BUFFALO, N.Y. The "Queen City of the Lakes" is the second largest city in New York State and the 12th largest in the United States. It is situated at the outlet• of the Niagara River and the Buffalo River, at the eastern end of Lake Erie, and has about ten miles of lake and river frontage. It is 24 miles south of Niagara Falls.
The city's position on the Great Lakes, together with other transportation advantages, gives Buffalo its rank as a world port in the volume and variety of its shipping. The I Welland Canal, 20 miles north of Buf falo, connects Lake Erie with the St.
Lawrence River, and the New York State Barge Canal (Erie Canal) makes a continuous water way from Buffalo to the Hudson River.
The harbor in the mouth of Buffalo River, protected by an immense breakwater, is one of the best on the Great Lakes, and a new harbor has also been made by building a break water in Niagara River. Ferries con nect the United States and Canada at Fort Erie, and the International Bridge connects Buffalo and Bridgeburg, Ontario.
Buffalo handles an enormous amount of flour, lum ber, coal, and mineral ore in shipment and trans shipment. The first grain elevator of the world was built here in 1845. There are now more than 20 immense grain elevators, with a capacity of about 30,000,000 bushels.
Buffalo has two great advantages as a manufactur ing center—natural gas, piped from Pennsylvania and Canada, and cheap electric power from Niagara Falls.
The principal industries are wholesale slaughtering and meat packing, foundry and machine shop prod ucts, flour and grist mills, the manufacture of linseed oil, railroad cars, soap and candles, planing mill products, factory-made clothing, chemicals, patent medicines and compounds, leather and leather goods, furniture, carriages, automobiles, and confectionery.
The city is a pleasant place of residence, with a beautiful series of parks and drives in connection with which the Pan-American Exposition was held in 1901. Overlooking the lake at the mouth of the Niagara River is Front Park, situated on a bold bluff 60 feet high. Fort Porter, a military post of the United States, is located here. A beautiful marble
shaft in Niagara Square honors the memory of President McKinley, who was shot in Buffalo while attending the Pan-American Exposition.
different levels at the same time. So as a great sky scraper is flung into the air, one often sees those aerial acrobats called structural iron-workers riveting together the framework at the dizzy height of 20 or 40 stories, while below them at various levels other groups of workmen are busy.
Masons may be putting in walls at the fourth story, while the framework above and below is still uncovered.
Perhaps another group of men is putting in concrete flooring at another level, while on some floors the work may be so far along that the carpenters and interior decorators and steam-fitters are already at work.
So staunch and rigid is the riveted framework of a modern steel building that architects tell us that if it were possible to upset one it would tip over like a box, instead of collapsing like a building of stone or brick. The framework must be strong enough to sustain the enormous weight of the whole completed structure, and be braced to withstand the wind pressure. The completed structure must also be elastic enough to resist possible side thrusts, such as might come from slight earthquakes or from vibrations caused by machinery within or the passage of trains nearby.
The most important parts of the frame work are the columns, and these are accordingly made of very tough steel which will not break under sudden strains as ordi nary steel does. Foundations often settle without impairing the strength of the building. Floor beams may bend or even break without causing great damage. But if the columns are too weak, the whole structure will collapse. These columns usually consist of long plates with one or more flanges attached at right angles by riveted angle-plates. They come as a rule in two- or three-story lengths, all ready to be riveted together as soon as they are hoisted into position by great derricks and cranes. All the steel is carefully painted several times to protect it from rust.