ACADEMIES OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY Austria.—The Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted in 1784 by the emperor Joseph II. under the direction of the dis tinguished surgeon, Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla (I728-1800). In 1874 it ceased to exist; its functions had become mainly mili tary and were transferred to newer schools.
Charlemagne is said to have established a school of medicine in the Louvre, and various societies have been founded and privileges granted to the faculty by his successors. The Academie de medecine succeeded to the old Academie royale de chirurgie et society royale de medecine in 1820. The new academy was divided into three sections—medicine, surgery and pharmacy. In its constitution it closely resembled the Academie des sciences.
The Academia Naturae Curiosi, afterwards called the Academia Caesaraea Leopoldina, was founded in 1662 by J. L. Bausch, a physician of Leipzig. The works of the Naturae Curiosi were at first published separately; but from 1784 this appeared an nually under the title of Ephemerides. In 1687 the emperor Leo pold took the society under his protection, and its name was changed in his honour. This academy has no fixed abode, but fol lows the home of its president. Its library remains at Dresden.