And Relative Aperture
Diaphragms And Relative Aperture : Effect On Perspective And Intensity 71. Relative Aperture Of A Diaphragm. The Diameter Of The Beam Of Rays Incident Parallel To The Axis Which, After Refraction Through The Lens Components In Front Of The Diaphragm, Completely Fills The Latter Is Called The Effective Diameter Of ...

Double Transfer 657
Double Transfer 657. Preparation Of The Temporary Support. A Carbon Print Can Be Transferred, For Develop Ment, To A Large Variety Of Temporary Supports, From Which It Can Be Transferred, When Finished, To Its Final Support. According As The Surface Of The Temporary Support Is Glossy Or Matt, The Finished ...

Drying 422
Drying 422. The Purpose Of Drying. Photographic Plates And Films Which Have Been Washed At Temperatures Between 6o' F. And F., And Have Been Wiped Free Of Water Clinging To The Surface, Contain An Amount Of Water Which Is About Six Or Ten Times The Weight Of The Gelatine In ...

Drying And Glazing Of
Washing, Drying And Glazing Of Paper Prints 607. Methods Of Washing Prints. In The Case Of Prints On Paper, The Part Played By Washing Differs In No Way From That Which Has Been Studied Previously ( 415) In The Case Of Photo Graphs On Impermeable (glass) And Practically Impermeable (film) ...

Dusting On Processes 677
Dusting-on Processes 677. General. Gamier And Salmon, Who, Since 1858, Had Used A Solution Of Ferric Citrate For The Same Purpose, Showed In 1859 That A, Thin Layer Formed Of Albumen, Sugar, And Bi Chromate, Coated On Glass, Dried, And Exposed Under A Positive Transparency And Then Kept For A ...

Enlargements 751
Enlargements 751. General. A Negative Is Enlarged Either Directly, By Projecting On To A Positive Sensitive Surface An Enlarged Image Of The Negative, Or Indirectly By First Making A Transparency Of The Same Or Slightly Larger Dimensions As The Original Negative, And Then An Enlarged Negative From Which The Final ...

Enlargements I3y Directed Light
Enlargements I3y Directed Light 756. Principles Of Enlargement By Directed Light. Iaa Us Consider A Lens L (fig. 192) And A Drawing On Glass N Placed Perpendic Ularly To The Optical Axis, In Such A Position That A Sharp And Enlarged Image Of N Is Cast By The Lens On ...

Enlarging With Diffused Light
Enlarging With Diffused Light 761. Uniform. Illumination. With Diffused Light. By Placing A Light-source Near The Focus Of A Condenser We Obtain Uniform Illumination Of A Diffuser Placed On The Other Side Of The Condenser. While This Arrangement Has Been Actually Used In Some Enlargers Working With Diffused Light, It ...

Equipment Of The Dark Room
Equipment Of The Dark-room 252. The Amateur's Dark-room. There Is No Need Of A Specially Equipped Dark-room For The Production Of Good Photographs. Any Room (preferably Kitchen Or Bathroom Containing A Sink And Running Water) May Be Used After Dark As A Photographic " Dark-room " Without Alteration. If The ...

Exposure 316
Exposure 316. Time Of Exposure. For The Majority Of Subjects There Is No Single Correct Time Of Exposure, But A More Or Less Extended Range Of Times Each Of Which Is Equally Admissible. The Minimum Exposure Is That Which Will Record The Shadows As A Faint Density Just Distinguishable From ...

Films Plates
Plates, Films, And Negative Papers 227. Supports Of Sensitive Coatings. The Terms Plate, Film, And Photographic Paper Are Applied To Photographic Products Resulting From Coating Sensitive Emulsion On To Glass, Flexible Trans Parent Material, And Paper, Respectively. In Daguerreotype, Which Was The First Practical Photographic Process, A Thin Sheet Of ...

Fixation 397
Fixation 397. The Purpose Of Fixation. Fixing And Wash Ing Are Necessary In Order, Firstly, To Convert The Salts Of Silver Remaining In The Image, After Its Development, Into Soluble Substances, And, Secondly, To Remove Them.' Contrary To Common Opinion, The Former Of These Processes Is By Far The More ...

Focal Length Of Lenses
Focal Length Of Lenses ; Scale Of Image ; Conjugate Points 6o. Conjugate Points. When A Point R' Is The Image Of A Point R (fig. 44) Formed By An Optical System, The Point R Is Also The Image Of R' (principle Of Reversibility Of Light Rays') ; The Points ...