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From "Economics" by Frank Albert Fetter (1915)

Volume 2: Modern Economic Problems

Agricultural And Rural Population
Agricultural And Rural Population I. Sources Of Food And Organic Materials. 2. Agriculture And Farms In The United States. 3. Rural And Agricultural. 4. Lack Of A Social Agricultural Policy In America. 5. Period Of Decaying Agricultural Prosperity. G. Sociological Effects Of Agricultural De ...

American Tariff History 1
American Tariff History 1. Political And Trade Boundaries. 12. Prevalence Of Protective Tariffs. 3. Specific And Ad Valorem Rates. 4. Some Technical Feat Ures Of The Tariff. 5. The Tariff, 1789-1815. 6. The Tariff, 1816 1845. 5 7. The Tariff, 1846-1860. 8. The Tariff, 1881-1871. ...

Banking In The United
Banking In The United States Before 1914 1. The First And Second Banks Of The United States. F 2. Bank Ing From 1836 To 1863. 3. National Banking Associations, 1863 1913. I 4. Defects Of Our Banking Organization Before 1911 5. Lack Of System. 6. Inelasticity Of ...

Commodity Money And The
Commodity Money And The Quantity Theory 1. Coinage And Seigniorage. F 2. Technical Features Of Coinage. From One Person To Another Once Each Day. Then A Dollar Would, In The Course Of A Business Year (about 300 Days), Serve To Buy (and At The Same Time To Sell) $300 Worth ...

Crises And Industrial Depressions
Crises And Industrial Depressions 1. Mischance, Special And General, In Business. Definitions. A Feature Of A Money Economy. European Crises. 5. American Crises. 6. A Business Cycle. 7. General Features Of A Crisis. 8. The Use Of Credit. 9. Interest Rate's In A Crisis. ...

Health Insurance
Health Insurance Voluntary. France, 1850, 1898 (voluntary Except For Miners). Belgium, 1851, 1894. Italy, 1880. Sweden, 1891. Denmark, 1892. Holland (authorized Private Societies And Poor Relief). Compulsory. Germany, 1883, 1911 (voluntary For Others With Earnings Of $500). Austria, 1888 (voluntary For Some Classes). France, For Miners, 1894. Norway, 1909. Great ...

Institutions For Saving And
Institutions For Saving And Investment 1. The Nature Of Saving. 2. Economic Limit Of Saving. 13. Commercial Bank Deposits Of An Investment Nature. 4. Investment Banking And Bond Houses. 5. Savings Banks In The United States. 6. Security For Thrift. 7. Postal Savings Plan. 8. Advantages And Limitations Of Postal ...

International Trade I 1
International Trade I 1. Benefits Of International Trade. 2. Erroneous Views Of Benefits. 3. Relatively Advantageous Industries. 4. Persistence Of Differences Between Nations. 5. Doctrine Of Comparative Advantages. 6. Ad Vantages Confused With Monetary Costs. 7. Equation Or International Exchange. 8. Balance Of ...

Metal And Paper Fiduciary
Fiduciary Money, Metal And Paper 1. Character Of Fiduciary Money. 2. Present Monetary System Of The United States. 3. Saturation Point Of Fractional Money. 4. Light-weight Fractional Coins. 5. Gresham's Law. 6. Seign Iorage On Standard Money. 7. Fiduciary Coinage On Governmental Account. 8. Two ...

Methods Of Distribution
Methods Of Distribution I. The Problem Of Distribution. 2. Distribution By Force And By Status. 3. Social Effects Of The Right To Transmit Property. 4. Ef Fects Of The Right To Inherit Property. 15. Broader Social Effects Of In Heritance. *6. Limitations Upon Intestate Inheritance. ...

Methods Of Industrial Remuneration
Methods Of Industrial Remuneration 1. Workers Subordinate In Early Societies. 1 2. Workers In The Mid Dle Ages. 1 3. Growth Of The Wage System. 1 4. Pros And Cons Of The Wage System. 1 5. Time Work. 1 6. Task Work. I 7. Piece Work. 1 8. Premium Plans. ...

Nature Of Economic Problems
Nature Of Economic Problems I I. Increase Of Economic Problems. 2. Opinions And Feelings In Economic Discussion. 3. False Contrast Of Theory And Practice. 4. Superficial Thinking And Popular Error. 5. American Economic Problems In The Past. Main Factors In Economic Problems. 7. Range Of Economic Problems ...

Objects And Principles Of
Objects And Principles Of Taxation 1. Public Finance As A Division Of Economics. 1 2. The Police Func Tion. I 3. Social And Industrial Functions. I 4. The Enlarging Sphere Of The State. I 5. Industrial Revenues Of Governments. 6. Govern Mental Receipts From Loans. I 7. Non-revenue Character ...

Old Age And Invalidity Pensions
Old-age And Invalidity Pensions L'olunlary. Belgium, 1850, 1903 (voluntary Except For Miners). Italy, 1898, 1907 (all Wage-earners). Compulsory. Belgium, For Miners, 1868. Germany, 1889, 1899, 1911. Austria, 1889 (miners Only); 1900 (office Employees). Denmark, 1891, 1908 (non-contributory). France, For Seamen, 1850, 1881; For Miners, 1894, 1905, 1907 (non Contributory, All ...

Organized Labor
Organized Labor 1. Changing Relations Between Employers And Wage Workers. 2. Need Of Common Action Among Wage Workers. 3. Functions Of Labor Organizations. 4. Types Of Labor Organizations. 5. Statistics Of Labor Organizations. 8. Collective Bargaining. 7. Limitation Of Competition Among Workers. ...

Origin And Nature Of
Origin And Nature Of Money 1. Origin Of Money. 2. Money As A Tool. I 3. Money Defined. I 4. Qualities Of The Original Money-good. I 5. Industrial Changes And Forms Of Money. 6. The Precious Metals As Money. 7. Varying Extent Of The Use Of Money. ...

Other Protective Labor And
Other Protective Labor And Social Legislation 1. Evils Of Early Factory Conditions. 2. Improvement Of Factory Conditions. 3. Limitations Of The Wage Contract. 4. Usury Laws. 5. Public Inspection Of Standards And Of Foods. 6. Charity, And Control Of Vice. 7. City Growth ...

Personal Taxes
Personal Taxes 1. Inheritance-tax Laws. 2. Fiscal And Social Aspects. 3. In Come Taxes; General Nature. 4. Income Taxation By The States. 5. Obstacles To Federal Income Taxation. 6. Federal Taxation Of Individ Ual Incomes. 7. Important Features. 8. Development And Yield. ...

Population And Immigration
Population And Immigration 1. Nature Of The Population Problem. 2. Complexity Of Race Problems. 3. Economic Aspects Of The Negro Problem. 4. Favor Able Economic Aspects Of Earlier Immigration. 5. Employers' Gains From Immigration. 6. Pressure Of Immigration Upon Native Wage Workers. 7. ...

Present And Future 1
Socialism, Present And Future 1 1. Meanings Of Socialism. 1, 2. Philosophic Socialism. 3. So Cialism In Action. 1 4. Origin Of The Radical Socialist Party. 1 5. The Two Pillars Of "scientific" Socialism. 1 6. Aspects Of The Material Istic Philosophy Of History. 1 7. Utopian Nature Of ...

Price Levels And The
Price Levels And The Gold Standard I 1. Concept Of The General Price Level. 2. Index Numbers. * 3. Definition Of The Standard Of Deferred Payments. 4. Increasing Im Portance Of The Standard. I 5. Defectiveness Of The Gold Standard. I 6. Relative Values Of Gold And Silver. 7. ...

Principles Of Insurance
Principles Of Insurance 1. Chance, Unavoidable And Average. 2. Uneconomic Character Of Gambling. 3. Borderland Of Gambling. 4. Insurance: Definition And Kinds. 5. Insurance Viewed As A Wager. 0. Insurance As Mutual Protection. 7. Conditions Of Sound Insurance. 8. Farmers' Mutual Insurance. ...

Problems Of Agricultural Economics
Problems Of Agricultural Economics I 1. Size Of Farms, And Total Farming Area. I 2. Influences Acting Upon The Size Of Farms. 3. Self-sufficing Versus Commercial Farming. F 4. Farming Viewed As A Capitalistic Enterprise. F 5. Diversified Versus Specialized Farming. F 6. Conditions Favoring Diversified Farm Ing. F ...

Property And Corporation Taxes
Property And Corporation Taxes 1. Importance Of Taxation As A Public Question. 2. The General Property Tax; Nature And Difficulty. 3. Ambiguity Of The Term "prop Erty." 4. Various Temporizing Policies. 5. A Consistent Policy Of Wealth-taxation. 6. Needed Reform Of Assessment. 7. ...

Public Ownership 4 1
Public Ownership 4 1. Waves Of Opinion As To Public Ownership. 2. Primary Of Government Favoring Public Ownership. 3. Economic Influences Oring Public Ownership. 4. Forms Of Municipal Ownership. 5. Local Ized Production Favoring Monopoly. I 8. Economies Of Large Produc Tion Favoring Monopoly. 7. Uniformity ...

Public Policy In Respect
Public Policy In Respect To Monopole' I 1. Moral Judgments Of Competition And Monopoly. $ 2. Public Char Acter Of Private Trade. 3. Evil Economic Effects Of Monopolistic Price. 4. Common Law On Restraint Of Trade. 5. Growing Disapproval Of Combination. 6. Competition Sometimes Favored Regardless Of Results. I 7. ...

Public Regulation Of Hours
Public Regulation Of Hours And Wages 1. Spread Of The Shorter Working-day. 2. The Shorter Day And The Lump-of-labor Notion. 3. Fewer Hours And Greater Efficiency. 4. Child-labor. 5. Child-labor Legislation. 6. Limitation Of The Work Ing-day For Women. 7. Limitation Of The ...

Railroad Regulation
Railroad Regulation 1. Peculiar Privileges Of Railroads. Ii 2. Public Nature Of The Railroad. 3. State Railroad Commissions. 4. Consolidation And Need Of National Regulation. 5. The Interstate Commerce Act. 6. The Commission's Powers Strengthened. 7. Fixed Rates And Declining Net Earnings. 8. ...

Rising Prices And The
Rising Prices And The Standard 1. Rising Prices, 1896-1913. 2. Rising Prices In Europe, 1914 1920. 3. Causes Of European Inflation. 4. Gold Stocks Of Belliger Ents. 5. Redistribution Of European Gold Stocks. 6. The Flood Of Gold To America, 1915-1917. 7. The Gold Embargo In ...

Scientific Life Insurance
Scientific Life Insurance I. Reserve Life Insurance. 2. The Mortality Table. 3. The Single Premium For Any Term. 4. Level Annual Term Premiums And Reserves. 5. Term Policies End Straight Life. * 9. Limited Premium Payments. 7. The Endowment Feature. 8. The Choice ...

Social Insurance 1
Social Insurance 1. Purpose And Meaning Of Social Insurance. 4 2. Increasing Need Of Social Insurance. 3. The New Era Of Social Insurance. 4. Tures Of Social Insurance. I 5. Historical Roots Of Accident Insurance. 6 Development Of Compensation For Accidents. F 7. The Compen Sation Plan In America. ...

The Federal Reserve Act
The Federal Reserve Act I 1. General Banking Organization. 2. The Federal Reserve Board. 3. Federal Reserve Banks. 4. Federal Reserve Notes. 5. Reserves Against Federal Reserve Notes. 6. Reserves Against Federal Reserve Bank Deposits. 7. Reserves In Member Banks. 8. Rediscount By Federal ...

The Functions Of Banks
The Functions Of Banks Chapter 7 1. Nature And Classes Of Banks. 2. Functions Of Banks. 3. The Essential Banking Function. 4. Demand Deposits. 5. Discount And Deposit. 6. Nature Of Banking Reserves. 7. Time Deposits. 8. Bills Of Exchange, Domestic. 9. ...

The Policy Of A
The Policy Of A Protective Tariff 1. Military And Political Motives For Inteference With Trade. I 2. Revenue And Protective Tariffs. 3. Growth Of A Protective System. 4. The Infant-industry Argument. 5. The Home-market Argu Ment. 6. The "two-profits" Argument. 7. The Balance-of-trade Argument. ...

The Present Economic System
The Present Economic System 1. The Place Of Private Property. 2. Nature Of Property. 5 3. Relation Of Wealth, Property, And Capital. Some Theories Of Private Property. Origin Vs. Justification. 6. Limitations Of Private Property. 7. Limitations Of Bequest And Inheritance. 8. Social Expediency Of Private ...

The Problem Of Industrial
The Problem Of Industrial Monopoly 1. Kinds Of Monopoly. * 2. Political Sources Of Monopoly. 3. Natural And Capitalistic Monopolies. * 4. Monopoly And Corporate Organization. 5. Rise Of The Corporation Concept. F 6. Advantages Of Corporate Organization. 7. Growth Of Large Industry In The Nine Teenth ...

The Transportation Problem
The Transportation Problem F 1. Natural Waterways. 2. The Era Of Canals. 3. Temporary Wreck Of Inland Water Transportation. 4. Rapid Building Of American Railroads. 5. Eras In The Railroad Problem. 6. Governmental Aid To Railroads. $ 7. Emergence Of The Railroad Problem. 8. Discrim Ination As To ...