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Angola

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ANGOLA, a conventional trade term used to describe a particular type of "union" or "mixture" yarn produced from short staple or "shoddy" wool and raw staple cotton, blended together by a "scribbling" process to ensure their thorough admix ture, before spinning. The wool and cotton are blended in vary ing proportions chiefly according to the particular class of fabric for which it is intended, and the peculiar characteristics of texture, such as the "handle" or "feel" and other features that may be desired in the finished fabric. A typical and recognized standard quality of angola yarn is produced from wool and cotton blended in the proportion of 8o% wool and 2o% cotton.

The admixture of cotton with the short staple' "shoddy" wool not only improves the spinning properties of the latter and thus enables yarn of finer counts to be spun than would be possible from the short fibres of wool themselves, but the cotton staple also serves to impart to the yarn a soft and mellow "feel," which is one of the distinctive characteristics of Angola fabrics.

Angola yarn is manufactured into quite a large variety of textile fabrics, both knitted and woven, in each of which classes of goods it may be employed either alone or in combination with yarns produced from any other class of textile fibre, as cotton, silk, artificial silk, and worsted yarns. In the production of cer tain types of warp-faced worsted fabrics, as exemplified in ama zon, covert coating, venetian, and similar varieties, angola yarn is sometimes employed for the weft series of threads which, in fabrics of this class, lies entirely obscured at the back of the cloth and is not, therefore, exposed to wear and tear.

Angola yarn, however, is chiefly employed alone both as warp and weft in the production of so-called "union" fabrics, usually of some simple weave structure as the plain calico or "tabby" weave; a regular twill weave such as the 3-end or 4-end (2 X 2) twill; the 2 X 2 matt or dice, or similar elementary structure. Fabrics of this class are made up into garments for underwear, as undervests and shirts, also for night attire, as pyjamas, night dresses and dressing gowns.

It should be noted that the term angola is not synonymous with angora, the name of a famous breed of goats that yield a valuable fleece of wool known as "mohair." (H. N.) ANGONI. The name, an appellation bestowed by the Bantu immediately north of them, is recognized by the Angoni as their own, and they are also known as Tuta, Gwangwara, Zitu and Fiti according to their geographical position. The Angoni, now a ruling caste rather than a distinct race, were originally a Zulu clan which was expelled by Chaka in the 19th century. Under Zwangendaba they marched northwards, incorporating with them selves Swazi and Thonga and elements of other tribes whom they victoriously traversed. During their progress they dropped colo nies which have become incorporated into the neighbouring tribes. Thus the Anyanja absorbed a section known as Chekusi's men, which broke off and settled near Chindundo, south-west of Lake Nyasa. The main body, however, passed northward and reached Ufipa at the south-east corner of Lake Tanganyika, where they remained till the death of Zwangendaba in the late '4os.

The Angoni live partly in scattered homesteads, partly in vil lages. These are neither fenced nor fortified except in the case of a few chiefs. Quite often the village consists only of a man, his wives and children and his slaves, but a chief would naturally be surrounded by a larger following, whose huts are usually grouped in a circle round the enclosure containing the chief's hut. The huts are conical with a pointed roof, often 3oft. in height, fully covering the substructure, a 5-ft. wall of poles and clay. It is thatched with thick bundles of grass supported by converging poles. The diameter varies but may reach 38f t., though it is usually considerably smaller. Almost certainly the huts are indigenous and not Zulu, as they are similar to those of their neighbours and their size and structure are doubtless con ditioned by the local materials. Their weapons are of the Zulu pattern : a heavy thrusting spear, a few throwing spears, a large oval shield of unframed ox-hide and a club or a battle axe.

Polygyny prevails, each wife owning a separate hut, and the number of wives is only limited by a man's means and ability to pay the dowry. The clans are exogamous and patrilineal, but the family of the mother must be of distinguished blood when it is a question of the succession to the chieftainship.

The political organization varies with the different groups according to the degree to which the Angoni have imposed them selves on the indigenous population. The chief rules as a military autocrat, but his power is limited by his indunas or military chiefs. Those near him will be kept under control, whereas the outliers may become almost independent. The military organization is based on the Zulu model, for all freemen are liable to service, enrolled in regiments, constantly disciplined and kept in garrisons. They are under the command of indunas, who form a military and civil council to the chief. As among the Zulu, the regiments are not allowed to marry until given permission to do so by the chief.

Their religious system includes a deity Mulungu, the director or governor of the earth, and the worship of dead ancestors (mahoka), who are more intimately concerned with the affairs of men. The soul is indestructible and sacrifices are made at the graves of the dead to propitiate even more than to supplicate the ancestral spirits. The nature of mulungu is not quite clear, but as it is applied also to the spirits of the dead and as local deities seem to be in many instances identical with deceased chiefs it is probable that mulungu is the great impersonal spirit of all men who are dead.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Sir

H. H. Johnston, British Central Africa (1897) ; Bibliography.--Sir H. H. Johnston, British Central Africa (1897) ; W. A. Elmslie, Among the Wild Angoni (19o1) ; F. Fulleborn, Das Deutsche Njasse- and Ruwuma-Gebiet (1906) ; A. Werner, British Central Africa (1906). (J. H. D.)

wool, yarn, cotton, fabrics and angoni