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African Languages
African Languages. Language And Race Have Not Necessarily Common Boundaries, But In Classifying A Group Of Languages The Relation Between The Two Must Not Be Ignored. Apart From Recent European Immigration, Africa Has Four Main Types Of People : Pygmy-bushman, Negro, Hamitic And Semitic. These Four Races Correspond To Four ...

African Lily
African Lily (agapanthus Umbellatus), A Member Of The Family Liliaceae, A Native Of The Cape Of Good Hope, Whence It Was Introduced At The Close Of The 17th Century. It Is A Hand Some Greenhouse Plant, Which Is Hardy In The South Of England And The Milder Parts Of The ...

Afridi
Afridi, The Most Powerful Of The Pathan Tribes Which Hold The Mountainous Borderland Of The N.w. Frontier Provinces, India, Though Less Numerous Than The Wazirs. They Occupy The Eastern Spurs Of The Safed Koh. Through The North Of These Runs The Khyber Pass, And Their Centre Is The Great Upland ...

Afrikander Bond
Afrikander Bond, A Party, Founded In Cape Colony By The Rev. S. J. Du Toit In 1879, Aiming At Federating South Africa In One Independent Republic. The Official Optional Use Of Dutch In Parliament And The Law Courts Was Secured, But Under The Leadership Of Hofmeyer And The Influence Of ...

After Damp
After-damp, In Coal-mining, A Name Given To The Poi Sonous Choking Gas Which Forms After A Mine Explosion. It Mainly Consists Of Carbon Dioxide, And Is Also Known As Choke Damp. (see Choke-damp.) ...

After Image
After-image, The Immediate Recurrence Of A Sensation, In Like Or Opposite Quality, After The Removal Of Its Stimulus. Al Ter Images Are Most Prominent In Vision. If A Person Gazes Steadfastly At A Small Coloured Object For Half A Minute And Then Turns His Eyes Away To A Neutral Background, ...

After Work
After-work, An Expression Used In Italy For The Organ Ized Sociological Efforts To Provide For The Better Enjoyment And Employment Of The Leisure Created By The Contraction Of The Working Day. (see Dopolavoro.) ...

Afterglow
Afterglow, A Broad High Arch Of Radiance Or Glow Seen Occasionally In The Western Sky Above The Highest Clouds In Deep Ening Twilight, Or Reflected From The High Snowfields In Mountain Regions Long After Sunset. It Is Caused By Very Fine Particles Of Suspended Dust In The High Atmosphere Exercising ...

Aga Khan Iii
Aga Khan Iii. (1877— ) (aga Sultan, Sir Mohammed Shah), Only Son Of The Foregoing, Succeeded Him In 1885. He Was Born In 1877, And, Under The Care Of His Mother, A Daughter Of The Ruling House Of Persia, Was Given Not Only That Religious And Oriental Education Which His ...

Aga Or Agha
Aga Or Agha, A Word, Said To Be Of Tatar Origin, Signifying A Dignitary Or Lord. Among The Turks It Is Applied To The Chief Of The Janissaries, To Tie Commanders Of The Artillery, Cavalry And Infantry, And To The Eunuchs In Charge Of The Seraglio. It Is Also Employed ...

Agade
Agade, The Capital City Of "sargon Of Agade." The City Is Probably Identical With Tal-ed-deir, Excavated By Sir E. A. Wallis Budge In 1891. The Inscriptions Suggest That It Was Near Sippar, And Langdon Identifies It With Sippar-yakhuru, Admitting, How Ever, That The Identification Is Uncertain. At Ed-deir There Is ...

Agadir
Agadir, The Best Atlantic Harbour Of Morocco, Iokm. N. Of Wadi Jus. Pop. 3,081. It Was The Scene Of Portuguese Fisheries From I Soo And Became A Valuable Commercial Centre. Agadir Sprang Into Prominence During The Moroccan Crisis Of 1911, And Since 1912 It Has Belonged To France. ...

Agaiambo Or Agaumbu
Agaiambo Or Agaumbu, A Race Of Dwarf Marsh Dwellers In British New Guinea, Now Extinct. In 1904 There Were Six Males And Four Females, Living In Huts Erected On Piles In The Lakes And Marshes. They Lived Almost Entirely In Their "dug-outs" Or Canoes, Or Actually Wading In The Water. ...

Agalmatolite
Agalmatolite, A Soft Variety Of The Mineral Pyrophyl Lite Also Called Pagodite, Used By The Chinese For Carving, Especially Into Grotesque Figures (whence Called "figure Stone") . ...

Agamedes
Agamedes (ag-a-ma-das), In Greek Legend, King Of Orcho Menus In Boeotia. He And His Step-brother Trophonius Were Skilled Architects And Constructors Of Underground Shrines And Treasure-houses. When Building A Treasure-house For The Boeo Tian King, Hyrieus, The Brothers Fixed One Of The Stones In The Wall In Such A Manner ...

Agamemnon
Agamemnon, A Homeric Hero, Son Of Atreus, And Aerope, Grandson Of Pelops, Great-grandson Of Tantalus And Brother Of Menelaus. After The Murder Of Atreus (q.v.), Agamem Non And Menelaus Took Refuge With Tyndareus, King Of Sparta, Whose Daughters, Clytaemnestra And Helen, They Respectively Married. By Clytaemnestra, Agamemnon Had Three Daughters, ...

Agana
Agana, The Capital And Largest City Of The Island Of Guam. The City Is Situated On The West Coast On A Low Sandy Beach That Skirts The Bay Of The Same Name, And Is About 5m. N.e. Of Piti, The 1?ort Of Entry For All Water Shipments, With Which It ...

Agape
Agape, The Early Christian Love-feast (gr. Ayarn, "love"). The Word Seems To Be Used In This Sense In Jude 12, But Cf. 2 Pet. Ii. 13, Where The Reading Is 671-arms ("deceits") For Iryaracs. The History Of The Agape Coincides, Until The End Of The 2nd Cen Tury, With That ...

Agapemonites
Agapemonites Or Community Of The Son Of Man. A Sect Founded In 1846 By The Rev. Henry James Prince, A Clergyman Of The Church Of England (i811-1899). He Studied Medicine, Ob Tained His Qualifications In 1832 And Was Appointed Medical Officer To The General Hospital In Bath, His Native City. ...

Agapetae
Agapetae, A Name Given To Female Christian Ascetics Who Dwelt With Men Under A Vow Of Continency. This Practice Essen Tially Belongs To The History Of Christian Asceticism. Its Begin Nings Can Be Traced In The Earliest Christian Times, But It Was Pre Served In Monasticism Down To The Early ...

Agapetus I
Agapetus I., Pope From 535 To 536, Collaborated With Cassio Dorus In Founding At Rome A Library Of Ecclesiastical Authors. King Theodahad Sent Him On An Embassy To Constantinople, Where He Died, After Having Deposed Anthimus, The Monophysite Bishop Of That Town, And Ordained Menas His Successor. ...

Agapetus Ii
Agapetus Ii., Pope From 946 To 955, At The Time When Alberic, Son Of Marozia, Was Governing The Independent Republic Of Rome Under The Title Of "prince And Senator Of The Romans." He Did His Best To Restore Church Discipline And To Regain Temporal Power. His Appeal To Otto The ...

Agapetus
Agapetus, A Deacon Of The Church Of St. Sophia At Con Stantinople, And Author Of A Series Of Exhortations On The Duties Of A Christian Prince, Addressed (c. 527) To The Emperor Justinian. The Work Was Often Reprinted, And Has Been Translated Into Latin, French And English. ...

Agar Agar
Agar-agar, A Vegetable Product Resembling Gelatine And Made From Various East Indian Seaweeds. In China It Is Used As An Ingredient Of "bird's Nest Soup," But Its Main Employment Is As A Culture-medium For Bacteria. It Is Occasionally Utilized Also As A Laxative. ...

Agaric
Agaric, The Name Applied To Many Mushrooms And Toad Stools From Their Generic Name, Agaricus (see Fungi). ...

Agasias
Agasias. There Were Two Greek Sculptors Of This Name. Agasias, Son Of Dositheus, Signed The Statue Called The Borghese Warrior In The Louvre. Agasias, Son Of Menophilus, Is The Sculp Tor Of Another Striking Figure Of A Warrior In The Museum Of Athens. Both Belonged To The School Of Ephesus ...

Agathange Or Akathan Kelos
Agathangelus, Agathange Or Akathan Kelos, Armenian Historian, Lived During The 4th Century, And Wrote A History Of The Reign Of Dertad, Or Tiridates, And Of The Preaching Of St. Gregory The Illuminator. This History Was Trans Lated Into Several Languages, And Greek And Latin Translations Are Found In The Acta ...

Agatharchides Or Agatharchus
Agatharchides Or Agatharchus, Of Cnidus, Greek Historian And Geographer, Lived In The Time Of -ptolemy Philometor (181-146 B.c.) And His Successors. Amongst Other Works, He Wrote Treatises On Asia, Europe And The Red Sea. Inter Esting Extracts From The Last, Of Some Length, Are Preserved In Photius (cod. 213). Bibliography.-see ...

Agatharchus
Agatharchus, The Name Of An Athenian Painter Of The 5th Century B.c. He Is Said By Vitruvius To Have Been The First To Paint A Scene For The Acting Of Tragedies. ...

Agathias C Ad
Agathias (c. A.d. 536-582), Of Myrina In Aeolis, Greek Poet And Historian. He Studied Law At Alexandria, Completed His Training At Constantinople And Practised As An Advocate (scholas Ticus) In The Courts. He Wrote A Number Of Short Love-poems In Epic Metre, Called Daphniaca. He Next Put Together A Kind ...

Agatho
Agatho, Pope From 678 To 681, Was Born In Sicily. He Ordered St. Wilfrid To Be Restored To His Bishopric At York In 679, And Was The First Pope To Cease Payment Of The Tribute Hith Erto Paid On Election To The Emperor At Constantinople. Agatho Died On Jan. 1o, ...

Agathocles
Agathocles B.c.), Tyrant Of Syracuse, Was The Son Of A Potter, Born At Thermae Himeraeae (mod. Termini Imerese) In Sicily. He Removed To Syracuse And Served With Dis Tinction In The Army. In 333 B.c. He Married The Widow Of His Patron Damas, A Distinguished And Wealthy Citizen. He Was ...

Agathodaemon
Agathodaemon, An Early Map Designer Of Alexandria, Who Probably Lived In The 2nd Century A.d. Some Manuscripts Of The Geography Of Ptolemy Contain 27 Maps, Which Are Stated To Have Been Drawn By Agathodaemon Of Alexandria, Who "de Lineated The Whole World According To The Eight Books Of Ptolemy's Geography." ...

Agathodaemon_2
Agathodaemon, An Important God In Greek Myth Ology, The "good Spirit" Of Cornfields And Vineyards, Protective Spirit Of Individuals And The State. The Greeks Drank A Cup Of Pure Wine In His Honour At The End Of Each Meal (aristophanes, Equites, Io6). Often Accompanied By Agatlie Ruche (good For Tune), ...

Agathon
Agathon (c. B.c.), Athenian Tragic Poet, Friend Of Euripides And Plato. He Won His First Victory In 416 (at The Lenaea), And His Plays Seem To Have Been Successful, De'spite Their Artificial Style. He Appears To Have Been The First To Invent An Original Plot, And To Write Choral Odes ...

Agathyrsi
Agathyrsi, A People Of Thracian Origin, Who In The Earliest Historical Times Occupied The Plain Of The Maris (maros), In The Region Now Known As Transylvania. They Are Described By Herodotus (iv. Io4) As Of Luxurious Habits, Wearing Gold Orna Ments (the District Is Still Auriferous) And Having Wives In ...

Agave
Agave, A Large Botanical Genus Of The Family Amaryllidaceae, Chiefly Mexican, But Occurring Also In The Southern And Western United States And In Central And Tropical South America. The Plants Have A Large Rosette Of Thick Fleshy Leaves Generally Ending In A Sharp Point And With A Spiny Margin ; ...

Agde
Agde, A Town Of South France, In The Department Of Herault, 21m. From The Mouth Of The Herault, And 32m. S.w. Of Mont Pellier On The Southern Railway. Pop. (1931), 8,708. It Lies At The Foot Of An Extinct Volcano, The Montagne St. Loup, And Is Sur Named "la Ville ...

Age
Age. The Subject Of The Duration Of Human And Animal Life Does Not Fall Within The Scope Of This Article, And The Reader Is Referred To Longevity. But The Word "age" Has Been Used By Physiologists To Express Certain Natural Divisions In Human Devel Opment And Decay. These Are Usually ...

Ageladas Or
Ageladas Or (as The Name Is Spelt In An Inscription) Hagelaidas, A Great Argive Sculptor Who Flourished In The Latter Part Of The 6th And The Early Part Of The 5th Century B.c. Ageladas Was Said To Have Been The Teacher Of Myron, Pheidias, And Poly Cleitus ; This Tradition ...

Agema
Agema, The Name Of The Bodyguard Of Alexander Of Mace Don. It Was Drawn From The Distinguished Corps Of "shield Bearers" Or Esquires (biraairtarai) . While In Bactria, Alexander Reorganized The Agema And Included Some Persians. ...

Agen
Agen, South-west France, Capital Of The Department Of Lot Et-garonne, 84m. S.e. Of Bordeaux By The Southern Railway. Pop. 20,688. It Is Skirted On The West By The Garonne, Here Crossed By A Stone Bridge And By A Canal-bridge. Agen (aginnum) Was The Capital Of The Nitiobroges, And Exten Sive ...

Agenais Or Agenois
Agenais Or Agenois, A Former Province Of France. In Ancient Gaul It Was The Country Of The Nitiobroges With Aginnum For Its Capital, And In The 4th Century It Was The Civitas Agennen Sium, Which Formed The Diocese Of Agen. Having In General Shared The Fortunes Of Aquitaine During The ...

Agent General
Agent-general, The Term Given To The Representatives In England Of Certain Of The Self-governing British Colonies. They Are Appointed, And Their Expenses And Salaries Provided, By The Governments Of The Colonies They Represent. Their Duties Are To Look After The Political And Economic Interests Of Their Colonies In London, To ...

Agents In Business
Agents In Business. An Agent In The Most General Sense Is Any Person Who Transacts Business For Another Without Being A Direct Employee, And In The Majority Of Cases His Function Is To Assist A Principal In The Purchase, Sale Or Distribu Tion Of Goods For A Remuneration Which Usually ...

Agents Of Production
Agents Of Production, In Economics, A Term Used To Describe The Factors Which Combine In The Production Of Wealth, As Land, Capital, Labour (qq.v.) And Organization. (see Entre ...

Agesander
Agesander, A Rhodian Sculptor Who Is Mentioned By Pliny (nat. Hist. Xxxvi. 37) As Author (with Polydorus And Athenodorus) Of The Group Of The Laocoon. Inscriptions Found At Lindus In Rhodes Date Agesander And Athenodorus To The Period 4 2-2 I B.c. ...

Agesilaus Ii
Agesilaus Ii., King Of Sparta, Of The Eurypontid Family, Succeeded His Step-brother Agis About 40r B.c. Through The Influence Of Lysander. In 396 He Led An Expedition To Asia To Secure The Greek Cities Against A Persian Attack. Before Sailing, He Tried To Offer A Sacrifice At Aulis As Agamemnon ...

Agglomerate
Agglomerate, In Geology, The Name Applied To The Coarse, Fragmental Accumulations That Accompany Explosive Erup Tions (see Volcano). The Material May Consist Of Blocks Of Lava, Or Of Fragments Of Rock Torn Off From The Sides Of The Volcanic Pipe, Or Of Both. An Agglomerate Differs Only From A Volcanic ...

Agglutination
Agglutination, A Term Used Technically In Philology For The Method Of Word-formation By Which Two Significant Words Or Roots Are Joined Together In A Single Word To Express A Com Bination Of The Two Meanings Each Of Which Retains Its Force (lat. Ad And Glutinare, Lit. To Fasten Together With ...

Aggravation
Aggravation (lat. Ad, "increasing," Gravis, "heavy"), The Making Anything Graver Or More Serious ; Also Used As Synony Mous With "irritation." In The Canon Law, "aggravation" Was A Form Of Ecclesiastical Censure, Threatening Excommunication After Three Disregarded Admonitions. ...

Aggregate
Aggregate, A Term Used In Building And Construction To Designate The Material With Which Cement, Lime, Gypsum Or Other Adhesive Material, Such As Bitumen, Is Mixed To Form A Concrete Or Mortar (q.v.). The Most Common Aggregates Are Sand, Crushed Or Broken Stone, Gravel Or Pebbles, Broken Blast-furnace Slag, Boiler ...

Aggregation
Aggregation, In Physics, A Collective Term For The Forms Or States In Which Matter Exists. Three Primary "states Of Aggregation" Are Recognized—gaseous, Liquid And Solid. Gener Ally, If A Solid Be Heated To A Certain Temperature, It Melts Or Fuses, Assuming The Liquid Condition (see Fusion); If The Heating Be ...

Aggtelek
Aggtelek, A Village In Northern Hungary In That Portion Of The County Of Gomor That Remains Within Hungarian Rule. Although Small (pop. 648) It Is World-renowned For Its Remark Able Limestone Grotto, The Aggtelek Or Baradla Cavern, One Of The Largest Of Its Kind In Europe. It Is Composed Of ...

Agincourt
Agincourt (azincourt), A Village Of Northern France In The Department Of Pas De Calais, 14m. N.w. Of St. Pol By Road, Famous On Account Of The Victory, On Oct. 25, 1415, Of Henry V. Of England Over The French. The Battle Was Fought In The Defile Formed By The Wood ...

Agio
Agio, A Term Used In Commerce In Three Connections. (a) The Variations From Fixed Pars Or Rates Of Exchange In The Currencies Of Different Countries. For Example, In Most Of The Gold Standard Countries, The Standard Coin Is Kept Up To A Uniform Point Of Fineness, And So Bears A ...

Agira
Agira (formerly San Filippo D'areiro), Town In The Province Of Enna, Sicily, With A Railway Station 41 M. To The South; 35 M. W. Of Catania. Pop. 0901) 17,738; (193i) 14,301 (town), 15,172 (commune) . Agyrion, An Ancient Sicel City, Was Ruled By Tyrants, One Of Whom, Agyris, Was Contemporary ...

Agis
Agis, The Name Of Four Spartan Kings : (t ) Son Of Eurysthenes, Founder Of The Royal House Of The Agiadae (pausanias Iii. 2. I ). His Genealogy Was Traced Back To Heracles (herodotus Vii. 204), And He Belongs Rather To Mythology Than To History. Tradition Ascribed To Him The ...

Agistment
Agistment. To "agist" Is, In Law, To Take Cattle To Graze, For A Remuneration. The Word Is Derived Through O. Fr. From Lat. Iacere, To Lie. "agistment," In The First Instance, Referred More Particularly To The Proceeds Of Pasturage In The King's Forests, But Now Means Either (a) The Contract ...

Agitato
Agitato (ital.), A Musical Term Implying That The Compo Sition Or Passage So Marked Is To Be Played In A Restless, Agitated Manner, A Rapid Tempo Being Usually Indicated At The Same Time By The Accompanying Time-direction, E.g., Presto Agitato. ...

Agitators Or Adjutators
Agitators Or Adjutators, The Name Given To Representa Tives Elected In 1647 By The Different Regiments Of The English Parliamentary Army. Early In 1647 The Long Parliament Wished Either To Disband Many Of The Regiments Or To Send Them To Ireland. The Soldiers, Whose Pay Was Largely In Arrear, Refused ...

Agnates
Agnates, In Roman Law, Persons Related Through Males Only, As Opposed To Cognates. Agnation Was Founded On The Idea Of The Family Held Together By The Patria Potestas; Cognatio In Volves Simply The Modern Idea Of Kindred. ...

Agnes Of Meran
Agnes Of Meran (d. 1201), Queen Of France, Was The Daughter Of Bertold Iv., Duke Of Meran In Tirol. She Is Called Marie By Some Of The Chroniclers. In June 1196 She Married Philip Ii., King Of France, Who Had Repudiated Ingeborg Of Den Mark In 1193. The Pope Espoused ...

Agni
Agni, The Fire God Of The Hindus, Second Only To Indra In The Vedic Mythology Of India. He Is Invoked As "priest Of Sacri Fice" In The First Verse Of The Rig-veda, And, As Messenger, Be Tween Gods And Men, Sacrifices To Him Are Upborne To The Deities. On Earth ...

Agni_2
Agni, Inhabitants Of The Cold Coast And The French Ivory Coast Between The Fanti Territory And The Comoe River, South Of The Abron (q.v.) People. They Are Of The Same Origin And Have The Same Physical, Social And Linguistic Characteristics As The Baule. ...

Agnoetae
Agnoetae, A Minority Of Adherents To The Monophysite Movement Who (contrary To The General Tendency Of That F Orm Of Christology) Maintained That Christ As Man Was Ignorant Of Many Things (mark Xiii. 32; Luke Ii. 25) (gr. Asyvoho, "be Igno Rant Of"). The Doctrine Was Condemned By Gregory The ...

Agnoiology
Agnoiology (the Theory Of Ignorance). The Term Was Used By J. F. Ferrier (institutes Of Metaphysics, 1854) As A Set Off To Epistemology (theory Of Knowledge). The Theory Was In Tended To Counter The Sceptical Contention That Absolute Being May Be Beyond Human Knowledge, That The Human Mind May Be ...

Agnosticism
Agnosticism. Whereas Scepticism, As A Technical Term In Philosophy, Denotes Varying Degrees Of Doubt As To Whether Some Or All Of The Psychological Processes, Purporting To Yield Knowledge, Really Do So, Agnosticism Rather Asserts That, Of Certain Kinds Of Objects Or Facts, We Possess Assured Knowledge, While As To Certain ...

Agnus Dei
Agnus Dei, The Figure Of A Lamb Bearing A Cross, Symboliz Ing The Saviour As The "lamb Of God." The Name Is Especially Given In The Roman Church To Waxen Discs Impressed With This _ Figure And Blessed By The Pope. When First Mentioned (c. 82o) They Were Made Of ...

Agobard
Agobard (c. 779-840), Carolingian Prelate And Reformer, Became Coadjutor To Leidrad, Archbishop Of Lyons, In 813, And On The Death Of The Latter Succeeded Him In The See (816). De Posed In 835 By The Council Of Thionville, He Made His Peace With The Emperor And Was Reinstated In 837. ...

Agonalia
Agonalia, In Ancient Rome, Festivals Celebrated On Jan. 9, Mar. 17, May 21 And Dec. I1 In Each Year In Honour Of Various Divinities (ovid, Fasti, I., 2) . The Word Is Derived Either From Agonia, "a Victim," Or From Agonium, "a Festival," But There Is No Certainty As To ...

Agonothetes
Agonothetes, In Ancient Greece, The President Or Super Intendent Of The Sacred Games. At First The Person Who Instituted The Games And Defrayed The Expenses Was The Agonothetes. But In The Public Games, Such As The Olympic And Pythian, These Super Intendents Represented Different States, Or Were Chosen From The ...

Agony Column
Agony Column, A Term Often Applied To The Column In Newspapers Devoted To Personal Advertisements, Such As Announce Ments Of Losses Or Bequests. At As Early A Date As 1800 The "agony Column" Was A Medium Also For Matrimonial Advertisements. It Is Sometimes Known As The Personal Column. See Alice ...

Agora
Agora, Originally An Assembly Of The People Of One Of The Greek City States, Called By The King Or Other Authority To Receive A Decree Or To Discuss A Policy. At An Early Period The Word Was Used To Describe The Places Where These Meetings Were Held And In Historic ...

Agoracritus
Agoracritus, A Parian And Athenian Sculptor Of The Age Of Pheidias, And Said To Have Been His F Avourite Pupil. His Most Noted Work Was The Statue At Rhamnus Of Nemesis, By Some Attributed To Pheidias Himself. Of This Statue Part Of The Head Is In The British Museum; Some ...

Agoranomi
Agoranomi. Magistrates In Greece, Whose Duties Were Similar To Those Of The Aediles Of Rome. In Athens There Were Ten, Five Of Whom Took Charge Of The City And Five Of The Peiraeus. They Maintained Order In The Markets, Tested Weights And Measures, Collected The Harbour Dues, And Enforced The ...

Agordat
Agordat, A Town Of Eritrea, North-east Africa, On The Route Between Massawa And Kassala. It Is Connected By A Railway, 194 Miles Long, With Massawa, Via Asmara. At Agordat (dec. 21, 1893) Italians Under Colonel Arimondi Defeated The Followers Of The Khalif A. (see Eritrea And Sudan ; History.) ...

Agostino
Agostino And Agnolo (or Angelo) Da Siena, Italian Architects And Sculptors In The First Half Of The 14th Century. Della Valle And Other Commentators Deny That They Were Brothers. They Certainly Studied Together Under Giovanni Pisano, And In 1317 Were Jointly Appointed Architects Of Their Native Town, For Which They ...

Agouti Or Aguti
Agouti Or Aguti (a-goo-te), Rodent (dasyprocta Aguti), Of The Size Of A Rabbit, Common To Trinidad And Guiana, And Classed In The Family Caviidae. Agoutis Are Slender-limbed Animals, With Five Front And Three Hind Toes (the First Front Toe Very Mi Nute), And Short Tails. The Hair Is Coarse And ...

Agra Canal
Agra Canal, Primarily An Irrigation Project Opened In 1874, But Widely Used For Navigation. It Is Supplied With Water From The Jumna River And Beginning At Okla, 1 O M. Below Delhi It Passes Through The Districts Of Delhi, Gurgaon, Muttra And Agra As Well As The Bharatpur State. It ...

Agra
Agra, The Headquarters Of A District And Division In The United Provinces, Was For Long Periods The Capital City Of India. It Stands On The Jumna Which, Though Now At This Point A Mere Trickle In The Dry Season, Was Formerly One Of The Chief Arteries Of Commerce With The ...

Agrapha
Agrapha, The Name Given To Certain Utterances Ascribed, With Some Degree Of Certainty, To Jesus, Which Have Been Pre Served In Documents Other Than The Gospels, E.g., Acts Xx. 3 5 ; I Tim. V. 18 ; 1 Cor. Vii. 10-12, And The Logia (q.v.) Discovered In 1897 And 1903 ...

Agrarian Laws
Agrarian Laws, Law Dealing With The Disposal Of The Public Land (ager Publicus) Of Ancient Rome. No Gratuitous Disposition Of State Property Could Be Made Without The Con Sent Of The People. Hence Many Of The Ordinances Affecting The Public Land Were Laws (leges) In The Strictest Sense Of That ...

Agrements
Agrements (ital. Abbellimenti; Ger. Manieren; Eng. Ornaments), In Music, Are Supplementary Notes, Or Embellishments, Introduced For The Purpose Of Enriching, Elaborating Or Otherwise Altering The Effect Of The Phrase Or Melody To Which They Are Applied. As Employed In Connection With The Older Types Of Music, Alike Vocal And Instrumental, ...

Agri Decumates
Agri Decumates, "tithe Lands" Given By The Romans To Gallic Settlers, And Also To Roman Veterans On The Payment Of A Rent Of A Tenth (decuma) Of The Produce, On The East Of The Rhine. (see Limes Germanicus.) ...

Agrianes
Agrianes, A Warlike Tribe Anciently Inhabiting Upper Ma Cedonia, And Part Of What Is Now South-western Bulgaria. They Provided Some Of The Most Active And Dangerous Of The Troops Of Alexander's Army, Distinguishing Themselves At The Granicus, Issus And On The Banks Of The Jhelum. ...

Agricultural Articles
Agricultural Articles. Agriculture Is Treated In These Pages Under Various Headings, An Enumeration Of Which Will Help The Reader To Consult Any Part Of The Subject. For A General Account Of Agriculture, Reference Should Be Made In The First Place To The Article Agriculture : A General Sur Vey, And ...

Agricultural Co Operation Theunited
Agricultural Co-operation - The United States Farmers' Large-scale Co-operation.—in The Spacious Lands Of The World More Newly Settled, We Meet With Different Economic And Social Conditions. Great Cities Are Fewer And Wider Apart. Farmlands Extend Over Broad Regions In Which Masses Of Cultiva Tors Possess A Common Interest In Production ...

Agricultural Co Operation
Agricultural Co-operation. The Develop Ment Of Agricultural Co-operation Has Taken Widely Different Courses In Various Countries According To Their Specific Needs. The Main Difference To Be Observed Is Between Countries Which Are Primarily Producers Of Agricultural Commodities For Export, And Those Which Produce Mainly For Home Consumption. In The Former, ...

Agricultural Co Operation_2
Agricultural Co-operation Costs Of Production On Arable Land. The Fundamental Dispropor Tion Is Seen—that While In October, 1927, The Price Of Farming Products Only Stands At 4o% Above The Pre-war Index, Commod Ities Are 67% Higher And Labour, The Largest Item Of The Farmer's Expenditure, Is 76% Higher. The Low ...

Agricultural Credit Theunited
Agricultural Credit - The United States The Past Hundred Years Have Seen A Continuously Increasing Need In The United States For Credit To Finance Farm Operations, In Cluding The Purchase And Improvement Of Farm Land And The Pro Duction And Marketing Of Crops And Livestock. The Increased Cost Of Farm ...

Agricultural Credit
Agricultural Credit. The Credit Needed In Agri Culture Is Of Two Kinds. The First Is Long Term Credit, Required To Facilitate Land Purchase Or The Execution Of Improvements; The Second Is Short Term Or Personal Credit, Required To Finance The Growing, Harvesting Or Marketing Of Crops, Etc. Systems Of Agri ...

Agricultural Economics
Agricultural Economics. From The Earliest Times The Art Of Husbandry Has Been Not Only The Preoccupation Of Those Who Practise It, But Also The Subject Of Innumerable Trea Tises Explaining Its Principles And Suggesting Methods For Its Im Provement. Within The Last Century The Application Of The Results Of Scientific ...

Agricultural Education In The
Agricultural Education In The United States Agricultural Education In The United States Finds Its Beginnings In The Striving Of Individual Land-owners Toward Higher Levels Of Production. This Created Interest And Discussion In Agricultural Communities, Induced The Making Of Tests, Trials And Observations, Pointed To The Advantages Of Concerted Action, And ...

Agricultural Education
Agricultural Education. Though Agriculture Is The Oldest And Greatest Of Industries, Agricultural Education In Any Organized Form Is Among The Recent Activities Of Modern States. In Great Britain, Or At Least In England And Wales, It May Be Said To Go Back Only To 189o. It Would Be Untrue, However, ...

Agricultural Engineering
Agricultural Engineering Is That Specialized Branch Of Engineering Which Deals With Agriculture ; It Seeks Scien Tifically To Direct The Forces And Facts Of Nature To The Advantage Of The Farmer. The Distinction Between Agricultural And The Other Branches Of Engineering May Be Illustrated By Examples—irrigation And Drain Age, For ...

Agricultural Gangs
Agricultural Gangs, Groups Of Women, Girls And Boys Organized By An Independent Gang-master, Under Whose Supervision They Execute Agricultural Piece-work For Farmers In Certain Parts Of England. The Evils Of This System Were So Great As To Lead To The Passing Of The Agricultural Gangs Act 1867, Forbidding The Employment ...

Agricultural Insurance
Agricultural Insurance. The Risks Against Which Farmers Have To Provide Are Those Incurred In Growing, Harvesting And Storing Crops; Animal Diseases; Condemnation Of Carcases In Slaughter-houses; And Those Risks Commonly Covered By Ordinary Life, Accident And Property Insurance. The Nature Of The Risks To Which Farming Is Exposed Vary Between ...

Agricultural Labourer
Agricultural Labourer. An Agricultural La Bourer Is A Person, Male Or Female, Employed By An Occupier Of Agricultural Land. In America And Some Other Countries The Term "hired Man" Is Generally Used. In Scotland The Term "farm-serv Ant" Is Equivalent To That Of "agricultural Labourer" In England Where The Alternative ...

Agricultural Machinery And United
Agricultural Machinery And - United States As Industry Has Developed And Has Built Great Cities, It Has Called Man-labour From The Country. This Labour Has Been Replaced By Agricultural Machinery And Implements. The Extent To Which This Has Happened In The United States Is Indicated In Fig. I. Al Though ...