ALSACE-LORRAINE, a territory which has been the sub ject of many disputes and which was largely responsible for the difficulties that led up to the wars of 1870-71 and 1914-18. Alsace is essentially the part of the great trough between the Vosges and the Black Forest which lies west of the Rhine, but it extends to the highest Vosges. Lorraine stretches between the Vosges and the Ardennes and includes a portion which remained French 1871-1914, and the north-eastern zone, which was in German possession during that period. There is no doubt that these important regions are in many respects transitional be tween France and Germany in culture, and in parts the dialect is Germanic while in others it is French. If a general statement is possible it is that Alsace is more German and Lorraine more French in speech, but the influence of politics and education makes a true judgment difficult. The regions are further discussed geographically under the names of the French departments, Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin (parts of Alsace) and Moselle, Meurthe et Moselle, Meuse, Vosges (parts of Lorraine). Haut-Rhin, Bas-Rhin and Moselle represent the land returned to France after 1918.
In October, 1928, M. Poincare opened the new railway tunnel through the Vosges, reducing the rail distance between St. Die and Strasbourg from 105 m. to 62 m.
See P. Vidal de la Blache, La France de L'Est (1918) .