ACADEMIES OF THE FINE ARTS France.—The Academie royale de peinture et de sculpture at Paris was founded by Louis XIV. in 1648, under the title of Academie royale des beaux arts, to which was afterwards united the Academie d'architecture, founded 1671. It is composed of painters, sculptors, architects, engravers and musical composers. From among the members of the society who are painters, is chosen the director of the French Academie des beaux arts at Rome, also instituted by Louis XIV. in 1677. The director's prov ince is to superintend the studies of the painters, sculptors, etc., who, chosen by competition, are sent to Italy at the expense of the Government, to complete their studies in that country. The Academie rationale de musique is the official and administrative name given in France to the grand opera.