ALAGOAS, a maritime state of Brazil, bounded north and west by the State of Pernambuco, south and west by the State of Sergipe, and east by the Atlantic. It has an area of 22,584 square miles. A dry, semi-barren plateau, fit for grazing only, extends across the western part of the State, breaking down into long fer tile valleys and wooded ridges towards the coast, giving the country a mountainous character. The coastal plain is filled with lakes (lagoas), in some cases formed by the blocking up of river outlets by beach sands. The valleys and slopes are highly fertile and pro duce sugar, cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, rice, mandioca and fruits. Hides and skins, mangabeira rubber, cabinet woods, castor beans and rum are also exported. Cattle-raising was formerly a prominent industry, but it has greatly declined. Manufactures have been developed to a limited extent only, though protective tariff laws have been adopted for their encouragement. The climate is hot and humid, and fevers are prevalent in the hot season. The capital, Maceio, is the chief commercial city of the State, and its port (Jaragua) has a large foreign and coastwise trade. The prin cipal towns are Alagoas, formerly the capital, picturesquely sit uated on Lake Manguaba, l5m. south-west of Maceio, and Penedo, a small port on the lower Sao Francisco, 26m. above the river's mouth. Before 1817 Alagoas formed part of the capitania of Per nambuco, but in that year the district was rewarded with a separate government for refusing to join a revolution, and in 1823 became a province of the empire. The advent of the republic in 1889 changed the province into a State. Pop. (193o) c. 1,189,214.