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ABULFEDA (Abu-l-Fida' Ismail ibn 'Ali 'Imad-ud-Dni) (1273-1331), Arabian historian and geographer, was born at Damascus, whither his father Malik ul-Afdal, brother of the prince of Hamah, had fled from the Mongols. He was a descend ant of Ayyilb, the father of Saladin. In 1285 he was present at the assault of a stronghold of the knights of St. John, and he took part in the sieges of Tripoli, Acre and QaPat ar-Rum. In 1298 he entered the service of the Mameluke Sultan Malik al Nasir and in 1310 became governor of Hamah. In 1312 he be came prince with the title Malik us-Salih, and in 1320 received the hereditary rank of sultan with the title Malik ul-Mutayyad. For more than twenty years altogether he reigned in tranquillity and splendour, devoting himself to the duties of government and to the composition of the works to which he is chiefly indebted for his fame. He was a munificent patron of men of letters, who came in large numbers to his court. He died in 1331.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.-His chief historical work is An Abridgment of the Bibliography.-His chief historical work is An Abridgment of the History of the Human Race, annals extending from the creation to the year 1329 (Constantinople, 1869). Various translations of parts of it exist. His Geography is founded on the works of his predecessors, and so ultimately on the work of Ptolemy. Parts of the work were published and translated as early as 165o (cf. Carl Brockelmann's Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur, Berlin, 1902, vol. ii. pp. 44-46). The text of the whole was published by M'G. de Slane and M. Reinaud (Paris, 1840), and a French translation with introduction by M. Reinaud and Stanislas Guyard (Paris, 1848-83).

malik and sultan