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Almendralejo
Almendralejo, A Town In Spain, Province Of Badajoz, 27 M. E.s.e. Of Badajoz. Pop. (1930) 17,597. The Town Has An Important Annual Sheep Fair, Handles Much Farm Produce And Makes Brandy. Local Roman Antiquities Are Preserved In A Mu Seum In The Palace Of The Marques De Monsalad. The Develop ...

Almogavares
Almogavares (from The Arab. Al-mugavari, A Scout), The Name Of A Class Of Spanish Soldiers Who Came Originally From The Pyrenees, And Were In Later Times Recruited Mainly In Navarre, Aragon And Catalonia. They Were Frontiersmen And Professional Foot-soldiers Who Wore No Armour, Dressed In Skins, Were Shod With Brogues ...

Almohades
Almohades (properly Muwahhadis, I.e., "unitarians"), A Mohammedan Religious Power Which Founded The Fifth Moorish Dynasty In The 12th Century, And Conquered All Northern Africa As Far As Egypt, Together With Muslim Spain. It Originated With Mohammed Ibn Tumart, A Member Of The Masmuda, A Berber Tribe Of The Atlas. Ibn ...

Almond Oil
Almond Oil, The Fixed Oil Termed In The British Pharma Copoeia Oleum Amygdalae, Is Obtained From The Ground Blanched Kernels Of The Fruit Of The Almond, Either By Expression Or By Extraction With A Volatile Solvent ; The Latter Process Is Used In The Case Of Damaged Seeds Where The ...

Almond
Almond, The Fruit Of The Almond Tree (prunus Amygdalus), Which Belongs To The Plum Tribe (pruneae) Of The Rose Family (rosaceae). It Used To Be Placed In A Separate Genus Amygdalus, The Distinction Lying In The Fruit, The Soft Pulp Attached To The Stone In The Plum Being Replaced By ...

Almoner
Almoner, An Officer Charged With The Distribution Of Alms, Primarily For A Religious House Or Bishop (from Lat. Eleemosy Narius, Through M. Lat. Almonarius And Fr. Almosnier). Almoners Attached To The French Court Appear Early, But The Title Of Grand Almoner Of France First Appears In 1486. The Office, Which ...

Almonry
Almonry, The Name For The Place Where Alms Were Distrib Uted To The Poor In Churches Or Other Ecclesiastical Buildings. At Bishopstone Church (wilts.), It Is A Sort Of Covered Porch Attached To The South Transept, But Not Communicating With The Interior Of The Church. At Worcester Cathedral The Alms ...

Almora
Almora, A Town And District Of British India, The Chief Town And Administrative Headquarters Of The Kumaon Division Of The United Provinces, Situated On A Mountain Ridge Of The Him Alayas 5,494ft. Above The Sea. Pop. (1931), 9,688. The Town Has A College Called After Sir Henry Ramsay, Several Schools ...

Almoravides
Almoravides (properly Murdbtis, I.e., "religious As Cetics"), A Berber Horde From The Sahara Which, In The 11th Cen Tury, Founded The Fourth Dynasty In Morocco. The Most Powerful Of The Invading Tribes Was The Lamtuna ("veiled Men") From The Upper Niger, Whose Best-known Representatives Now Are The Tuareg. They Had ...

Alms
Alms, The Giving Of Relief, And The Relief Given, Whether In Goods Or Money, To The Poor, Particularly Applied To The Charity Bestowed Under A Sense Of Religious Obligation. Like "riches" The Word Is Often Wrongly Treated As A Plural. (see Charity.) ...

Almshouse
Almshouse, A Building For The Residence Of Poor Or Aged People. In England The Term Is Generally Used Of Those Built And Endowed By Private Charity And Frequently Better Treatment Is Given To The Inmates Than In The Publicly Supported Workhouses. In America The Term Is Synonymous With "poorhouse" (work ...

Almuce
Almuce, A Hooded Cape Of Fur, Or Fur Lined, Worn As A Choir Vestment By Certain Dignitaries Of The Western Church (late Lat. Almucia, Almucium, Armucia, Etc.) . It Was Originally A Head Covering Only, And The German Word Midtze, "can," Is De Rived From It. The Name Of Another ...

Alnage Or Aulnage
Alnage Or Aulnage, The Official Supervision Of The Shape And Quality Of Manufactured Woollen Cloth, The Derivation Being From Fr. Acne, Ell. It Was First Ordered In The Reign Of Richard I. That "woollen Cloths, Wherever They Are Made, Shall Be Of The Same Width, To Wit, Of Two Ells ...

Alnwick
Alnwick, Urban District And County-town Of Northumber Land, England, 309 M. N. By W. From London, On A Branch Of The L.n.e.r. ; Pop. Of Urban District (1931) 6,882. It Is Beautifully Situated On The Small River Aln, In A Hilly District Near The Sea. Dominating The Town From Above ...

Aloe
Aloe, A Genus Of Plants Belonging To The Family Liliaceae, With About 18o Species Growing In The Dry Parts Of Africa, Espe Cially Cape Colony, And In The Mountains Of Tropical Africa. Members Of The Closely Allied Genera Gasteria And Haworthia, With A Similar Mode Of Growth, Are Also Cultivated ...

Aloidae
Aloidae (aro-i'de), Or Aloadae; I.e., Otus And Ephialtes, In Ancient Greek Legend, The Twin Sons Of Aloeus Or Poseidon, Celebrated For Their Extraordinary Stature And Strength. According To Homer (od., Xi. 3o5), They Made War Upon The Olympian Gods And Endeavoured To Pile Pelion Upon Ossa In Order To Storm ...

Alora
Alora, A Town Of Malaga, Southern Spain. Pop. (193o) 11,622. Alora, An Ancient And Picturesque Town (rom. Iluro) Stands At The Foot Of The Hacho, One Of A Series Of Table-lands Along The Line Of The Structural Depression Followed By The River Guadal Horce. The Fertile Vega Irrigated From This ...

Alost
Alost (flem. Aalst), Belgium, Province Of East Flanders, On The Left Bank Of The Dender ; The Ancient Capital Of "imperial Flanders." Pop. (1930) 38,429. In The Feudal Period When Flanders Was A Fief Of The King Of France, There Was A Small Strip Extending From Alost To The Isles ...

Aloung Phoura Alompra
Alompra, Aloung P'houra Founder Of The Last Burmese Dynasty, Was Chief Of The Village Of Mashobo; Near Ava. Burma Was At That Time Under The Rule Of Pegu. Alompra Raised A Small Force Of Men, Seized Ava In 1753, And Gradually Ousted The Peguans And Made Himself Master Of The ...

Aloys Lexa Von Aehrenthal
Aehrenthal, Aloys Lexa Von, Count 1912), Austro-hungarian Statesman, Was Born At Gross-skal, In Bohemia. He Was The Son Of Baron (freiherr) Johann Lexa Von Aehrenthal And His Wife Marie, Nee Countess Thun-hohen Stein, And Began His Diplomatic Career In 1877 As Attache To The Paris Embassy Under Count Beust. He ...

Alp
Alp, A Term Applied To The Summer Pastures Of The Alps Situ Ated Just Below The Snow-line, Freed From Snow Each Spring. Such Mountain Pastures Are Of Great Antiquity, Being Mentioned As Early As The 8th Century, And Are Found In All Parts Of The Alpine Chain. In German Switzerland, ...

Alpaca
Alpaca, One Of The Two Domesticated Breeds Of S. American Camel-like Hoofed Mammals, Derived From The Wild Guanaco (q.v.). Alpacas Are Kept In Flocks On The Level Heights Of The Andes In Chile, Peru And Bolivia, At An Elevation Of 14,000 To 16,000 Ft. Above The Sea. In Appearance The ...

Alpena
Alpena, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., On Thunder Bay, A Small Arm Of Lake Huron, At The Mouth Of Thunder Bay River, The County Seat Of Alpena County. It Is Served By The Detroit And Mackinac And The Boyne City, Gaylord And Alpena Railways, And By Steamboats To Detroit And ...

Alpes Maritimes
Alpes Maritimes, Department Of South-east France, Formed In 186o Out Of The County Of Nice, To Which Were Added The Districts Of Grasse (formerly In The Department Of The Var) And Of Mentone (purchased From The Prince Of Monaco). Pop. (1906) (1931) It Is Bounded North-east By Italy, South By ...

Alpha Particles
Alpha Particles, Also Called A-rays, The Positively Charged Particles That Are Ejected By Certain Radioactive Sub Stances. (see Radioactivity.) They Are Helium Atoms (see Atom) Which Have Lost One Or Two Electrons (see Electron) And Are Identical With The Ionized Helium Which Is Produced By An Electric Discharge Through This ...

Alpha
Alpha And Omega (a And F ), The First And Last Let Ters Of The Greek Alphabet (rev. I. 8, Xxi. 6, Xxii. 13) . The Speaker Never Claims To Combine In Himself All And Every Power. So In Rabbinic Writers The Word Emeth (truth, Nctf), Which Is Composed Of ...

Alphabet
Alphabet. The Name Alphabet Is Derived From The Names Of The First Two Letters Of The Greek Alphabet, Alpha And Beta, And Denotes A Set Of Characters, Or, As We Call Them, Letters, Each Of Which Represents A Given Sound Or Sounds. This Representation Is Necessarily Rough And Of Quite ...

Alphege Aelfheah St
Alphege (aelfheah) St. Archbishop Of Canterbury. He Was A Monk At Deerhurst, And Then Became An Anchorite At Bath. His Piety And Austerities Led To His Election As Abbot. In 984 He Was Appointed Through Dunstan's Influence To The Bishopric Of Winchester, And In 1006 He Succeeded Aelfric As Archbishop ...

Alpheus Ax
Alpheus ('ax Etos; Mod. Ruphia), The Chief River Of Pelo Ponnesus. The Alpheus Proper Rises Near Asea In Central Arcadia, But Its Passage Thither By Subterranean Channels From The Tegean Plain, And Its Union With The Eurotas, Are Probably Mythical (w. Loring, Journ. Hell. Studies, Xv. P. 67). The Shallow ...

Alphonsc X
Alphonsc X., El Sabio, Or "the Learned" (1252-1284), Is Per Haps The Most Interesting, Though He Was Far From Being The Most Capable, Of The Spanish Kings Of The Middle Ages. (his Merits As A Writer Are Dealt With In The Article Spain : Literature.) His Scientific Fame Is Based ...

Alphonse I
Alphonse I. Count Of Toulouse, Son Of Count Raymond Iv. By His Third Wife, Elvira Of Castile, Was Born In The Castle Of Mont-pelerin, Tripoli. He Was Surnamed Jourdain On Account Of His Having Been Baptized In The River Jordan. In His Tenth Year He Succeeded To The Countship Of ...

Alphonse
Alphonse (122o-1271), Count Of Toulouse And Poitiers, The Son Of Louis Viii., King Of France, And Brother Of St. Louis, Was Born On Nov. 11 1220. He Joined The County Of Toulouse To His Appanage Of Poitou And Auvergne, On The Death, In Sept. Of Raymond Vii., Whose Daughter Jeanne ...

Alphonsine Tables
Alphonsine Tables, Astronomical Tables Produced At Toledo In 1252 By So Astronomers Under The Patronage Of Alphonso (alfonso) X. Of Castile. ...

Alphonso I I
Alphonso I. (i 094-1185 ), The First Of The Portuguese Kings, Son Of Henry Of Burgundy, Count Of Portugal, And Teresa Of Castile, Succeeded His Father In 1112, And Was Placed Under The Tutelage Of His Mother. Being Proclaimed Sole Ruler Of Portugal In I 128, He Defeated His Mother's ...

Alphonso I
Alphonso I. (1104-1134), King Of Aragon, Is Sometimes Counted The Seventh In The Line Of The Kings Of Leon And Castile. A Passionate Fighting-man (he Fought 29 Battles Against Christian Or Moor), He Was Married To Urraca, Widow Of Raymond Of Bur Gundy, A Very Dissolute And Passionate Woman. The ...

Alphonso Ii
Alphonso Ii., King Of Aragon (1162-1196) Was The Son Of Ray Mond Berenger, Count Of Barcelona, And Of Petronilla, Niece Of Alphonso The Battler, And Daughter Of Ramiro, Surnamed The Monk. He Succeeded To The County Of Barcelona In 1162 On The Death Of His Father, At The Age Of ...

Alphonso Iii
Alphonso Iii. Of Aragon (1285-1291), The Insignificant Son Of The Notable Peter Iii., Succeeded To The Spanish And Provencal Possessions Of His Father, But His Short Reign Did Not Give Him Time Even To Marry. His Inability To Resist The Demands Of His Nobles And His Recognition Of Their Right ...

Alphonso Iii_2
Alphonso Iii. (i210-1279), Son Of Alphonso Ii., Succeeded His Brother, Sancho Ii., In 1248. Besides Making War Upon The Moors, He Was, Like His Father, Frequently Embroiled With The Church. In His Reign Algarve Became Part Of Portugal. ...

Alphonso Ii_2
Alphonso Ii., "the Fat" (1 185-12 23 ), Succeeded His Father, Sancho I. In 121i. He Gained A Victory Over The Moors At Alcacer Do Sal In 1217. He Was Excommunicated By Honorius Iii. For Trying To Seize Part Of The Church Revenues For Public Purposes. ...

Alphonso Ii_3
Alphonso Ii. (789-842), His Reputed Grandson, Bears The Name Of "the Chaste." The Arab Writers Who Speak Of The Spanish Kings Of The North-west As The Beni-alfons, Appear To Recognize Them As A Royal Stock Derived From Alphonso I. The Events Of His Reign Are In Reality Unknown. Poets Of ...

Alphonso Iv I
Alphonso Iv. (i 29o-13 S 7) Succeeded His Father, Dionis, Whose Death He Had Hastened By His Intrigues And Rebellions, In 1325. Alphonso Connived At The Barbarous Murder Of Inez De Castro, Who Had Secretly Married His Son, Peter. In Revenge Peter Devas Tated The Whole Of The Country Between ...

Alphonso Iv
Alphonso Iv. Of Aragon (1327-1336) Was A Weak Man Whose Reign Was Insignificant. ...

Alphonso Ix
Alphonso Ix. (1 188-1 23o) Of Leon, First Cousin Of Alphonso Viii. Of Castile, And Numbered Next To Him As Being A Junior Mem Ber Of The Family (see The Article Spain For The Division Of The Kingdom And The Relationship) , Is Said By Ibn Khaldun To Have Been ...

Alphonso I_2
Alphonso I. (739-757), The First Of The Kings Of Spain, Is Said To Have Married Ormesinda, Daughter Of Pelayo, Who Was Raised On The Shield In Asturias As King Of The Goths Of Ter The Arab Conquest. He Is Also Said To Have Been The Son Of Peter, Duke Of ...

Alphonso V
Alphonso V. Of Aragon (1416-1458), Surnamed The Magnani Mous, Who Represented The Old Line Of The Counts Of Barcelona Only Through Women, And Was, On His Father's Side, Descended From The Castilian House Of Transtamara, Is One Of The Most Conspicuous Figures Of The Early Renaissance. No Man Of His ...

Alphonso Vi
Alphonso Vi. (1643-1683), The Second King Of The House Of Braganza, Succeeded His Father In 1656. In 1667 He Was Compelled By His Wife And Brother To Abdicate, And Was Banished To The Island Of Terceira. These Acts, Which The Vices Of Alphonso Had Rendered Necessary, Were Sanctioned By The ...

Alphonso Vii
Alphonso Vii., "the Emperor" (1126-1157), Is A Dignified And Somewhat Enigmatical Figure. A Vague Tradition Had Always Assigned The Title Of Emperor To The Sovereign Who Held Leon As The Most Direct Representative Of The Visigoth Kings, Who Were Themselves The Representatives Of The Roman Empire. But Though Given In ...

Alphonso V_2
Alphonso V., "africano" (i 43 2-1481) Succeeded His Father, Edward, In 1438. During His Minority He Was Placed Under The Regency, First Of His Mother, And Latterly Of His Uncle, Dom Pedro. In 1448 He Assumed The Government And Married Isabella, Dom Pedro's Daughter. Next Year, Being Led By What ...

Alphonso Xi
Alphonso Xi. Is Variously Known Among Spanish Kings As The Avenger Or The Implacable, And As "he Of The Rio Salado." The First Two Names He Earned By The Ferocity With Which He Repressed The Disorder Of The Nobles After A Long Minority; The Third, By His Victory Over The ...

Alphonso Xii
Alphonso Xii. (1857-1885), First Of The Kings Of All Spain, Became King Of Spain, Son Of Isabella Ii. And Maria Fernando Francisco De Assisi, Eldest Son Of The Duke Of Cadiz, Was Born On Nov. 28, 1857. When Queen Isabella And Her Husband Were Forced To Leave Spain By The ...

Alphonso
Alphonso, The Common English Spelling Of Alfonso, Alonso And Alfonso, Which Are Respectively The Galician, The Leonese, And The Castilian Forms Of Ildefonso (ildefonsus), The Name Of A Saint And Archbishop Of Toledo In The 7th Century. The Name Has Been Borne By A Number Of Portuguese And Spanish Kings. ...

Alphorn Alpenhorn
Alpenhorn, Alphorn, A Musical Instrument, Con Sisting Of A Natural Wooden Horn Of Conical Bore, Having A Cup Shaped Mouthpiece, Used By Mountaineers In Switzerland And Elsewhere. The Well-known Ranz Des Vaches Is The Traditional Melody Of The Alpenhorn, A Portion Of Which Is Utilized By Beetho Ven In The ...

Alps
Alps, The Collective Name For One Of The Great Mountain Sys Tems Of Europe Stretching From The Gulf Of Genoa To Vienna, And Rising Between The Plains Of Northern Italy And Of Southern Ger Many. The Alps Do Not Present So Continuous A Barrier As The Himalayas, The Andes Or ...

Alqama Ibn Abada
Alqama Ibn Abada, Generally Known As 'alqama Al-fahl, An Arabian Poet Of The Tribe Tamim, Who Flourished In The Second Half Of The 6th Century. His Diwan Consists Of Three Qasidas (elegies) And Ii Fragments. Asma` I Considered Three Of The Poems Genuine. The Poems Were Edited By A. Socin ...

Alsace Lorraine History
Alsace-lorraine - History The Term Alsace-lorraine Came Into Use Only After The Peace Of Frankfurt (may 1871). It Was Used To Describe A Hybrid Crea Tion, Artificially Forged By Bismarck Out Of The Whole Of Alsace And Part Of Lorraine ; Both Provinces Having Been Annexed From .france. These Two ...

Alsace Lorraine Post War Problems
Alsace-lorraine - Post-war Problems The Previous History Of Alsace-lorraine Explains The Difficulties Met By France In This Country Since The Armistice. Many Insti Tutions Had Been Introduced By The Germans During The Half Century Of Their Occupation—the Land Survey, The German Civil Code, Social Legislation, Etc.—and The Population Had Grown ...

Alsace Lorraine The Germanperiod
Alsace-lorraine - The German Period Its History Under German Domination Falls Into Three Periods: (1) 1871-90: The Period Of Organization.—atfirst (until The Constitution Of July 4, 1879) Alsace-lorraine Was Organized Under Decrees Issued In Berlin And Applied By An Oberprasident; After 1879, By An Imperial Representative With The Powers Of ...

Alsace Lorraine
Alsace-lorraine, A Territory Which Has Been The Sub Ject Of Many Disputes And Which Was Largely Responsible For The Difficulties That Led Up To The Wars Of 1870-71 And 1914-18. Alsace Is Essentially The Part Of The Great Trough Between The Vosges And The Black Forest Which Lies West Of ...

Alsatia
Alsatia (the Old French Province Of Alsace), Long A "de Batable Ground" Between France And Germany, And Hence A Name Applied In The I7th Century To The District Of Whitefriars, Between The Thames And Fleet Street, In London, Which Gave Sanctuary (q.v.) To Debtors And Criminals. The Privileges Were Abolished ...

Alsen
Alsen, A Danish Island In The Baltic, Off The Coast Of Slesvig, In The Little Belt. It Was Danish Property Until 1864 When It Was Incorporated With Germany. It Was Of Strategic Importance As It Guarded An Approach From The North Sea To The Baltic. After 1919 It Was Again ...

Alsietinus Lacus
Alsietinus Lacus (mod. Lago Di Martignano), Small Lake, South Etruria, 15m. Due N.n.w. Of Rome, In An Extinct Crater. Augustus Drew From It The Aqua Alsietina ; The Water Was Hardly Fit To Drink, And Was Mainly Intended To Supply His Nau Machia (lake Made For A Sham Naval Battle) ...

Alsike
Alsike, Also Called Swedish Clover, The Name By Which Tri F Olium Hybridum Is Known To Farmers And Agriculturists. It Is A Perennial Form Resembling The White Or Dutch Clover (t. Repens) And, Like It, Has White Or Rosy Flowers. Alsike Was Introduced Into Great Britain From South Sweden In ...

Alsium
Alsium (mod. Palo), Ancient Town, Etruria, On The Via Aurelia, About 22m. From Rome. It Was One Of The Oldest Cities Of Etruria, Colonized By Rome In 247 B.c., But Was Of Importance Only As A Resort Of Wealthy Romans, Many Of Whom (e.g., Pom Pey And The Antonine Emperors) ...

Alston
Alston, Market Town, Cumberland, England, On A Branch Of The L.n.e.r. From Haltwhistle. Population Of Parish (alston With Garrigill) (1931) 2,678. It Lies In The Uppermost Part Of The Valley Of The South Tyne, Among The High Bleak Moors Of The Pennines. Copper And Blende Are Found, And There Are ...

Alstonite
Alstonite, A Member Of The Aragonite Group Of Minerals. It Consists Of An Isomorphous Mixture Of Calcium And Barium Carbonates In Various Proportions And Thus Differs Chemically From Barytocalcite (q.v.) Which Is A Double Salt Of These Carbonates In Equal Molecular Proportions. Being Isomor Phous With Aragonite, It Crystallizes In ...

Altai
Altai (in Mongolian Altain-ula, The "mountains Of Gold"), A Term Used With Various Significations. The Altai Region, In West Siberia And Mongolia, Is Similar In Character To The Alps, But Covers A Much Greater Area. It Extends From The River Irtysh And The Dzungarian Depression (46°-47°n.) Northwards To The Siber ...

Altair
Altair, The Brightest Star In The Constellation Aquila (q.v.), And, On This Account, Also Known As A Aquilae. It Is The Middle Member Of The Group 0, A, Y In The Constellation, And Is Of The First Magnitude, Being One Of The Nearest Stars. Its Distance From The Solar System ...

Altamura
Altamura, Apulia, Italy, Province Of Bari, 28m. S.w. Of The City Bari, And 56m. By Rail Via G Ioia Del Colle. Pop. Of The City Of Altamura (1931) 28,996. It Possesses A Fine Romanesque Cathedral Begun In 1232 And Restored In 133o And The Portal Being Especially Remarkable. It Is ...

Altar
Altar, A Base Or Pedestal Used For Sacrifice Or Prayer To A Deity. Mesopotamia.—altarsare Found From The Earliest Times In The Remains Of Babylonian Cities; The Oldest Are Square Erections Of Sun-dried Bricks. In Assyrian Mounds Limestone And Alabaster Are The Chief Material. They Are Of Varying Form ; An ...

Altars In The Christian
Altars In The Christian Church The Early Church.—thealtar Is Spoken Of By The Early Greek And Latin Ecclesiastical Writers Under A Variety Of Names : Tpairea, The Principal Name In The Greek Fathers And The Liturgies; 9vaccu Riipcov (rarer; Used In The Septuagint For Hebrew Altars); Daaar? Pcov ; 13wµ5s ...

Altazimuth
Altazimuth, An Astronomical Telescope Of A Pattern Sim Ilar To A Theodolite But On A Much Larger Scale. It Is Used Prin Cipally To Observe Positions Of The Moon Before First Quarter And After Last Quarter, When The Moon Passes Across The Meridian In Daylight. In Order To Secure More ...

Altdamm
Altdamm, A Town On The Oder, Opposite Stettin, In The District Of Stettin, In The Prussian Province Of Pomerania. Pop. Its Manufactures (starch, Cellulose And Syrup) Are Mainly Based On Potato Cultivation. ...

Altdorf
Altdorf, Capital Of The Swiss Canton Of Uri, 1,516ft. Above Sea-level, A Little Above The Right Bank Of The Reuss, Not Far Above The Point Where This River Is Joined On The Right By The Schachen Torrent, 34m. From Lucerne By The St. Gotthard Railway And 22m. From Goschenen. Pop. ...

Altena
Altena, A Town In Westphalia, Germany, 3om. S.s.e. Of Dortmund. Pop. (1933) 16,133. It Lies In The Deep Valley Of The Lenne, And Forms A Single Street 3m. In Length. The Schlossberg Is The Ancestral Castle Of The Counts Of La Marck. Metal Indus Tries And Especially Wire Making Are ...

Altenburg
Altenburg, A Town In Thuringia, Germany, Formerly Capital Of The Duchy Of Saxe-altenburg, 23m. South Of Leipzig. Pop. From Its Ancient Castle, On A Lofty Porphyry Rock, Kunz Von Kaufungen Carried Off, In The Young Princes Albert And Ernest, Founders Of The Royal And Ducal Families Of Saxony. Altenburg Has ...

Altenstein
Altenstein, A Castle In Saxe-meiningen, Germany, On The S.w. Slope Of The Thuringerwald Not Far From Eisenach. It Has Associations With Boniface (c. 724) And With Martin Luther. ...

Alterative
Alterative, An Old Term In The Materia Medica Which Comprised A Group Of Substances Which Had, Or Were Supposed To Have, A Specific Influence On The Nutritional Processes Of The Body. They Were Mainly Of The Metal Or Metalloid Class And Included Such Things As Iron, Mercury, Phosphorus, Manganese And ...

Alternating Current
Alternating Current, Electric Current Which Grows To A Maximum Value, Decreases, Changes Its Direction (with Respect To A Datum Line), Reaches A Maximum Value In The New Direction (which Is Equivalent To A Minimum Value For The Origi Nal Direction), And Returns To Its Original Value, Whence It Repeats This ...

Alternation
Alternation, Process Of "alternating," I.e., Of Two Things Following One Another Regularly By Turns, As Night And Day. In American Political Representative Bodies And In The Case Of Company Directors, A Substitute Is Sometimes Called An "alter Nate." An "alternative" Is That Which Is Offered As A Choice Of Two ...

Alternator
Alternator, A Dynamo Generating Alternating Current. (see Electric Generator ; Motor, Electric.) ...

Althaea
Althaea, In Greek And Roman Mythology, Daughter Of Thestius, King Of Aetolia, Wife Of Oeneus, And Mother Of Meleager (q.v.). ...

Althiburos
Althiburos (mod. Medeina), An Ancient City Of Numidia On The Road Between Carthage And Theveste (tebessa), Which Was Constructed By Hadrian In 123 A.d., 22m. S. Of Kef. The Town, Originally An Indigenous Settlement, Obtained Munici Pal Rights From Hadrian, Like Several Other Cities Of North Africa. It Enjoyed Considerable ...

Altichiero Da Zevio
Altichiero Da Zevio (c. 1385), Italian Painter, Of The Veronese School, Born At Zevio, A Village Near Verona. His Standard Work Is The Fresco Decoration Of The San Felice Chapel In The Church Of Sant' Antonio At Padua, Represent Ing The "crucifixion" And "scenes From The Legend Of St. James," ...

Altimeter
Altimeter. In Aerial Navigation, An Instrument Employed To Determine The Height Of Aircraft Above The Ground Or, More Accurately, Above Sea Level. It Is A Form Of Aneroid Barometer, For It Is Based Upon The Changes Of Air Pressure Which Are Registered As An Aeroplane Ascends Or Descends. All Altimeters ...

Altinum
Altinum (mod. Altino), Venetia, 12m. S.e. Of Tarvisium (treviso), On The Lagoons. From A Fishing Village It Became The Junction Of The Via Postumia And The Via Popilia (see Aqv11,eia). Augustus And His Successors Made It Important As A Point On The Route Between Italy And The North-east Parts Of ...

Altissimo Alt
Alt, Altissimo. In Music, The Notes Of The Octave Be Ginning With The G Above The Treble Stave Are Said To Be "in Alt" And Those Of The Succeeding Octave "in Altissimo," Although By Some The F Instead Of The G Is Taken As The Beginning Of The Higher Octave. ...

Altitude
Altitude, Height Or Eminence, And Particularly The Height Above The Ground Or Above Sea-level. In Geometry, The Altitude Of A Triangle Is The Length Of The Perpendicular From The Vertex To The Base. In Astronomy, The Altitude Of A Heavenly Body Is The Apparent Angular Elevation Of The Body Above ...

Altmuhl
Altmuhl, A River In Bavaria, Germany, An Important Left Bank Tributary Of The Danube, Rising In The Franconian Plateau, And After A Tortuous Course Of 116m. Alternatively Through Mead Ows And In Romantic Gorges, Joining The Danube At Kelheim. It Is Navigable Up To Dietfurt (i8m.), Whence The Ludwigscanal ( ...

Alto Rilievo
Alto-rilievo (ital. For "high Relief"), The Term Applied To Sculpture That Projects From The Plane To Which It Is Attached To The Extent Of More Than One Half The Outline Of The Principal Figures, Which May Be Nearly, Or In Parts, Entirely Detached From The Background, Thus Distinguish Ing It ...

Alto
Alto, A Musical Term Applied To The Highest Adult Male Voice Or Counter-tenor, And To The Lower Kind Of Boy's Or Woman's (contralto) Voice. It Is Typical Of The Confusing Character Of Musical Nomenclature That The Term Which Originally Meant "high" Should Have Come To Signify The Lower Of Its ...

Alton
Alton, Urban District, Hampshire, England, 461m. S.w. Of London By The S.r. Population (1931) 6,172. It Occupies A Pleas Ant, Undulating Site Near The Headwaters Of The River Wey. Of The Church Of St. Lawrence, Part, Including The Tower, Is Norman; The Building Was The Scene Of A Fierce Conflict ...

Altona
Altona, A Town In Schleswig-holstein, Germany, On The Right Bank Of The Elbe. Though Closely Adjoining Hamburg On The West, Altona Is Administered Separately. Pop. (188o) 91,049 (1900) 161,508; (1933) 242,006. The Name May Be Derived From Allzu-nah ("all Too Near"), The Hamburgers' Designation For An Inn Which In The ...

Alton_2
Alton, A City Of Madison County, Ill., U.s.a., On The Missis Sippi River, About 5m. Above The Mouth Of The Missouri And 25m. N. Of St. Louis. It Is On The Mississippi Valley Highway; Is Served By The Chicago And Alton, The Big Four, And The Alton And Eastern Railways, ...

Altoona
Altoona, City Of Blair County, Pa., U.s.a., On The Pennsyl Vania Railroad, 114 M. E. By N. Of Pittsburgh. It Lies In The Upper • End Of Logan Valley, 1,18of T. Above Sea-level, In The "central Pennsylvania" Bituminous Coal-field, And Commands Views Of Some Of The Most Picturesque Mountain Scenery ...

Altotting
Altotting, A Town Of Germany, In Bavaria, On The Morren Not Far From Its Junction With The Inn. Pop. 5,539. The Holy Chapel With Its Image Of The Virgin Mary Has Long Been A Place Of Pilgrimage For Roman Catholics From Central Europe. ...

Altranstadt
Altranstadt, A Village Of Germany, In Prussian Saxony Near Merseburg. Altranstadt Is Famous In History For Two Treaties Concluded Here : (i) The Peace Which Augustus Ii., King Of Po Land And Elector Of Saxony, Was Forced To Ratify (sept. 24, 1706) With Charles Xii. Of Sweden, Whereby The Former ...

Altringham Or Altringham
Altringham Or Altringham, Urban District, Cheshire, England, 8m. From Manchester, On The L.m.s. And Cheshire Lines Railways. Population (1911) 17,813, (193 1) 21,356. The Town Of Altrincham (altringham) Was Originally Included In The Barony Of Dunham Massey. Hamon De Massey Granted A Char Ter To His Burgesses, Establishing The Court ...

Altruism
Altruism, A Philosophical Term Used In Ethics For That Theory Of Conduct Which Regards The Good Of Others As The End Of Moral Action. It Was Invented By Auguste Comte And Adopted By The English Positivists As A Convenient Antithesis To Egoism-. Ac Cording To Comte The Only Practical Method ...

Altus
Altus, A City Of South-western Oklahoma, U.s.a., 15m. From The Red River; The County Seat Of Jackson County. It Is Served By The Frisco, The Kansas City, Mexico And Orient And The Missouri-kansas-texas Railways. The Population In 192o Was 2 (95% Native White), And In 193o, After Annexations Of Territory, ...

Altwasser
Altwasser, A Town In Lower Silesia, Germany, Now Incorporated In Waldenburg-in-schlesien. ...