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ALPENA, a city of Michigan, U.S.A., on Thunder bay, a small arm of Lake Huron, at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, the county seat of Alpena county. It is served by the Detroit and Mackinac and the Boyne City, Gaylord and Alpena railways, and by steamboats to Detroit and other ports. The population in 192o was 2,506 foreign-born whites; 1930, 12,166. The city is built on sandy ground on both sides of the river and has a good harbour, with a controlling depth of 16 feet. The navi gation season is from April 3 to Dec. 20.

In 1927 the commerce of the port, chiefly in coal, cement, stone, and lumber, amounted to 1,561,481 tons, valued at $8,410,286; and the output of the 24 factories, producing chiefly lumber, shingles, wood pulp, veneer, excelsior, brick, cement, leather and flour was valued at $7,982,697. The city has extensive fisheries, and is a summer and hunting resort. It occupies the site of an Indian burying-ground. A trading post was established here in 1835, a permanent settlement in 1858, and the city was char tered in 1871. It has a commission manager form of government.