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Airship
Airship, A Power-driven Aircraft Which Is Sustained In The Air Through The Agency Of The Lift Of A Buoyant Gas Contained In An Outer Envelope. The First Known Flight, However, Made By A Lighter-than-air Balloon Was With One Filled, Not With Gas, But With Heated Air. Two French Brothers, J. ...

Airway
Airway, An Artery Of A Mine, Along Which The Ventilation Is Conducted. The Districts Branching From The Fresh Air "intakes" Are Ventilated By "splits" Taken Off The Main Airway. The Cur Rent Conducted Along The Branch Or District Intakes, Round The "working Face," Returns By The District "return Airway," Enters ...

Aisle
Aisle, In Architecture, A Term Primarily Meaning The Wing Of A House, But More Commonly Used To Indicate Any Long, Narrow Space Separated From The Remainder Of The Building By A Line Of Piers, Columns Or Arches. It Is Specially Used To Designate The Lateral Portions Of A Church Or ...

Aisne
Aisne, Department, Northern France, West Of Ardennes (q.v.). Area 2,866sq.m. Pop. (1931) 489,368. It Touches The Western End Of The Ardennes (93oft.) In The North-east, But Its Surface Is All Of Secondary Or Tertiary Rocks. The Outlying Masses Of The Latter, Often With Steep Flanks, Form Important Sites Such As ...

Aisse
Aisse (a Corruption Of Haidee), Mademoiselle (c. 1733), French Letter-writer, Was The Daughter Of A Circassian Chief, And Was Born About 1694. Her Father's Palace Was Pillaged By The Turks, And As A Child Of Four Years Old She Was Sold To The Comte De Ferriol, The French Ambassador At ...

Aivali
Aivali, A Town On The West Coast Of Asia Minor (vilayet Of Karasi), Opposite The Island Of Mitylene. Pop. (1927), It Stands Near The Site Of The Aeolian Heracpea, On Rising Ground At The End Of A Bay Which Is Separated From The Gulf Of Adramyt Tium, And Protected From ...

Aix
Aix, City Of South-east France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Bouches-du-rhone, 18m. N. Of Marseille. Pop. 25,108. It Is Situated In A Plain Overlooking The Arc, About A Mile From The Right Bank Of The River. Aix (aquae Sextiae) Was Founded In 123 B.c., By The Roman ...

Ajaccio
Ajaccio, Capital Of Corsica, On The West Coast Of The Island. Pop. (1931) 21,5o5. Ajaccio Occupies A Sheltered Position At T,he Foot Of Wooded Hills On The North Shore Of The Gulf Of Ajaccio. The Harbour, To The East, Is Protected On The South By A Peninsula Which Carries The ...

Ajaigarh
Ajaigarh, An Indian State In Bundelkhand, Under The Cen Tral India Agency. It Has An Area Of 8o2sq.m., And A Population In 1931 Of 85,895. The Chief, Who Is A Bundela Rajput, Bears The Title Of Sawai Maharaja And Has A Salute Of Eleven Guns. He Resides At The Town ...

Ajanta
Ajanta (more Properly Ajuntha.), A Village In The Dominions Of The Nizam Of Hyderabad In India, Celebrated For Its Cave Hermi Tages And Halls, In A Wooded And Rugged Ravine About 31m. From The Village. The Ravine Is That Of The River Wagura Which Falls From The East Over A ...

Ajax I
Ajax (i.) The Greater Gr. Mas, Son Of Telamon, King Of Salamis. In Homer's Iliad He Is Described As Of Great Stature And Colossal Frame, Second Only To Achilles In Strength And Bravery. He Engaged Hector In Single Combat And, With The Aid Of Athene, Rescued The Body Of Achilles ...

Ajmere Or Ajmer
Ajmere Or Ajmer, A City Of British India In Rajputana, Which Gives Its Name To A District And Also To A Petty Province Called Ajmere-merwara. It Is Situated On The Lower Slopes Of Taragarh Hill, In The Aravalli Mountains. "to The North Of The City Is A Large Artificial Lake ...

Ajodhya
Ajodhya, An Ancient City Of India, Situated On The Right Bank Of The Gogra, In The Fyzabad District Of The United Prov Inces. In Remote Antiquity Ajodhya Was One Of The Largest And Most Magnificent Of Indian Cities. It Is Said To Have Covered An Area Of 96 Sq.m., And ...

Aka Hills
Aka Hills, A Tract Of Country On The North-east Frontier Of India, Occupied By An Independent Tribe Called The Akas. It Lies North Of The Darrang District Of Eastern Bengal And Assam, And Is Bounded On The East By The Dafla Hills And On The West By Inde Pendent Bhutia ...

Akalkot
Akalkot, A Native State Of India, In The Deccan Division Of Bombay, Ranking As One Of The Satara Jagirs, In The Sholapur Agency. It Forms Part Of The Deccan Table-land, And Has A Cool Cli Mate. Area 498sq.m. ; Pop. (1931) 92,605, A Decrease Of 9% In The Decade, Balanced ...

Akan
Akan, A Gold Coast Tribe Inhabiting The Koforidua District Of The Accra Hinterland, Neighbours Of The Fanti And Ashanti, With Whom They Probably Share A Common Origin, Their Language Being Closely Related To These Two Idioms, And Their Organization Being The Same. See Sarbah, Fanti Customary Law (19o4)• ...

Akcha
Akcha, A Town And Khanate Of Afghan Turkistan, 42m. W. Of Balkh On The Road To Andkhui. It Is Protected By A Mud Wall And A Citadel. Estimated Population 8,000, Chiefly Uzbegs. The Khanate Is Small, But Well Watered And Populous. The Rivers Which Rise In The Southern Mountains No ...

Akee
Akee, The West African Name Of A Small Tree (blighia Sapida) Of The Soapberry Family (sapindaceae), Native To Guinea, And Also Of Its Important Food Fruit. Introduced In 1778 Into Jamaica, Which Now Exports The Fruit, Its Cultivation Has Spread Throughout Most Of Tropical America. The Shrub-like, Stiff-branched Tree, Sometimes ...

Aken
Aken, A Town Of Germany On The Elbe In The South-east Of The District Of Magdeburg, Prussian Saxony. Pop. (1933) 10,132. Chemicals And Oils Are Manufactured. There Is Considerable Transit Trade On The Elbe, And Petrol Storage. ...

Akhaltsikh
Akhaltsikh, A Town In The Georgian S.s.r. It Is Situated In 41 ° 4o' N. And 4 2 ° 55' E. At An Altitude Of 3,3 7 5 F T. On A Tribu Tary Of The Kura River. The New Town Is On The Right Bank, The Old On The ...

Akhenaton
Akhenaton: See Ikhnaton. (anc. Thyateira, The "town Of Thya"), A Town Situated In A Fertile Plain On The Gurdiik Chai (lycus), In The Sarnkhan Vilayet, 58m. N.e. Of Smyrna. Pop. Thyateira Was An Ancient Town Re-peopled With Macedonians By Seleucus About 290 B.c. It Became An Important Station On The ...

Akhmim
Akhmim, A Town Of Upper Egypt, On The Right Bank Of The Nile, 67m. By River South Of Asyut, And 4m. Above Suhag, On The Opposite Side Of The River. It Has Several Mosques And Two Coptic Churches, Maintains A Weekly Market, And Manufactures Cotton Goods, Notably The Blue Shirts ...

Akhtal
Akhtal (ahth-tahl') (ghiyath Ibn Harith) (c. 640 710), Arabian Poet Of The Omayyad Period, Belonged To The Tribe Of Taghlib In Mesopotamia, And Was, Like His Fellow Tribesmen, A Christian, Enjoying The Freedom Of His Religion, While Not Tak Ing Its Duty Very Seriously. Akhtal, Jarir And Ferazdaq Form A ...

Akhtyrka
Akhtyrka, A Town In The Ukrainian S.s.r. It Is Situated In 5o° 20' N. And 34° 52' E. Near The Vorskla River, On The Railway From Kiev To Kharkov. Its Beautiful Cathedral, Built In 1753, Was Designed By Rastrelli. It Is A Trade Centre For Fruit, Sugar Beet, Corn, Cattle ...

Akka Tikki Tikki
Akka (tikki-tikki), A Race Of African Pygmies First Seen By The Traveller G. A. Schweinfurth In 187o, In The Mangbettu Country, North-west Of Albert Nyanza. The Home Of The Akka Is The Dense Forest Zone Of The Aruwimi District Of The Congo State. They Form A Branch Of The Primitive ...

Akkad
Akkad (the Country, For The Town Sometimes Called Akkad; See Under Agade), Northern Babylonia. The Alluvial Part Of Meso Potamia Was Known In Ancient Times As Sumer And Akkad. Akkad Was The Narrow Strip Of Land Where The Rivers Approached One An Other Most Closely, And Included The Cities Of ...

Akola
Akola, A Town And District Of India, In Berar, Otherwise Known As The Hyderabad Assigned Districts. The Town Is On The Murna Tributary Of The Purna River, Akola Proper Being On The West Bank, And Tajnapeth, Containing The Government Buildings And European Residences, On The East Bank. It Had A ...

Akron
Akron, A City Of Ohio, U.s.a., 35m. S.-by-e. Of Cleveland, On The Little Cuyahoga River ; The County Seat Of Summit County. It Is About I,000ft. Above Sea-level, On One Of The Highest Spots In The State, Whence Its Greek Name. The Surrounding Country Is Hilly And There Are 20 ...

Akshak
Akshak, A City In Northern Sumer In Lat. 34° N., Long. 44° E. There Was A Prehistoric Sumerian City On This Site Which Lay On The Tigris At The Mouth Of The River Adhem (physcus). It Was The Most Northerly Of The Sumerian Cities And Appears In The Dynasty Lists ...

Aksum
Aksum (previously Axum), An Ancient City In Tigre, Abys Sinia, 14° 8' N., 38° 31' E., Altitude 7,226ft., 12m. W. By S. Of Aduwa. The Old Abyssinian Book Of Aksum Contains The Native Legend Of Its Foundation Many Thousands Of Years Ago; The First Authoritative Mention Of It, However, Is ...

Aktubinsk
Aktubinsk, Formerly Part Of The Turgai Region, Now A Province In The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. Area 45 7,4 7 9sq.km. The Boundaries Are, On The North, Orenburg And Kustanai; West, Adaev And Uralsk ; South, Adaev, The Aral Sea And Syr-daria; East, Akmolinsk. It Is Divided For Administrative Purposes ...

Akyab
Akyab, A Municipality And District In The Arakan Division Of Burma At The Confluence Of The Large Rivers Myu, Kaladan And Lemro. After The Cession Of Arakan To The British By The Treaty Of Yandaboo In 1826 The Old Capital Of Myohaung Was Abandoned As The Seat Of Government, And ...

Ala Tau
Ala-tau (variegated Mountains) Is The Name Given To The Following Ranges In Asiatic Russia : Terskei, (2) Kunghei And (3) Trans-ili, All Three Linking The Tian Shan And The Alexander Range. (i) Lies South, And (2) And (3) North Of And Parallel To Lake Issyk-kul. Average Height 6,000-7,000ft. (mt. Talgar ...

Ala
Ala, One Of The Side Recesses Which Almost Universally Opened Off The Atrium (q.v.) Of A Roman House. There Were Usually Two Alae, One On Each Side, Placed Near The Corners Furthest From The Entrance, And Like The Tablinune Or Official Reception Hall, Their Entire Width Was Open To The ...

Alabama Arbitration
Alabama Arbitration. The Facts Of This Case Are As Follows: In 1861 The Southern States Of North America Seceded And Set Up A Separate Government. Hostilities Began With The Capture Of Fort Sumter By The Confederates On April 13, 1861. On The 19th President Lincoln Declared A Blockade Of The ...

Alabama City
Alabama City, A City Of Etowah County, Alabama, U.s.a., 6om. N.e. Of Birmingham; 21m. N.w. Of Gadsden. It Is Served By The Southern, The Louisville And Nashville, And The Nashville, Chattanooga And St. Louis Railways. The Population Was 5,432 Ih 192o, And Was 8,544 In 1930 By The Federal Census. ...

Alabama History
Alabama - History The First Europeans To Enter The Limits Of The Present State Of Alabama Were Spaniards, Who Claimed This Region As A Part Of Florida. The First Fully Authenticated Visit Was That Of Hernando De Soto, Who Journeyed Along The Coosa, Alabama, And Tombig Bee Rivers In 1539-40. ...

Alabama River
Alabama River, A River Of Alabama, U.s.a., Formed By The Tallapoosa And Coosa Rivers, Which Unite About 6m. Above Montgomery. It Flows West As Far As Selma, Then South-west Until, About 45m. F Rom Mobile, It Unites With The Tombigbee To Form The Mobile And Tensas Rivers, Which Discharge Into ...

Alabama
Alabama, Called The "cotton State" Because Of Its Chief Agricultural Product, A Southern State Of The U.s.a., Is Situated Between 84° 51' And 31' W. And About 3o° 13' And 35° N., And Is Bounded N. By Tennessee, E. By Georgia, S. By Florida And The Gulf Of Mexico, And ...

Alabaster
Alabaster, A Name Applied To Two Different Mineral Sub Stances. The Alabaster Of The Ancients Is Mostly A Granular Aggregate Of Crystals Of Calcium Carbonate—i.e., It Is Really A Marble (q.v.). The Alabaster Of Modern Times Is A Granular Form Of The Mineral Gypsum (q.v.). It Is Usually White, Pink ...

Alabastros Or Alabastos
Alabastros Or Alabastos, A Greek Vase, Shaped Like An Urn. The Most Common Type Of The Alabastros Stands On A Base That Balances, In Appearance, Its Rather Wide Mouth. (see Potteries And Porcelains : Greek Pottery.) ...

Alacaluf
Alacaluf, An Indian Tribe, Almost Extinct, Living In The West Patagonian Channels, Chiefly In The Vicinity Of Racion Sound. Formerly They Were Much More Numerous, And Their Canoes Might Be Seen Southward From The Gulf Of Penas To Brecknock Peninsula In Tierra Del Fuego, Including The Straits Of Magellan. Their ...

Alagoas
Alagoas, A Maritime State Of Brazil, Bounded North And West By The State Of Pernambuco, South And West By The State Of Sergipe, And East By The Atlantic. It Has An Area Of 22,584 Square Miles. A Dry, Semi-barren Plateau, Fit For Grazing Only, Extends Across The Western Part Of ...

Alain De Lille
Alain De Lille (alanus De Insulis) (c. 1128-1202), French Theologian And Latinist, Lived At Montpellier, And Finally Retired To The Abbey Of Citeaux, Where He Remained Until His Death. His Varied Learning Won For Him The Title Of Doctor Uni Versalis. He Was Famed In His Day For Two Of ...

Alajuela
Alajuela, One Of The Four Plateau Cities Containing Most Of The Inhabitants Of Costa Rica, Central America; The Population In 1934 Was 9,782. Alajuela Is Situated 14m. W. Of San Jose On A Branch Line Of The Costa Rica Railway And Is Also Accessible By Highway. It Lies On The ...

Alamanni Or Allemanni
Alamanni Or Allemanni, A German People First Mentioned By Dio Cassius. They Dwelt In The Basin Of The Maine, To The South Of The Chatti (q.v.). They Were A Conglomeration Of Various Tribes. The Hermunduri Formed The Preponderating Element, And There Were Among The Others The Iuthungi, Bucin Obantes And ...

Alambagh
Alambagh, The Name Of A Large Park Or Walled Enclosure, Containing The Ruins Of A Country House Of The Old Oudh Court, As Well As A Beautiful Garden, Situated About 4m. From Lucknow, Near The Cawnpore Road, In The United Provinces Of India. It Was Converted Into A Fort By ...

Alameda
Alameda, A Residential City Of Alameda County, Califor Nia, U.s.a., On An Artificial Island On The Continental Side Of San Francisco Bay, Opposite To And About 6m. From San Francisco, And Directly South Of Oakland, From Which It Is Separated By An Estuary Spanned By Three Bridges. South Of The ...

Aland Islands
Aland Islands, An Archipelago At The Entrance To The Gulf Of Bothnia, About 25m. From The Coast Of Sweden, And 15m. From That Of Finland. Area 5 51 Sq.m., With A Population Of 2 7,3 75 In 193o. The Group Which Forms The Finnish Department Of Aland (ahvenanmaa), Consists Of ...

Alani
Alani, Eastern Division Of The Sarmatians, Half-caste Scyths, A Wandering People Resembling Mongols. First Met With North Of The Caspian, Then (c. 1st Century A.d.) Spreading Into The Steppes Of Russia, The Alani Made Incursions Into Both The Danubian And The Caucasian Provinces Of The Roman Empire. By The Huns ...

Alanine
Alanine, A Alanine, Is A Constituent, And Decomposition Product, Of Many Proteins, Soluble In Water Or Alcohol, Crystalliz Ing In Colourless, Sharp Rhombic Prisms, And Having Marked Physiological Action. It Has The Formula Of A Amino-proprionic Acid, And Exists In The D-, 1- And R-isomeric Forms (see Isomerism). ...

Alansi
Alansi, A Town In The Inter-andine Province Of Chimbo Razo, Ecuador, About 2° 15' S. And 78° 5o' W. It Is About 75m. Inland On The Guayaguil And Quito Railway. The Town Is Situated In The Plain Of Alansi And On The River Of The Same Name. Its Chief Resources ...

Alapaevsk
Alapaevsk, A Town In Uralsk Area Of Russian S.f.s.r. Its Population Was 12,151 (1926). Lat. 5 7 ° 49' N. Long., 61 ° 4o' E. It Was Known For Its Copper As Long Ago As 1704, And Is In The Copper And Iron Mining Area. Since It Was Linked By ...

Alaric Ii
Alaric Ii. (d. 507), Eighth King Of The Goths In Spain, Suc Ceeded His Father Euric, Or Evaric, On Dec. 28, 484. His Dominions Not Only Included The Whole Of Spain Except Its North-western Corner, But Also Aquitaine And The Greater Part Of Provence. In Religion Alaric Was An Arian, ...

Alaric
Alaric ( C. 370-41o), Gothic Conqueror, The First Teutonic Leader Who Stood As A Conqueror In The City Of Rome, Was Probably Born About 37o On An Island Named Peuce (the Fir) At The Mouth Of The Danube. He Was Of Noble Descent, His Father Being A Scion Of The ...

Alaska
Alaska, Formerly Called Russian America, Is A Territory Of The United States Of America, Occupying The Extreme North-west Ern Part Of North America And Including The Adjacent Islands. The Name Is A Corruption Of A Native Word Possibly Meaning "mainland" Or "peninsula." The Territory Of Alaska Comprises, First, All That ...

Alastor
Alastor, In Early Greek Mythology, The Spirit Of Revenge, That Prompts The Members Of A Family To Commit Fresh Crimes To Obtain Satisfaction. Further Acts Of Vengeance Trans Mit The Curse From Generation To Generation. The Word Is Also Used For A Man's Evil Genius Which Drives Him To Sin; ...

Alatyr
Alatyr, A Town In Chuvash, A.s.s.r. Pop. (1926) 22,374. It Is Situated In Latitude 54° 53' N. And Longitude 46° 3o' E., At The Junction Of The Alatyr And Sura Rivers. It Has A Grain Elevator And An Extensive Grain Trade, Also Flour Mills And Starch Factories. ...

Alaunus Alauna
Alauna, Alaunus, The Celtic Names Of Two Rivers, Etc., In Roman Britain. Hence The Modern Allan Water, River Alyn, Etc. Alava, Don Miguel Ricardo De Spanish General And Statesman, Was A Member Of The Assembly At Bayonne In I8o8 Which Accepted Joseph Bonaparte As King Of Spain, But Shortly Afterwards ...

Alava
Alava, One Of The Basque Provinces Of Northern Spain. Pop. (193o) Io4,176; Area, 1,176sq.m.; Density Per Sq.m., 88.6. The Countship Of Trevino (i9osq.m.) In S. Alava Belongs To The Province Of Burgos. Alava (basque Araiiar, Country Set Among Mountains) Is In The West And North-west Of A District Of Mountain ...

Alb
Alb, A Liturgical Vestment Of The Catholic Church. It Is A Sack-like Tunic Of White Linen (lat. Alba, White) With Narrow Sleeves, And A Hole For The Head To Pass Through, And When Se Cured Round The Waist By The Girdle (cingulum) Just Clears The Ground. Albs Were Originally Plain, ...

Alba Fucens
Alba Fucens (mod. Albe), An Ancient Italian Town On A Lofty Site (3,347ft.) T.) At The Foot Of Monte Velino, 4m. N. Of Avezzano. Originally A Town Of The Aequi, On The Frontier Of The Marsi, It Was Occupied By A Roman Colony And Its Fortifica Tions (c. 30o B.c.) ...

Alba Longa
Alba Longa, An Ancient City In Latium, On The Western Edge Of The Albanus Lacus, About 12m. S.e. Of Rome. Ascanius Is The Traditional Founder And Said To Be The Oldest Of Latin Cities, Destroyed By Its Daughter City Of Rome, Under Tullus Hostilius, To Which Passed The Hegemony Of ...

Alba
Alba, Town And Episcopal See, Province Of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy, 42m. S.e. Of Turin By Rail. Pop. (1931) 12,26o (town), 18,352 (commune). The Fine Cathedral, With Gothic Façade, Was Rebuilt In 1486. Alba Pompeia Was Probably Founded By Pompeius Strabo (consul 89 B.c.) When He Constructed The Road From Aquae ...

Albacete
Albacete, Inland Province, South-east Spain, Formed In 1833 Out Of The Northern Half Of Murcia. Pop. (1930), 332,619; Area, 5,471sq.m.; Density Per Sq.m. 60.8. A Somewhat Featureless Province; Except For The Sierra De Alcaraz In The West, Albacete Continues South-east Of The Monotonous Arid Steppe Land Of La Mancha. Lying ...

Albacete_2
Albacete, Capital Of A Spanish Province Is In A Fertile Plain Where The Balazote Unites With The Canal Of Maria Cristina, Which Flows Into The Jucar, 16m. To The North. Pop. (193o) 41,885. Albacete Comprises The Picturesque Old Upper And Lower Town Mostly Erected After The City Became A Provincial ...

Albacore
Albacore, A Large West Indian Fish Allied To The Tunny (q.v.). The Name Is Also Applied To An Allied Species In The Pacific. ...

Albania Mediaeval Andmodern
Albania - Mediaeval And Modern History After The Division Of The Roman Empire, Northern And Southern Albania Became The Byzantine Provinces Of Dyrrachium And Niko Polis. Overrun By The Goths In The 4th And 5th Centuries, They Were Reconquered By Justinian In 535. In 64o Northern Albania Was Invaded By ...

Albania Social Andeconomic
Albania - Social And Economic Conditions According To Whether They Live North Or South Of The River Shkumbi, The Albanians Are Called Ghegs And Tosks, The Latter Having Attained A More Advanced State Of Civilization. The Social Organization Of Albania, With Its Clans And Tribes, Recalls That Of Feudal Europe. ...

Albania
Albania, A Former Kingdom, Under Italian Domination Since 1939. Lying On The West Coast Of The Balkan Peninsula, It Has An Area Of 27,538 Square Kilometres And A Pop. (193o) Of 1,003,124, Formed Out Of The Earlier Turkish Provinces Of Scutari And Yan Nina, With Parts Of The Vilayets Of ...

Albanian Language
Albanian Language. This Indo-european Language Is Spoken In The Mountainous Region North Of Epirus, South Of Montenegro, On The Eastern Side Of The Adriatic, By Rather Less Than A Million Persons, Who Have Kept To Their Ancient Speech As To Their Ancient Ways. Apart From A Few Fragments Of The ...

Albania_2
Albania, The Ancient Name Of A District In The Eastern Cau Casus, Consisting, According To Strabo (xi. 4. 1-8), Of The Valley Of The Cyrus (kur) And The Land Lying Between It And The Caucasus Range From Iberia To The Caspian Sea. The Albani Inhabited Also The Mountain Valleys And ...

Albanus Mons
Albanus Mons (mod. Monte Cavo), The Highest Point Of The Volcanic Alban Hills, About 13m. S.e. Of Rome, 3,115ft, Above Sea-level. It Is On The Inner Crater Rim, While Tusculum And Algidus Mons Are On The Earlier Outer Crater, About 7m. Wide. Upon The Mons Albanus Stood The Temple Of ...

Albany Congress
Albany Congress, A Gathering Of Delegates From Sev Eral American Colonies Important For The Plan Which It Devised For Colonial Union. In Accordance With Instructions From The British Board Of Trade (sept. 18, 1753), 25 Delegates, Repre Senting The Four New England Colonies, New York, Pennsylvania And Maryland, Met At ...

Albany Regency
Albany Regency, The Name Given To A Coterie Of Poli Ticians Who From About 182o To 1854 Largely Controlled The Machinery Of The Democratic Party In The State Of New York. The Members Of This Group Constituted The First Highly Effective American Political Machine. They Derived Their Power Chiefly From ...

Albany
Albany, A Municipal Town In The County Of Plantagenet, On Princess Royal Harbour, Itself An Interior Basin Of King George Sound, On The Most Southerly Stretch Of The Coast, And Towards The South-west Corner Of West Australia. The Coast-line, Here Largely Composed Of Granite, Has Sunk In Recent Geological Times, ...

Albany_2
Albany, A City Of Georgia, U.s.a., 15om. S.s.e. Of Atlanta, On An Elevated Plateau At The Head Of Navigation On The Flint River; The County Seat Of Dougherty County. It Is Served By The Atlantic Coast Line, The Seaboard Air Line, The Central Of Georgia, The Georgia Northern, And The ...

Albany_3
Albany, The Capital Of The State Of New York, U.s.a., A City, A Port Of Entry, And The County-seat Of Albany County; On The West Bank Of The Hudson River, Below The Mouth Of The Mohawk, 145m. N. Of New York City; At The Cross-roads Between Boston And Buffalo, And ...

Albany_4
Albany, A City Of Oregon, U.s.a., On The Willamette River, About 8o M. S. Of Portland; The County Seat Of Linn County. It Is On The Pacific Highway, And Is Served By The Southern Pacific, And The Oregon Electric Railways. The Population Was 4,84o In 1920 And 5,325 In 193o. ...

Albany_5
Albany, A River Of Canada, Rises In Lake St. Joseph In 91° 25' W. And So° 55' N., And Flows East-north-east Into James Bay; Length, Over 400m.; Navigable For Nearly Half Its Length, To Mar Tin's Falls. There Are Four Hudson Bay Company's Posts On Its Banks, Including Fort Albany ...

Albatross
Albatross. A Sea Bird Of The Family Diomedeidae, Re Lated To The Petrel. The Large, Strong Beak Ends In A Hook. The Webbed Feet Lack The Hind Toe. Diomedea Exulans Of The Pacific Is The Best Known. It Is The Largest Sea Bird, Attaining A Length Of 4 Ft., A ...

Albay
Albay, A Municipality (with Administrational Center And 32 Barrios Or Districts) And The Capital Of The Province Of Albay, Luzon, P.i., Near An Inlet On The West Shore Of The Gulf Of Albay, About 200 M. By Road S.e. Of Manila. Pop. (1918) 52,756, Of Whom 25,992 Were Males And ...

Albedo
Albedo (from Lat. Albus, White), "whiteness," A Word Used Principally In Astronomy For The Measure Of Reflecting Power. A Body Shining By Reflected Light Is Said To Have Albedo -12- If It Reflects (or Scatters Outwards) Half The Light Incident On It. The Albedo For Visual Light Of The Cloud-covered ...

Albert I
Albert I. (1875-1934), King Of The Belgians, Was Born At Brussels, April 8, 1875, The Younger Son Of Philip, Count Of Flan Ders (1837-1905 ), Who Was A Brother Of Leopold Ii., And Princess Marie Of Hohenzollern. The Other Children Of This Marriage Were Baldwin (b. 1869), Henriette, Afterwards Duchess ...

Albert Ii
Albert Ii. German King, King Of Bohemia And Hungary, And (as Albert V.) Duke Of Austria, Was Born On Aug. Io, 1397, The Son Of Albert Iv. Of Habsburg, Duke Of Austria, He Succeeded To The Duchy Of Austria On His Father's Death In 1404, And In 1438 Succeeded His ...

Albert Iii
Albert Iii. (1443-15oo), Duke Of Saxony, Surnamed Animosus Or The Courageous, Younger Son Of Frederick Ii., The Mild, Elector And Duke Of Saxony, Was Born Jan. 27, After Escaping From The Hands Of Kunz Von Kaufungen, Who Had Abducted Him And His Brother Ernest, Passed Some Time At The Court ...

Albert Iii_2
Albert Iii. (1414-86), Elector Of Brandenburg, Surnamed Achilles Because Of His Relentless Energy And Physical Strength, And His Combination Of Shrewdness And Knight-errantry, Was The Third Son Of Frederick I. Of Hohenzollern, Elector Of Branden Burg. Albert Was Born At Tangermunde On Nov. 9, 1414, And Died At Frankfurt On ...

Albert I_2
Albert I. (c. German King And Duke Of Tria, Eldest Son Of King Rudolph I., Was Invested With The Duchies Of Austria And Styria In I282. On Rudolph's Death In I291 Albert Was Obliged To Acquiesce In The Election Of Adolf Of Nassau As German King, But In 1298 He ...

Albert I_3
Albert I. (c. Margrave Of Brandenburg, Sur Named "the Bear," Was The Only Son Of Otto The Rich, Count Of Ballenstadt, And Eilika, Daughter Of Magnus Billung, Duke Of Saxony. He Inherited The Valuable Saxon Estates Of His Father In 1123, And On His Mother's Death In 1142 Succeeded To ...

Albert Lea
Albert Lea, A City Of Minnesota, U.s.a., About 97 M. S. Of St. Paul ; The County Seat Of Freeborn County. It Is On The Jefferson Highway, Blackhills Trail, Is The Northern Terminus Of The Illinois Central Railroad, And Is Served Also By The Rock Island, The Chicago, Milwaukee And ...

Albert Medal
Albert Medal, A British Decoration Instituted In 1866 As An Award For Signal Acts Of Bravery In Saving Life At Sea, And Extended In 1877 To Acts Of Bravery On Land. The Conditions Governing The Award Were Amended In 1905. There Are Two Classes, Each With Two Divisions. The Medal, ...

Albert Of Aix
Albert Of Aix (fl. C. A.d. Iioo), Historian Of The First Crusade, Was Canon And Custos Of The Church Of Aix-la-chapelle. He Wrote A Historia Hierosolymitanae Expeditionis Or Chronicon Hierosolymitanum De Bello Sacro, A Work In 12 Books, Between 1125 And 1150. This Book Gives The History Of The First ...

Albert Of Cologne Albertus
Albertus Magnus, Albert Of Cologne (?i 206-i 280), Scholastic Philosopher Called Doctor Universalis. Albert Was Born Of The Family Of The Counts Of Bollstxdt, At Lauingen, In Suabia. In 1223 He Joined The Dominican Order, And After Teaching In Turn At Cologne, Hildesheim, Freiburg, Ratisbon, Strasbourg, And Again At Cologne, ...

Albert Pike Highway
Albert Pike Highway, A Western Thoroughfare, Running From Hot Springs, Arkansas, Through The Ozark Mountains To Colorado Springs, Colorado. In 1928 It Was Graded And Im Proved Throughout Most Of Its I,000-mile Length, But Had Little Pavement. Ft. Smith, Muskogee, Tulsa, Dodge City, La Junta And Pueblo Are Some Of ...

Albert
Albert (1522-1557), Prince Of Bayreuth, Surnamed The Warlike, And Also Alcibiades, Was A Member Of The Franconian Branch Of The Hohenzollern Family. His Restless And Turbulent Nature Marked Him Out For A Military Career; And Having Collected A Small Band Of Soldiers, He Assisted The Emperor Charles V. In His ...

Alberta
Alberta, The Most Westerly Of The Three Prairie Provinces Of Canada And The Most Recently Developed, Is Bounded On The South By The U.s. Along The 49° N. Lat., On The East By Saskatch Ewan Along The Iio° W. Long., On The North By Lat. 6o° And On The West ...

Albertite
Albertite, A Pyrobitumen (see Bitumen) So Named From The Type Occurrence In Albert County, New Brunswick. It Is Jet Black In Colour, Has A Brilliant Lustre And A Conchoidal To Hackly Fracture. It Occurs Typically In Veins Up To Many Feet In Thickness And Is A Derivative Of Petroleum. (j. ...

Albert_2
Albert (149o-1568), Last Grand Master Of The Teutonic Order, And First Duke Of Prussia, Was Born At Ansbach, May 16, 149o, The Third Son Of Frederick Of Hohenzollern, Prince Of Ans Bach And Bayreuth, And Sophia, Daughter Of Casimir Iv., King Of Poland. In 151i Albert Was Made Grand Master ...

Albert_3
Albert Elector And Archbishop Of Mainz, And Archbishop Of Magdeburg, Was The Younger Son Of John Cicero, Elector Of Brandenburg, And Was Born June 28, 149o, And Died At Aschaffenburg Sept. In 1513 He Became Archbishop Of Magdeburg And Administrator Of The Diocese Of Halberstadt. In 1514 He Obtained The ...

Albert_4
Albert, Also Named Alexandre Martin (1815-1895), The First Industrial Working-man To Enter A Government, Was A Mem Ber Of The French Provisional Republican Government In Feb. 1848. He Signed All Decrees "albert, Ouvrier," And Followed Implicitly The Guidance Of Louis Blanc (q.v.). He Was Sentenced To Ten Years' Deportation On ...