AFRIKANDER BOND, a party, founded in Cape Colony by the Rev. S. J. du Toit in 1879, aiming at federating South Africa in one independent republic. The official optional use of Dutch in parliament and the law courts was secured, but under the leadership of Hofmeyer and the influence of Cecil Rhodes its anti-British sentiments were greatly modified. It was always, however, essentially an organization for the promotion of the political supremacy of the Cape Dutch. (See also HOFMEYR, JAN HENDRIK; CAPE COLONY; and SOUTH AFRICA, UNION OF.) AFTERBIRTH, a term used to include the placenta, foetal membranes and umbilical cord. They are usually expelled from the womb in a single mass 15 to 3omin. after the birth of the child. The placenta is a soft, beefy red disk, about 8 to loin. in diameter and I to Ilin. in thickness. It is the organ by which the mother nourishes the child and is composed largely of capillary loops from mother and child, in close contact. While the mother's blood does not pass into the blood vessels of the child, the con stituents necessary for growth pass through the capillary walls into the child's circulation by a process called osmosis, while the waste products in the foetal blood pass in the other direction and are eliminated by the mother. One surface of the placenta is attached to the inside of the womb, whence it draws its maternal blood. The other surface presents the branching blood vessels of the foetus which unite into one artery and two veins. These vessels form the umbilical cord, which usually starts from the middle of the placenta and enters the body of the foetus at the navel. It is about 22in. long. Around the edge of the placenta can be found the thin torn membrane which envelops the foetus in the womb. It forms the water bag in which the foetus floats, and usually breaks shortly before the birth of the child. If, how ever, the child is born with the membranes intact, he is said to be born in a caul.