INDEPENDENCE, a city in the coal, oil and gas belt of south-eastern Kansas, U.S.A., on the Verdigris river; the county seat of Montgomery county. It is on Federal highway 75, and is served by the Missouri Pacific and the Santa Fe railways. The population was 10,90o in 1925 (State census), and 12,782 by the United States census, 193o. It is the supply and shipping point for a rich agricultural district, and for the oil and gas fields near by, and is the headquarters of leading oil companies of the mid-conti nent field. Its manufactures include flour, sash and doors, oil field machinery, revolving doors and vitrified and pressed brick. The city was founded and incorporated in 1869.