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Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma, The Name Of One Of The Three Divisions Into Which The Buddhist Scriptures Are Divided (see Buddhism). It Consists In The Pali Canon Of Seven Works: 1. Dhamma Sangani (enumeration Of Mental States). 2. Viblianga (analysis). 3. Kathd-vatthu (subjects Of Discussion). 4. Puggala-paiinatti (on Classes Of Individuals). 5. Dheitu-kathei ...

Abhorrers
Abhorrers, The Name Given In 1679 To The Persons Who Expressed Their "abhorrence" At The Action Of Those Who Had Signed Petitions Urging King Charles Ii. To Assemble Parliament. To Prevent The Exclusion Bill Directed Against James, The Roman Catholic Duke Of York, From Passing Into Law, Charles Had Dis ...

Abiathar
Abiathar, In The Old Testament, Son Of Ahimelech, Priest Of Nob. He Alone Escaped From The Massacre Carried Out By Doeg. Fleeing To David, He Remained With Him Throughout His Wanderings And His Reign. He Was Loyal Through The Rebellion Of Absalom, But Supported Adonijah Against Solomon, And Was Ban ...

Abigail Smith Adams
Adams, Abigail Smith (1744-1818), Wife Of John Adams (q.v.), Second President Of The United States, Was Born In Weymouth, Mass., On Nov. 23, 1744. She Was The Daughter Of William Smith, A Congregational Minister, And Was Descended Through Her Mother, Elizabeth Quincy, From Thomas Shepard Of Cambridge, A Noted Puritan ...

Abigail
Abigail, One Of David's Earlier Wives, Formerly The Wife Of Nabal Of Carmel In Southern Judah. For The Story Of Her Relations With David, See I Sam. Xxv. The Use Of The Word In 16th And 17th Century English Is Due To The Fact That In I Sam. Xxv. 25 ...

Abijah
Abijah, A Name Borne By Nine Different Persons Mentioned In The Old Testament, Of Whom The Most Noteworthy Are (i) The Son And Successor Of Rehoboam, King Of Judah (c. 918-915 B.c.). The Accounts Of Him In The Books Of Kings And Chronicles Are Very Conflicting (cf. I Kings Xv. ...

Abilene
Abilene, A City Of Kansas, U.s.a., On The Smoky Hill River, About 95m. W. Of Topeka; The County Seat Of Dickinson County. It Is On Federal Highway 405, And Is Served By The Union Pacific, The Rock Island And The Santa Fe Railways. The Population Was 3,507 In 1900, And ...

Abilene_2
Abilene, A City Of Texas, U.s.a., About I5om. W. By S. Of Fort Worth, At An Altitude Of I,800ft., Almost At The Geographical Centre Of The State; The County Seat Of Taylor County. It Is On The Bankhead Highway, And Is Served By The Texas And Pacific, The Abilene And ...

Abimelech
Abimelech, The Name Of Two Well-known Characters In The Old Testament. ( I ) A King Of Gerar In South Palestine With Whom Isaac Had Relations. The Patriarch, During His Sojourn There, Alleged That His Wife Rebekah Was His Sister, But The King Doubting This Remonstrated With Him And Pointed ...

Abingdon
Abingdon, Municipal Borough, Berkshire, Lying In The Flat Thames Valley On The Oxford Border, Where The Small River Ock, Draining The Vale Of White Horse, Joins The Thames. Pop. (1931) 7,240. Abingdon (abbedun, Abendun) Was Famous For Its Abbey, Which Was Of Great Wealth And Importance, And Is Be Lieved ...

Abington
Abington, A Town Of Plymouth County, Mass., U.s.a., 'gm. S. 'by E. Of Boston. It Is Served By The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad, And By Trolley And Bus Lines. The Population Was 5,872 In 193o Federal Census. Farming, Fruit Growing (especially Strawberries), And Dairying Are Carried On. ...

Abiogenesis
Abiogenesis, In Biology, The Term, Equivalent To The Older Terms "spontaneous Generation," Generatio Aequivoca, Generatio Primaria, And More Recent Terms Such As Archegenesis And Arche Biosis, For The Theory According To Which Fully Formed Living Organisms Sometimes Arise From Non-living Matter. Aristotle Ex Plicitly Taught Abiogenesis, And Laid It Down ...

Abipones
Abipones, A Tribe Of South American Indians Belonging To The Guaycuruan (q.v.) Linguistic Stock. The Abipones Were A War Like, Nomad Hunting People, Living In The Argentine Chaco, Between The Vermejo And Salado Rivers. Although Once Numerous, They Are Now Believed To Be Quite Extinct. Both Men And Women Wore ...

Abitibbi
Abitibbi, Lake And River, Ontario, Canada. The Lake, N. 8o° W., 6om. Long, Is Shallow And Studded With Islands; The Shores Are Covered With Small Timber. The Hudson's Bay Co. Used It On A Canoe Route To The Northern Fur Lands. The Grand Trunk Pacific (now The Canadian National) Railway ...

Abjuration
Abjuration, A Solemn Repudiation Or Renunciation On Oath. At Common Law, It Signified The Oath Of A Person Who Had Taken Sanctuary To Leave The Realm For Ever; This Was Abolished In The Reign Of James I. The Oath Of Abjuration, In English History, Was A Solemn Disclaimer, Taken By ...

Abkhasia
Abkhasia, An Autonomous S.s.r. Under The Protection Of The Georgian S.s.r. (q.v.), Comprising Six Districts Of The For Mer Sukhum Province. Area 8,172sq.km. Pop. (1926) 199,175; Urban 30,617, Rural 168,558. Its Boundaries Are, On The North, The North Caucasian Area And Karachaev Autonomous Area, On The South And East, The ...

Ablation
Ablation, The Process Of Removing Anything; A Term Used Technically In Geology Of The Wearing Away Of A Rock Or Glacier By Weathering Agents, And In Surgery For Operative Removal. ...

Ablative
Ablative, In Grammar, A Case Of The Noun, The Fundamen Tal Sense Of Which Is Direction From ; In Latin Extended To The Instrument Or Agent Of An Act, And The Place Or Time At, And Manner In, Which A Thing Is Done; Also Found In Sanskrit, Zend, Oscan, Umbrian ...

Ablution
Ablution, A Ritual Washing Destined To Secure That Cere Monial Purity Which Must Not Be Confused With The Physical Cleanliness Obtained By The Use Of Soap And Water. (lat. Ablutio, From Abluere, "to Wash Off.") Indeed The Two States May Conflict, As With The 4th Century Pilgrim Who Boasted That ...

Abnaki
Abnaki, A Group Of Closely Related And Confederate Algonkin Indian Tribes Originally Centring In Maine, Now Mainly In Quebec And New Brunswick. The Name Means "east Land." They In Cluded The Etchimin, Malecite, Passamaquoddy And Penobscot, Often Reckoned As Distinct Tribes. They Fought The English Colo Fists, Were Friendly With ...

Abner
Abner. In The Old Testament, Saul's Cousin And Com Mander-in-chief, Comes Into Prominence Only After The Crushing Defeat Of Israel At Mt. Gilboa. This Battle Placed The Philistines In Control Of The Whole Of Central Palestine, And The Weakness Of Israel Was Enhanced By The Division Into Two Parties, That ...

Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal Psychology. By Abnormal Psycho Logy Is Meant The Study Of Mental Processes That Deviate From An Imagined Norm. When The Deviation Is Unmistakable The Term "psychopathology" Is More Commonly Employed. Otherwise The Terms "medical Psychology" Or "clinical Psychology" Are The Usual Ones, "abnormal Psychology" Being Used Only By One ...

Abode
Abode. In English Law This Term Has A More Restricted Meaning Than Domicile, Being Used To Indicate The Place Of A Man's Residence Or Business, Whether That Be Either Temporary Or Per Manent. The Law May Regard For Certain Purposes, As A Man's Abode, The Place Where He Carries On ...

Abolitionist
Abolitionist, An Advocate Of The Abolition Of Slavery. The Term As Used In The United States Referred Specifically To Those Persons Who, During The Years 183o-61, Made It Their Mission To Advocate The Immediate Abolition Of Negro Slavery. In Spite Of Riots, Assaults And Persecutions Of Every Kind, They Carried ...

Abomasum
Abomasum, The Fourth Or Rennet Stomach Of Ruminants. It Is That Part Of The Digestive Apparatus Which Corresponds To The Single Stomach Of Other Mammals. (see Pecora.) ...

Abomey
Abomey, Capital Of The Ancient Kingdorn•of Dahomey, West Africa, Now Included In The French Colony Of The Same Name. It Is Tom. North By Rail Of The Seaport Of Kotonu, And Has A Popula Tion Of About 15,00o. Abomey Is Built On A Plain, 800ft. Above Sea Level. The Town ...

Abomination
Abomination, Anything Regarded With Aversion As Were Things Contrary To Omen (lat. Ab, From, And Ominor Forbode). Evil Doctrines And Impure Ceremonial Practices Are So-called In The Bible. Hebrew Authorities Hold That The Expression "abomina Tion Of Desolation" (matt. Xxiv. 15; Mark Xiii. 14) Refers To The Desecration Of The ...

Abor Hills
Abor Hills, A Tract Of Country On The North-east Frontier Of India, Occupied By An Independent Tribe—the Abors, Who Are Divided Into Clans. They Live North Of Lakhimpur, Between The Miri And Mishmi Hills In The Extreme North Of Assam, Where The Brahmaputra (dihang) Debouches On To The Plain. The ...

Abor
Abor (a-bari- Untamed), An Assam Tribe Inhabiting Hills North Of The Brahmaputra, Subdivided Into Minyong, Galong, Padam And Other Groups. They Fall Into Patrilineal Exogamous Septs With Traces Of Dual Organization. A Cross Division Exists Into Mishing And Mipak—"pure" And "impure," The Latter Condition Being Hereditary, And Contagious As A ...

Aboriginal Languages
Aboriginal Languages, Languages Spoken By The Native Inhabitants Of Certain Countries. The_ Term Is Generally Applied To Tongues Called Non-literary Languages, "jargons," Broken Dialects, Etc., But Is More Correctly Used Of Languages Which, What Ever Their State Of Development, Have Left Their Individuality Unim Paired Upon The Territory Where They ...

Aborigines
Aborigines, A Mythical People Of Central Italy, Supposed To Have Descended From Near Reate (an Ancient Sabine Town) Upon Latium, Whence They Expelled The Siceli And Settled Down As Latini Under A King Latinus (dion Halic. I. 9. 6o). The Etymology Of The Name (ab Origine), Makes Them The Original ...

Abortion
Abortion, The Premature Separation And Expulsion Of The Contents Of The Pregnant Uterus. It Is Usual To Call Premature La Bour Of An Accident Type A "miscarriage," In Order To Distinguish "abortion" As A Deliberately Induced Act, Whether As A Medical Necessity By The Accoucheur, Or As A Criminal Proceeding ...

Aboukir
Aboukir, A Village On The Mediterranean Coast Of Egypt, 141m. North-east Of Alexandria By Rail. The Meaning Of The Name Is "father Cyrus," Who Was A Coptic Saint. Stretching Eastward As Far As The Rosetta Mouth Of The Nile Is The Spacious Bay Of Abou Kir, Where On Aug. 1, ...

Abracadabra
Abracadabra, A Word Analogous To Abraxas (q.v.) Used As A Magical Formula By The Gnostics Of The Sect Of Basilides In Invoking The Aid Of Beneficent Spirits Against Disease And Mis Fortune. It Is Found On Abraxas Stones, Which Were Worn As Amulets. The Gnostic Physician Serenus Sammonicus Gave Pre ...

Abraham A Sancta Clara
Abraham A Sancta Clara (1644-1709), Austrian Divine, Was Born At Kreenheinstetten, Near Messkirch. His Real Name Was Ulrich Megerle. In 1662 He Joined The Order Of Bare Footed Augustinians, Became A Popular Preacher, And Assumed The Name By Which He Is Known. In This Order He Rose Step By Step ...

Abraham Ibn Daud
Abraham Ibn Daud (c. I I I 0-80), Jewish Historiog Rapher And Philosopher Of Toledo. His Historical Work Was The Book Of Tradition (sepher Haqabala), A Chronicle Down To The Year 1161. It Was Translated Into Latin By Genebrad (i519). His Philosophy Was Expounded In An Arabic Work Better Known ...

Abraham Men
Abraham-men, The Nickname For Vagrants Who Infested England In Tudor Times. The Phrase Is As Old As 1561, And Was Due To These Beggars Pretending That They Were Patients Discharged From The Abraham Ward At Bedlam. On His Discharge The Genuine Bedlamite, Provided He Wore A Badge, Was Allowed To ...

Abraham Nico Las Amelot
Amelot De La Houssaye, Abraham Nico Las (1634-1706), French Historian And Publicist, Was Born At Orleans In Feb. 1634 And Died In Paris On Dec. 8, 1706. His Most Important Work Is Histoire Du Gouvernernent De Venise (1676), Which Called Forth A Violent Protest From The Venetian Ambassa Dor In ...

Abraham Or
Abraham Or (genesis Xi. 26–xvii. 5) Abram Is The Progenitor Of The Chosen People, The "seed" Of The "promised Land," Canaan (gen. Xii. 7; Xiii. 15; Xv. 18, Etc.). He Was The First Of The Three Patriarchs. He Was Extolled As "the Friend Of God" (isa. Xli. 8; 2 Chron. ...

Abrahamites
Abrahamites, A Sect Of Deists In Bohemia In The 18th Century, Who Professed To Be Followers Of The Pre-circumcised Abraham, And Declined To Be Classed Either As Christians Or Jews. Believing In One God, They Contented Thermelves With The Deca Logue And The Paternoster. As A Religious Sect They Disappeared ...

Abrantes
Abrantes, A Town Of Central Portugal, In The District Of Santarem, On The Right Bank Of The River Tagus. Pop. (1930), 8,881. Abrantes Is A Fortified Town, With Trade In Fruit, Olive Oil And Grain. It Is Of Military Value As It Commands The Highway Down The Tagus Valley To ...

Abrasives
Abrasives. Abrasion Is A Scratching Action And Depends On The Relative Hardness Of The Two Materials—the Abrasive And The One Abraded. The Degree Of Hardness Of A Material, As Deter Mined By Scratching, Has Long Been Used By Mineralogists For Distinguishing One Mineral From Another, And F. Mohs In 1820 ...

Abraum Salts
Abraum Salts (from The German Abraum-salze, Salts To Be Removed), The Name Given To A Mixed Deposit Of Salts, In Cluding Chlorides And Sulphates Of Sodium, Potassium And Mag Nesium, Found In Association With Rock-salt At Stassfurt In Prussia. ...

Abraxas Or Abrasax
Abraxas Or Abrasax, A Word Probably First Used By The Basilidians And Engraved On Certain Antique Stones, Called On That Account Abraxas Stones. The Letters Of Af3pavcs In The Greek Notation Make Up The Number 365, And The Basilidians Gave The Name To The 365 Orders Of Spirits Which Emanated ...

Abrogation
Abrogation, The Annul Ling Or Repealing Of A Law By Leg Islative Action Or By Usage. Abro Gation, Which Is The Total Annul Ling Of A Law, Is To Be Distin Guished From The Term Deroga Tion, Which Is Used Where A Law Is Only Partially Abrogated. Abro Gation May ...

Abron
Abron, A Longheaded Tribe, Physically Akin To The Fanti, Living On The Ivory Coast (bondoukou Region) And Between Kin Tampo And Salaga, Gold Coast. The Natives Are Husbandmen And Traders, And They Practise Animism. There Are Small Kingdoms Made Up Of Several Provinces. The Family Is Constituted By Sev Eral ...

Abruzzi E Molise
Abruzzi E Molise, A Group Of Provinces (comparti Mento) Of Southern Italy. The Total Area Is 5,951 Sq.m. And The Population (1921) 1,399,980. The Interior Is Mountainous Includ Ing The Central Portion Of The Apennines And Their Culmination, The Gran Sasso D'italia. The Coastal Hills Consist Mainly Of Some What ...

Absalom
Absalom, The Third Son Of David, And His Father's Fa Vourite. The Picture Presented In Ii. Sam. Xiii.—xix. (which Deals Mainly With His Life) Suggests That He Was The Alcibiades Of The Old Testament, Alike In His Personal Attractiveness, His Lawless In Solence And His Tragic Fate. He Is First ...

Absalon
Absalon (c. 1128-1201), Danish Archbishop And States Man, Was Born About 1128, The Son Of Aster Rig Of Fjenneslev, At Whose Castle He And His Brother Esbjorn Were Brought Up With The Young Prince Valdemar, Afterwards Valdemar I. He Was Sent Later To The University Of Paris. Absalon First Appeared ...

Abscess
Abscess, A Collection Of Pus Localized In Solid Tissues. When Situated In A Cavity Special Names Are Applied; E.g., Empyema (pleural Cavities), Hypopyon (aqueous Chamber Of Eye), Pyosal Pinx (fallopian Tube). The Usual Method Of Formation Is As Follows. When Staphylococci Or Other Pyogenic Organisms Have Reached Some Spot, Being ...

Abscission
Abscission, A Tearing Away, Or Cutting Off ; A Term Used Sometimes In Prosody For The Elision Of A Vowel Be Fore Another, And In Surgery Especially For Abscission Of The Cornea, Or The Removal Of That Portion Of The Eyeball Situated In Front Of The Attachments Of The Recti ...

Abscond
Abscond, To Depart In A Secret Manner; In Law, To Remove From The Jurisdiction Of The Courts Or So To Conceal Oneself As To Avoid Their Jurisdiction. A Person May "abscond" Either For The Purpose Of Avoiding Arrest For A Crime (see Arrest) Or For A Fraudulent Purpose, Such As ...

Absence
Absence, The Fact Of Being "away," Either In Body Or Mind. The Special Occasion Roll-call At Eton College Is Called "absence," Which The Boys Attend In Their Tall Hats. A Soldier Must Get "leave Of Absence" Before He Can Be Away From His Regiment. Seven Years' Absence With No Sign ...

Absenteeism
Absenteeism, A Term Used Primarily Of Landed Proprietors Who Absent Themselves From Their Estates, And Live And Spend Their Incomes Elsewhere ; In Its More Extended Meaning It Includes All Those (in Addition To Landlords) Who Live Out Of A Country Or Locality But Derive Their Income From Some Source ...

Absinthe
Absinthe, A Highly Toxic Liqueur Or Aromatized Spirit, The Characteristic Flavouring Matter Of Which Is Derived From Various Species Of Wormwood (artemisia Absinthium). Among The Other Substances Generally Employed In Its Manufacture Are Angelica Root, Sweet Flag, Dittany Leaves, Star-anise Fruit, Fennel And Hyssop. The Swiss Variety Has A Higher ...

Absolute Music
Absolute Music, A Term Applied To Music Of A Purely Abstract Type, Devoid Of Any Non-musical Or Xtra-musical Signif Icance, As Distinguished From That Of The Pictorial Or Descriptive Kind Known As "programme Music" (q.v.). ...

Absolute Temperature Scale
Absolute Temperature Scale, The Scale Of Temperature Based On Thermodynamics (q.v.), Also Called The Kelvin Scale After Lord Kelvin (q.v.). The Temperature Scale Derived From The Law Of Expansion Of A Perfect Gas (q.v.), Is Iden Tical With This Thermodynamical Scale. The Usual Abbreviations For Absolute Scale Are Abs., A, ...

Absolute Units
Absolute Units, Units Of Measurement Of A Physical Quantity In Terms Of The Fundamental Units Of Length, Mass And Time; The British Association Selected, As Their Fundamental Units, The Centimetre, The Gramme, And The Second Of Mean Solar Time, And Thus Formed The C.g.s. System Of Units. (see Units, Dimen ...

Absolute
Absolute. The Term Absolute Is Frequently Used In Con Trast With The Terms Relative, Comparative, Conditioned, Etc. ...

Absolution
Absolution (religious) Denotes The Setting Of The Peni Tent Sinner Free From The Guilt Of His Sin, Or From The Ecclesiasti Cal Penalty (excommunication), Or From Both. The Authority Of The Church Or Its Minister To Pronounce Or Refuse Forgiveness Is Implied In Ii. Cor. Ii. 5–ii, And Acts V. ...

Absolutism
Absolutism. The Term Absolutism Is Generally Applied To Any View Or Theory That The Object Under Consideration (whatever It May Be) Is Not Merely Conventional, Or Subjective, Or Dependent, Or Limited In Any Way, But Absolute, That Is Real Or Valid In Itself, Or Objective, Or Independent, Or Unrestricted. (see ...

Absorption Spectrum
Absorption Spectrum, The Dark Lines And Bands Produced In Another Spectrum (q.v.) When The Light Responsible For The Latter Has Passed Through A Substance At A Lower Tempera Ture Than Its Source. (see Spectroscopy.) ...

Abstemii
Abstemii, A Name Formerly Given To Such Persons As Could Not Partake Of The Cup Of The Eucharist On Account Of Their Aver Sion To Wine (lat. Abs, "away From"; Temetum, "intoxicants"). In Modern Times Many Total Abstainers, Holding That The Use Of Intoxi Cants Is To Be Condemned Absolutely, ...

Abstinence
Abstinence, The Fact Or Habit Of Refraining From Any Thing, Usually From Indulgence Of The Appetite. A "total Ab Stainer" Is One Who Takes The Pledge To Abstain From Alcoholic Liquor (see Temperance). Abstinence In The Christian Church, Is A Moderate Form Of Fasting (q.v.). "abstinence" Was Also A Term ...

Abstract Of Title
Abstract Of Title, In Law, A Digest Or Epitome Of The Various Instruments And Events Under And In Consequence Of Which The Vendor Or Mortgagor Of An Estate Derives His Title Thereto. The System Of Registration Has Much The Neces Sity For This Abstract Being Prepared Or Used. (see The ...

Abstract
Abstract And Abstraction. The Term Abstract Is Sometimes Used As A Noun To Denote A Summary Or Digest Of A Document. Such An Abstract Is Usually Obtained By Selecting What Is Essential And Omitting The Rest. Speaking Generally, The Process Of Abstraction Is Usually A Process Of Selection Of Some ...

Abu Hamed
Abu Hamed, A Town Of The Anglo-egyptian Sudan On The Right Bank Of The Nile, 345m. By Rail North Of Khartum, And Near The Head Of The Fourth Cataract. It Stands At The Centre Of The Great S-shaped Bend Of The Nile, And From It The Railway To Wadi Halfa ...

Abu Hanifa An Numan Ibn
Abu Hanifa An-numan Ibn Thabit, Moham Medan Canon Lawyer, Was Born At Kufa In A.h. 8o (a.d. 699) Of Non-arab And Probably Persian Parentage. Few Events Of His Life Are Known To Us With Any Certainty. He Was A Rich Silk-dealer, Lectured At Kufa Upon Canon Law (fiqh) And Was ...

Abu Klea
Abu Klea, A Halting-place.. For Caravans In The Bayuda Desert, Anglo-egyptian Sudan. It Is On The Road From Merawi To Metemma And 20m. North Of The Nile At The Last-mentioned Place. Near This Spot, On Jan. 17, 1885, A British Force Marching To The Relief Of Gen. Gordon At Khartum ...

Abu L Ala Ul Maarri
Abu-l-ala Ul-ma'arri (973-1057), Arabian Poet And Letter-writer, Belonged To The South Arabian Tribe Tanukh, A Part Of Which Had Migrated To Syria Before The Time Of Islam. He Was Born In 973 At Matarrat Un-nu`man In Syria. In 1007 He Visited Baghdad, Where He Was Admitted To Literary Circles, Recited ...

Abu L Qasim
Abu-l-qasim [khalaf Ibn 'abbas Uz-zahrawi], Arabian Physician And Surgeon, Generally Known In Europe As Abulcasis, Flourished In The Tenth Century At Cordova As Physician To The Caliph Eabdur-rahman Iii. A Part Of His Compendium Of Medicine Was Published In Latin As Liber Theoricae Nec Non Practicae Alsaharavii (augsburg, 1519 ) ...

Abu L Wafa Or
Abu 'l Wafa Or Albuzdschani Arab Astronomer And Mathematician, Was Born At Buzdschan In Khur Asan, And Was One Of The Most Learned Men Of His Day. A Passage In His Almagest Is Held By Some To Indicate That He Had Noted In Equalities In The Moon's Motion, Later Described ...

Abu Nuwas
Abu Nuwas (abu 'ali Hal-asan Ibn Hani'al-hakami) (c. 756-810), Arabian Poet, Was Born In Al-ahwaz, Probably About 756. His Mother Was A Persian, His Father A Soldier, A Native Of Damascus. He Is Said To Have Spent A Year With The Arabs In The Desert To Gain Purity Of Language. ...

Abu Simbel Or Ipsambul
Abu Simbel Or Ipsambul, The Name Of A Group Of Temples Of Rameses Ii. (c. 1250 B.c.) In Nubia, On The Left Bank Of The Nile, 56m. By River South Of Korosko. They Are Hewn In The Sandstone Cliffs At The Riverside, And Are Three In Number. The Principal Temple, ...

Abu Tammam
Abu Tammam (habib Ibn Aus) (807-846), Arabian Poet, Was Born In Jasim (josem), A Place To The North-east Of The Sea Of Tiberias Or Near Manbij (hierapolis). He Died In Mosul. Abu Tammam Is Best Known As The Compiler Of The Collection Of Early Poems Known As The Hamdsa (q.v.). ...

Abu Ubaida
Abu Ubaida (memar Ibn Ul-muthannal) (728-825), Arabian Scholar, Was Born A Slave Of Jewish-persian Parents In Basra. In 803 He Was Called To Baghdad By Harlan Al-rashid. He Died In Basra. He Was One Of The Most Learned And Authoritative Scholars Of His Time In The Arabic Language, Antiquities And ...

Abu
Abu, A Mountain Of Central India, Situated Within The Rajputana State Of Sirohi. It Is An Isolated Peak Of The Aravalli Range, Being Completely Detached From That Chain By A Narrow Valley 7m. Across, In Which Flows The Western Banas. It Rises From The Surrounding Plains Of Marwar Like A ...

Abul Fazl
Abul Fazl (ab-v1 Fahzl) (1551-1602), Vizier And Histori Ographer Of The Mogul Emperor, Akbar, Wrote The Akbar Nameh Or "book Of Akbar" In Persian. It Consists Of Two Parts, And Is A History Of Akbar's Reign And The Ain-i-akbari, Or "institutes" Of Akbar, Giving An Account Of The Constitution, Religion ...

Abulfaraj
Abulfaraj (abu-l-faraj 'ali Ibn Ul-husain Ul-isfahani) (897-967), Arabian Scholar, Was A Member Of The Tribe Of The Quraish (koreish) And A Direct .descendant Of Marwan, The Last Of The Omayyad Caliphs. He Was Thus Connected With The Omay Yad Rulers In Spain, And Seems To Have Kept Up A Correspondence ...

Abulfeda
Abulfeda (abu-l-fida' Ismail Ibn 'ali 'imad-ud-dni) (1273-1331), Arabian Historian And Geographer, Was Born At Damascus, Whither His Father Malik Ul-afdal, Brother Of The Prince Of Hamah, Had Fled From The Mongols. He Was A Descend Ant Of Ayyilb, The Father Of Saladin. In 1285 He Was Present At The Assault ...

Abundantia
Abundantia, Roman Goddess, The Personification Of Prosperity And Good Fortune. On The Coins Of The Later Roman Emperors She Is Frequently Represented Holding A Horn Of Plenty And Distributing Grain And Money. She May Be Compared With Domina Abundia (0. Fr. Dame Habonde, Notre Dame D' Abon Dance), A Beneficent ...

Abutilon
Abutilon (from The Arabic Aub &jinn, A Name Given By Avicenna To This Or An Allied Genus), In Botany, A Genus Of Plants Of The Family Malvaceae (mallows), Having About 120 Species, And Widely Distributed In The Tropics. They Are Free-growing Shrubs With Showy Bell-shaped Flowers, And Are Favourite Green ...

Abutment
Abutment, A Construction In Masonry Designed To Receive And Resist The Lateral Pressure Of An Arch, Vault Or Strut. When Part Of A Wall It Is Termed A Buttress (q.v.). ...

Abydos
Abydos, Ancient Town Of Mysia, Asia Minor, On The Hellespont, Here Scarcely A Mile Broad. Probably Originally A Thracian Town, It Was Afterwards Colonized By Milesians. Here Xerxes Crossed The Strait On His Bridge Of Boats When He Invaded Greece. Abydos Is Celebrated For Its Vigorous Resistance To Philip V. ...

Abydos_2
Abydos, One Of The Most Ancient Cities Of Upper Egypt, About 7m. West Of The Nile In Lat. 26° 1o' N. (railway Station Al Baliana). The Egyptian Name Was Abdu, "the Hill Of The Symbol Or Reliquary" In Which The Sacred Head Of Osiris Was Preserved. Thence The Greeks Named ...

Abyss
Abyss, Any Deep Place (gr. A-, Privative, (3vao•65, Bottom), A Bottomless Depth. From The Late Popular Abyssimus (superlative Of Low Latin Abyssus) Through The French Abisme (i.e., Abime) Is Derived The Poetic Form Abysm, Pronounced As Late As 1616 To Rhyme With Time. The Adjective "abyssal" Or "abysmal" Has Been ...

Abyssinia Administration Andindustry
Abyssinia - Administration And Industry Provinces And Towns.--the Ancient Provincial Divisions Of Abyssinia (amhara, Tigre, Gojam, Shoa, Etc.) Are For The Most Part Now Mere Geographical Expressions, Having Been Broken Up Into Smaller Governorships With The Exception Of The Ancient King Dom Of Goj Jam, Enclosed By The Great Bend ...

Abyssinia History
Abyssinia History Early Records.—abyssinia, Or At Least The Northern Portion Of It, Was Included In The Tract Of Country Known To The Ancients As Ethiopia, The Northern Limits Of Which Reached At One Time To About Syene. The Connection Between Egypt And Ethiopia Was In Early Times Very Intimate, And ...

Abyssinia
Abyssinia (officially Ethiopia), An Inland Country And Empire Of North-east Africa Lying, Chiefly, Between 5° And 15° N. And 35° And E. It Is Bounded On The North By Eritrea (italian), On The West By The Anglo-egyptian Sudan, On The South-west And South By Uganda And Kenya, On The South-east ...

Abyssinian Church
Abyssinian Church. As The Chronicle Of Axum Re Lates, Christianity Was Adopted In Abyssinia In The 4th Century. About A.d. 33o Frumentius Was Made First Bishop Of Ethiopia By Athanasius, Patriarch Of Alexandria. Little Is Known Of Church History Down To The Period Of Jesuit Rule, Which Broke The Connec ...

Acacia
Acacia, A Genus Of Shrubs And Trees Belonging To The Family Leguminosae And The Sub-family Mimoseae. The Small Flowers Are Arranged In Rounded Or Elongated Clusters. The Leaves Are Generally Compound Pinnate (see Fig.) ; In Some Instances More Especially In The Australian Species, The Leaflets Are Suppressed And The ...

Academie Nationale De Musique
Academie Nationale De Musique, The Offi Cial Title Of The Paris Opera, Also Known As The Theatre National De L'opera, Founded By Louis Xiv. In 1669 And The Most Famous Institution Of Its Kind In The World. Lully, An Italian By Birth But Naturalized As A Frenchman, Was The First ...

Academies Of Archaeology And
Academies Of Archaeology And History France.—the Old Academie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-lettres (or "petite Academie," Founded In 1663) Was An Offshoot Of The French Academy, Which Then At Least Contained The Elite Of French Learning. Louis Xiv. Was Of All French Kings The One Most Occu Pied With His Own ...

Academies Of Belles Lettres
Academies Of Belles Lettres Belgium.—belgium Has Always Been Famous For Its Literary Societies. The Little Town Of Diest Boasts That It Possessed A Society Of Poets In 13o2, And The Catherinists Of Alost Date From 1107. It Is At Least Certain That Numerous Chambers Of Rhetoric (so Academies Were Then ...

Academies Of Medicine And
Academies Of Medicine And Surgery Austria.—the Academy Of Surgery At Vienna Was Instituted In 1784 By The Emperor Joseph Ii. Under The Direction Of The Dis Tinguished Surgeon, Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (i728-1800). In 1874 It Ceased To Exist; Its Functions Had Become Mainly Mili Tary And Were Transferred To Newer ...

Academies Of The Fine
Academies Of The Fine Arts France.—the Academie Royale De Peinture Et De Sculpture At Paris Was Founded By Louis Xiv. In 1648, Under The Title Of Academie Royale Des Beaux Arts, To Which Was Afterwards United The Academie D'architecture, Founded 1671. It Is Composed Of Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers And ...

Academies
Academies. The Word "academy" Is Derived From "the Olive Grove Of Academe, Plato's Retirement" (see Under Academy, Greek). The Schools Of Athens After The Model Of The Academy Continued To Flourish Almost Without A Break For Nine Centuries Till They Were Abolished By A Decree Of Justinian. "academy," In Its ...

Acadia Or Acadie
Acadia Or Acadie, A District In, What Is Now Nova Scotia And Eastern New Brunswick, So Named Either Because Ver Razano Called A Part Of The Coast Arcadia In 1524, Or From The Micmac Acadie, Fertile Land, Found In Several Place-names. Visited By Champlain In 1603 And By De Monts ...

Acajutla
Acajutla, A Pacific Port Of Salvador, Central America, Terminus Of The British-owned Salvador Railroad, And Coffee-ship Ping Centre For The Republic. The Population Is About I,000, And The Port An Open Roadstead, Passengers And Freight Being Handled By Lighters. The Town Is 65m. Distant From San Salvador And I 2m. ...

Acanthocephala
Acanthocephala, A Group Of Cylindrical, Parasitic Worms, Often Included With The Nematoda And Nematomorpha In A Phylum Nemathelminthes, But Of Very Doubtful Affinities. There Is No Mouth Or Alimentary Canal, But A Retractile Probos Cis, Contained In A Muscular Sac And Armed With Recurved Hooks For Attachment To The Host. ...