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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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Indazoles Benzopyrazoles
Indazoles (benzopyrazoles), In Chemistry, Are Crystalline, Feebly Basic Organic Compounds. Indazole Itself Has Formula (i.) And Is Prepared By Warming An Aqueous Solu Tion Of O-toluenediazonium Chloride (see Diazo Compounps). It Is A Crystalline Solid Melting At 146° C (boiling Point, 27o° C). This Ring Formation Is Exhibited Only By ...

Indemnity
Indemnity, In Law, An Undertaking, Either Express Or Im Plied, To Compensate Another For Loss Or Damage, Or For Trouble Or Expense Incurred; Also The Sum So Paid (see Compensation ; Contract; And Insurance: Marine). An Act Of Indemnity Is A Statute Passed For The Purpose Either Of Relieving Persons ...

Indene
Indene, A Hydrocarbon Found In The Fraction Of The Coal Tar Distillate (see Coal Tar) Boiling Between 176° And 182° C And Isolated From This Material By Means Of The Picrate (m.p. 98° C). It Is A Colourless Mobile Liquid Boiling At 179.5-180.5° C With A Specific Gravity 1.04 At ...

Indent
Indent, In Commerce, An Order For Goods. The Derivation Is From Lat. Indentare,.to Bite A Bit Out, Hole, To Notch. The Term Is More Usually Employed In Foreign Than In Home Trade. An In Dent Is Fully Detailed To Prevent Error, And Gives Full Instructions As To Quality, Pattern Or ...

Indenture
Indenture, A Law Term For A Special Form Of Deed Exe Cuted Between Two Or More Parties, And Having Counterparts Or Copies Equal To The Number Of Parties. These Copies Were All Drawn On One Piece Of Vellum Or Paper Divided By A Toothed Or "indented" Line. The Copies When ...

Independence
Independence, A City In The Coal, Oil And Gas Belt Of South-eastern Kansas, U.s.a., On The Verdigris River; The County Seat Of Montgomery County. It Is On Federal Highway 75, And Is Served By The Missouri Pacific And The Santa Fe Railways. The Population Was 10,90o In 1925 (state Census), ...

Independence_2
Independence, A City Of Missouri, U.s.a., Tom. E. Of Kansas City And 3m. S. Of The Missouri River, At An Altitude Of I,000ft. ; The County Seat Of Jackson County. It Is Served By The Chicago And Alton, The Kansas City Southern And The Missouri Pacific Railways. The Population Was ...

Independents
Independents, In Religion, A Name Used In The 17th Century For Those Holding To The Autonomy Of Each Several Church Or Congregation, Hence Otherwise Known As Congregationalists. (see Congregationalism.) ...

Index Librorum Prohibitorum
Index Librorum Prohibitorum, The Title Of The Official List Of Those Books Which On Doctrinal Or Moral Grounds The Roman Catholic Church Authoritatively Forbids The Members Of Its Communion To Read Or To Possess, Irrespective Of Works For Bidden By The General Rules On The Subject. The Earliest Known Instance ...

Index Numbers
Index Numbers. The Phrase Index Number Is Some Times Applied To Any Series In Which A Chosen Term Is Written As And The Other Terms Expressed As Percentages Of It. The Earlier And More General Use Is, However, Consonant With The Following Definitions : "an Index Number [is] A Number ...

Index
Index, A Word That May Be Understood Either As A Table Of References To A Book Or, Generally, As An Indicator Of The Position Of Information On Any Given Subject. The Classical Latin Word Index Denoted A Discoverer Or Informer, A Catalogue, An Inscrip Tion Or A Book-title, And The ...

India In The British
India In The British Empire It Fell To The Lot Of Lord Canning Both To Suppress The Mutiny And To Introduce The Peaceful Revolution That Followed. He Pre Served His Equanimity Undisturbed In The Darkest Hours Of Peril, And The Strict Impartiality Of His Conduct Incurred Alternate Praise And Blame ...

India Under The Company
India Under The Company The Political History Of The British In India Begins In The 18th Century And In The Struggle For Dominion With The French. On The Death Of Aurangzeb In 1707, The Whole Of Southern India Had Be Come Practically Independent Of Delhi. In The Deccan Proper, The ...

India
India, A Great Country And Empire Of Asia Under British Rule, Inhabited By A Congeries Of Different Races, Speaking Upwards Of 200 Different Languages. The Area Of The Whole Indian Empire, Omitting Burma And Aden, Is 1,575,107 Sq.m., And Its Population Being About Equal To The Area And Popula Tion ...

Indiaman
Indiaman, A Name Applied Early In The Eighteenth Century To The Large Sailing Ships Belonging To The East India Company (q.v.) Which Was Chartered By Queen Elizabeth On Dec. 31, 1600, The Last Day Of The Sixteenth Century. This Charter Conferred The Sole Right Of Trading With The East Indies, ...

Indian And Sinhalese Art
Indian And Sinhalese Art And Archae Ology. Indian Religion And Ritual Exist In Two Forms, Known To Indians As The Vedic And The Agamic Traditions, But More Often Designated By Western Scholars As Respectively Aryan And Brahmanical, And Dravidian (southern) And Popular. Vedic (aryan) Religion Consisted In A Worship Of ...

Indian Architecture Indian And
Indian Architecture; Indian And Sinhalese Art And Ar Chaeology ; Textiles ; Batik.) Bibliography.-e. Aymonier, Histoire De T'ancien Cambodge (stras Bibliography.-e. Aymonier, Histoire De T'ancien Cambodge (stras- Bourg, 1924) ; F. D. K. Bosch, "a Hypothesis As To The Origin Of Indo-javanese Art," In Ripam, Xvii. (1924) ; "het Linga-heiligdom ...

Indian Architecture
Indian Architecture, Like Indian Sculpture, Is Essentially Of Native Origin, Belonging To The Dravidian Rather Than The Aryan Race. The Vedic Ritual Required Neither Images Nor Temples, But The Non-vedic Cults, Such As Those Of The Dragons (nagas), The Tree-spirits (yaksas) And The Goddesses, May Have Had Permanent Shrines With ...

Indian Hemp
Indian Hemp (apocynum Cannobinum), A North Amer Ican Plant Of The Dog-bane Family (apocynaceae), Native To Fields And Thickets From Quebec To British Columbia And Southward To Florida And Lower California. It Is An Erect, Often Much Branched Perennial, I To 4 Ft. High, With Smooth, Oblong, Opposite Leaves, And ...

Indian Law
Indian Law. The Law In Force In British India May Con Veniently Be Divided Into Six Heads: (i) The Law Expressly Made For India By The British Parliament, Or By The Sovereign. (2) Eng Lish Law In Force In India Though Not Expressly Made For India. (3) The Law Made ...

Indian Literature
Indian Literature. In Europe Literature Is, As Re Gards Its Subjects, Largely International, And Any New Fashion, Such As Romanticism, Pessimism, The Psychological Novel, The Detective Novel, Is Quickly Propagated. The Individual Qualities Of Prominent Writers Are Soon Known, Directly Or Through Trans Lations, And Evoke Responses More Or Less ...

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean, The Ocean Bounded North By India And Persia, South By The Northern Margin Of The South Polar Con Tinent (antarctica), West By Arabia And Africa And East By Farther India, The Sunda Islands And West And South Australia. From 3 5 ° South Latitude There Are No Natural ...

Indian Philosophy
Indian Philosophy. It Is Not Possible To Determine Exactly The Dates Of The Indian Systems Of Philosophy. The Fol Lowing, However, May Be Accepted As The Broad Divisions Of The Philosophic Development :—i. The Vedic Period (c. 1500-600 B.c.) ; Ii. The Epic Period (600 B.c. To A.d. 200) ; ...

Indian Pipe
Indian Pipe (monotropa Uniflora), A Saprophytic Herb Of The Family Pyrolaceae, Allied To The Heaths, Called Also Corpse Plant, American Ice-plant And Ghost-flower, Found In Moist, Rich Woods Almost Throughout Temperate And Warm North America And Also In The Himalaya Mountains And Japan. It Is A Smooth Waxy-white Plant, Of ...

Indian Summer
Indian Summer, A Season Of Several Weeks Duration In Late Autumn In The United States Characterized By A Calm Trans Lucent Atmosphere And Mellow Sunshine, In Sharp Contrast To Climatic Conditions Which Precede And Follow It, Especially In Tlae Northeastern States And The Mississippi Valley. The Haziness In The Atmosphere ...

Indian
Indian, An Adjective Originally Derived From India, And Properly Applied To The Peoples And Products Of That Country, But Later, Through A Geographical And Historical Blunder, Transferred To The Peoples Of The New World, Especially Of North America And The West Indian Islands But Also In A Lesser Degree To ...

Indiana
Indiana, Popularly Known As The "hoosier State," Is One Of The North-central Group Of The United States Of America, And The Second State To Be Erected Out Of The Old North-west Territory. It Is Located Between Lat. 47' And 41 ° 5o' N. And Long. 84° 49' And 88° 2' ...

Indianapolis
Indianapolis, The Capital And Largest City Of Indiana, U.s.a., On The White River, At About The Exact Geographical Centre Of The State ; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Marion County. It Is On Federal Highways 31, 36, 4o And 52; Has A Municipal Airport; And Is ...

Indiana_2
Indiana, A Borough In The West Central Part Of Pennsyl Vania, U.s.a., 46m. N.e. Of Pittsburgh ; The County Seat Of Indiana County. It Is On Federal Highways 119 And 422, And Is Served By The Buffalo, Rochester And Pittsburgh And The Pennsylvania Rail Ways. The Population In 1920 Was ...

Indianola
Indianola, A City Of Iowa, U.s.a., I8m. S. By E. Of Des Moines; The County Seat Of Warren County. It Is On Federal High Way 65, And Is Served By The Burlington And The Rock Island Rail Ways. The Population In 193o (federal Census) Was 3,488. It Is The Seat ...

Indicator
Indicator. Many Kinds Of Apparatus Are Included Under This Name, Which, In General, Implies A Device To Reveal Conditions Not Otherwise Apparent To The Eye Or Hearing. Thus Depths In A Tank Are Indicated By A Float, Either Showing A Rod Above, Or Moving A Chain Over A Pulley And ...

Indicators
Indicators, In Chemistry, Are Substances Which Are Used, In Virtue Of Colour Changes Which They Undergo, In Order To Show When A Certain Reaction Has Reached Completion, Or To Give In Formation As To The Acidity Of A Solution (see Also Chemistry: Analytical). Thus, If A Solution Of A Neutral ...

Indiction
Indiction, A Period Or Cycle Of Is Years, The Origin Of Which Is Obscure. It Is Thought To Have Originated In Egypt In A.d. 312, The Year Of The Defeat Of Mascentius. The Assessment And Dating Of Roman Tax Censuses Took Place Every 15 Years (the "indiction" Period), And Became ...

Indictment
Indictment, In Law, A Formal Accusation In Writing Laid Before A Grand Jury And By Them Presented On Oath To A Court Of Competent Jurisdiction. In England The Accusation Is Drawn Up In The Form Of A "bill" Of Indictment, Prepared By The Officer Of The Court Or The Legal ...

Indifferentism
Indifferentism In Philosophy Has Several Partly Dis Connected And Partly Opposed Meanings. (i) In Scholastic Logic It Means The View That Objects Are Neither Particular Only Nor Uni Versal Only, But Are Indifferently Particular Or Universal According To The Point Of View From Which They Are Regarded. This View Was ...

Indigen
Indigen, The Horticultural Term Applied To A Plant Species Or Form Which Originated In A Natural Habitat In Distinction From Cultigen (q.v.), A Plant Form Originated In Cultivation. ...

Indigo Bird
Indigo-bird (cyanospiza Cyanea), A North American Bird Of The Finch Family (fringillidae), Breeding Chiefly In The North-eastern United States And Adjacent Canada, But Extending Westward To Colorado And Texas. The Adult Male Is Of A Deep Blue Nearly All Over, Changing To Brownish In The Autumn. The Female Is Brown ...

Indigo
Indigo, One Of The Most Important And Valuable Of All Dye Stuffs, Until About 1890 Was Obtained Entirely From Plants, Mainly Those Of The Genus Indigo/era (leguminosae) Of Which The I. Sumatrana And I. Arrecta Have Been Most Important, Though In China The Polygonum Tinctorium, And In West Africa The ...

Indium
Indium, A Soft Malleable Metal About As Heavy As Tin. Chemically It Is An Element (symbol In, Atomic Number 49, Atomic Weight 114.8) Included In The Periodic Group Containing Aluminium, Gallium And Thallium (see Periodic Law). It Melts At 155° C And Vaporizes Above 1,450° C. Its Specific Gravity Is ...

Individualism
Individualism, In Political Philosophy, The Theory Of Government According To Which The Good Of The State Consists In The Well-being And Free Initiative Of The Component Members (lat. Individualis, That Which Is Not Divided, An Individual). From This Standpoint, As Contrasted With That Of The Various Forms Of Social Ism ...

Individuality
Individuality. The Individuality Of Organisms Is A Difficult Problem Of Scientific Philosophy. The Common View Is That Each Obviously Separate Organic Entity Is An Individual—man, Cow, Beetle, Oak-tree, Cabbage. But Difficulties Arise When We Take Lower Organisms Into Account, And Look Deeper Into Life History. Many Animals Such As Polyps ...

Indo Aryan Languages
Indo-aryan Languages. This Term Applies To The Members Of The Indo-european Family Of Languages Which Are Spoken In India At The Present Time. They Are All Satem Languages. Classification.—the Oldest Specimens Of Indo-aryan Speech Very Closely Resemble The Oldest Iranian. The Development Of The Two Old Forms Of Speech Went ...

Indo Europeans
Indo-europeans. The Term Indo-european Appears To Have Been Invented By The Well-known Physician And Physicist Thomas Young. In An Article In The Loth Volume Of The Quarterly Review (oct. 1813) He Uses The Word Without Any Remark As To Its Being A New Coinage. The Word Was Devised Especially To ...

Indo Scythians
Indo-scythians, A Name Commonly Given To Various Tribes From Central Asia, Who Invaded Northern India And Founded Kingdoms There. They Comprise The Sakas, The Yue-chi Or Kushans, And The Ephthalites Or Hunas. ...

Indole Benzopyrrole
Indole (benzopyrrole), First Prepared By A. Baeyer In 1866 And Regarded By Him As The Parent Substance Of Indigo. It Crystallizes In Colourless Lustrous Leaflets, Melts At 5 2 ° C, Boils At 2 54 ° C, Is Readily Volatile In Steam And Easily Soluble In Water, Alcohol, Ether Or ...

Indonesia
Indonesia, A Term Used To Indicate The Group Of Islands Variously Known As The East Indian Archipelago, The East Indies And Philippine Islands, Etc. In Ethnologic Usage The Term Relates To A Family Speaking Languages Of A Well Defined Type, And Having Physical Characteristics Which Are Easily Recognizable. (see Ethnology.) ...

Indonesian And Further Indian
Indonesian And Further Indian Art. To A Certain Extent, And In A Broad Historical Survey, All Of Further India Or Indo-china (burma, Siam, Malay Peninsula, Cambodia, Campa And Indonesia [sumatra, Java, And Bali]) May Be Treated As A Unit. Throughout This Area The Population Consists Essentially Of Sino-tibetan Races Who ...

Indore
Indore, An Indian State In The Central India Agency, Com Prising The Dominions Of The Maharaja Holkar. Its Area, Exclusive ' Of Guaranteed Holdings On Which It Has Claims, Is 9,518 Sq.m. And The Population In 1931 Was 1,318,277. As In The Case Of Most States In Central India The ...

Indra
Indra, In Vedic Hindu Mythology God Of The Clear Sky And Greatest And Best Of Deities; He Is Lauded In Some 300 Hymns (or Quite A Fourth Of The Rig-veda). Unquestionably Of Zoroastrian Origin, The Boghaz Keui Inscription (c. 5400 In Asia Minor) Men Tions Indra With Varuna And Asvins, ...

Indre Et Loire
Indre-et-loire, A Department Of France, Consisting Of Nearly The Whole Of The Old Province Of Touraine And Of Small Portions Of Orleanais, Anjou And Poitou. Pop. Area 2,377 Sq.m. It Is Bounded North By The Departments Of Sarthe And Loir-et-cher, East By Loir-et-cher And Indre, South And South-west By Vienne ...

Indre
Indre, A Department Of France, Formed In 1790 From Parts Of The Old Provinces Of Berry, Orleanais, Marche And Touraine. Pop. (1931) Area 2,666 Sq.m. It Is Bounded North By The Department Of Loir-et-cher, East By Cher, South By Creuse And Haute-vienne, South-west By Vienne And North-west By Indre Et-loire. ...

Indri
Indri, The Largest Of The Existing Lemurs. Belonging To The Family Lemuridae (see Primates) It Typifies The Subfamily Indrisinae, Which Includes The Avahi And The Sifakas (q.v.). From Both These It Is Distinguished By Its Rudimentary Tail, Measuring Only A Couple Of Inches In Length, Whence Its Name Of Indris ...

Induction Coil
Induction Coil, An Electrical Instrument For Producing High Electromotive Force, Consisting Of Two Coils Of Wire Wound One Over The Other On A Core Formed Of A Bundle Of Thin Iron Wires Or A Number Of Thin Iron Sheets. An Induction Coil Is Thus Essen Tially An Electromagnet With Two ...

Induction
Induction, Means Sometimes Generalization ; Sometimes The Whole Series Of Steps By Which A Generalization Is Discovered And Established (that Is, The Processes Of Observation, Formation Of Hypothesis, Verification Of Hypothesis By Further Observations Or Experiments, And Formulation Of The Generalization In A Man Ner That Will Best Fit All ...

Indulgence
Indulgence, A Term Defined By The Official Catechism Of The Roman Catholic Church In England As "the Remission Of The Temporal Punishment Which Often Remains Due To Sin After Its Guilt Has Been Forgiven." This Remission May Be Either Total (plenary) Or Partial, According To The Terms Of The Indulgence. ...

Indulines
Indulines, Dark Blue Dyestuffs Belonging To The Azine Class. (see Dyes, Synthetic.) ...

Induna
Induna, A Zulu-bantu Word For An Officer Or Head Of A Regi Ment Among The Kafir (zulu-xosa) Tribes Of South Africa. It Is Formed From The Inflexional Prefix In And Dung, A Lord Or Master. ...

Indus
Indus, One Of The Three Greatest Rivers Of Northern India. Its Sources Are In The Glaciers Of The Himalayan Peaks Of The Kailas Group, Which Overlook The Mansarowar Lake And The Sources Of The Brahmaputra, The Sutlej And The Gogra To The South-east. Three Affluents, Flowing North-west, Unite About 80° ...

Industria
Industria (mod. Montefi Da Po), An Ancient Town Of Liguria, 20 M. N.e. Of Augusta Taurinorum. Its Original Name Was Bodincomagus, From The Ligurian Name Of The Padus (mod. Po), Bodincus, I.e., Bottomless, And This Still Appears On Inscrip Tions Of The Early Empire. It Stood On The Right Bank ...

Industrial Accidents
Industrial Accidents. In The Term Industrial Acci Dent, The Adjective Implies That The Accident Results In Injury To A Person And Has Some Causal Connection With Work, Employ Ment Or Occupation. The Relevant Wording Of The Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923, Of Great Britain Runs ". . . Accident Arising Out ...

Industrial Arbitration In The
Industrial Arbitration In The United States Industrial Arbitration, As Distinct From Mediation, Conciliation, And Other Pacificatory Processes, And From Commercial Arbitration, Is Here Used To Mean The Adjudication Of Disputes Or Differences Between Management And Labour, Voluntarily Submitted By The Parties To Judges Of Their Own Choice For Final Decision. ...

Industrial Architecture
Industrial Architecture. This Article Is Con Cerned With The Design Of Contemporary Buildings In Which Manu Facture, Purchase, Sale, Exchange Or Transport Of Commodities Is Carried On, Or The Financing Of Business Enterprises Is Negotiated. Architecturally, It Represents The Most Important Developments Of The Early Loth Century, Which Is Primarily ...

Industrial Articles
Industrial Articles. The Various Aspects Of In Dustry, Its Development And Ramifications Are Fully Dealt With Either In Key Articles Or Under Separate Headings, While In The Separate Articles Devoted To The Great Industries Themselves Will Be Found Historical Introductions Of Those Industries Together With Indications Of The General Linking ...

Industrial Buildings Interiors
Industrial Buildings : Interiors Interior Surfaces.—the Interior Surfaces Of Factory Build Ings Are Largely Controlled By The Manufacturer And There Are Many Ways Of Treating Wall Surfaces, Ceilings And Floors. A Grano Lithic Concrete Surface Has Been Found Satisfactory, And Is Used Extensively In England. Maple And Woods Offering Similar ...

Industrial Buildings
Industrial Buildings It Was Not Until The World War That Architects And Engineers Had Given To This Class Of Building Any Special Study And The Out Come Of Their Efforts Has Resulted In Increased Production And Better Working Conditions For The Operatives. An Increase In The Interest In Factories From ...

Industrial Chemistry
Industrial Chemistry May Be Broadly Defined As Applied Chemistry, Whether In Testing Laboratories Or In Chemical Industry. Recent Compilations By The National Research Council Indicate More Than ',coo Industrial Research Laboratories In America, And To These Should Be Added Laboratories Which Analyse Materials Against Specifications, Exercise Control Over Some In ...

Industrial Councils
Industrial Councils. In The Principal British In Dustries Working Conditions In The Widest Sense—including Wages, Hours Of Labour And Terms Of Employment Generally—are Normally Settled Or Adjusted By Some Form Of Direct Negotiation Between Employers Organised In Associations And Workpeople Organised In Trade Unions. As Between These Organisations There Has ...

Industrial Court
Industrial Court. The Industrial Court Is A Per Manent Court Of Industrial Arbitration To Which The British Minister Of Labour Can Refer, With The Consent Of Both Parties, Industrial Disputes For Settlement. The Court Had Its Origin In The Recommendations Of The Whitley Committee (report Of 1918) Which Were In ...

Industrial Electrification Of Industry
Associations, Industrial; Electrification Of Industry; Fatigue In Industry; Industrial Accidents ; Industrial Councils ; Industrial Court; Industrial Fatigue Research Board; Industrial Insurance; Industrial Psychology; In Dustrial Relations ; Industrial Revolution ; Industrial Transference; Industrial Welfare And Medicine; Indus Trial Workers Of The World; And National Workshops. A Special Article, Industry ...

Industrial Fatigue Research Board
Industrial Fatigue Research Board, A Body Constituted In 1918 In Great Britain Under The Control Of The Medical Research Council To Study, On Scientific Lines, Prob Lems Relating To The Human Factor In Industry. It Is Responsible For A Special Series Of Published Reports. (see Fatigue In Indus Try; And ...

Industrial Insurance
Industrial Insurance. The System Of Industrial Insurance In Its Present Form Has Been Evolved From The Endeav Ours On The Part Of Small Local Burial Societies To Secure To Persons In Humble Circumstances A Sum Sufficient To Defray Their Funeral Expenses. Many Of These Small Societies Are Still In Existence, ...

Industrial Psychology
Industrial Psychology. Industrial Psychology May Be Defined As The Study Of The Conduct Of Men And Women In Their Capacity As Wage Earners. It Aims At Describing And Explain Ing All Those Activities By Means Of Which A Person Adjusts Himself To His Economic Environment ; Hence It Must Take ...

Industrial Relations
Industrial Relations. This Term Is Used To Denote The Relations Of All Those Engaged In The Production And Distribution Of Goods And The Rendering Of Services. It Involves The Methods By Which The Proceeds Of These Activities Are Divided Between Employers And Workers Or Different Classes Of Workers, And The ...

Industrial School
Industrial School (in Great Britain) A School For The Education And Vocational Training Of Neglected Or Delinquent Children, Under 14 And Generally Under 12 Years Of Age When They Are Sent There By A Court. A Child May Be Committed To An Indus Trial School For Such Period As The ...

Industrial Transference
Industrial Transference. In The Normal Course Of Industrial Development The Decline Of Particular Industries (or, As Has More Frequently Happened, Of Particular Crafts) Occurs Gradually, And The Adjustment Of The Personnel Of The Trade Or Craft To Its Reduced Demand For Labour Accomplishes Itself, With Out Mass Distress, Through Such ...

Industrial Welfare And Medicine
Industrial Welfare And Medicine, A Term Used In Great Britain To Embrace Not Only The Activities Of Indus Trial Medical Services But The Control Of Environment And Working Conditions, The Study Of The Effects Of Poisons And Other Occupa Tional Health Hazards And The Investigation Of The Mortality And Morbidity ...

Industry
Industry, The Quality Of Steady Application To Work, Dili Gence; Hence Employment In Some Particular Form Of Productive Work, Especially Of Manufacture; Or A Particular Class Of Produc Tive Work Itself, A Trade Or Manufacture. ...

Ine
Ine, West Saxon King, Of The Line Of Ceawlin, Succeeded Cead Walla In 688. In The Earlier Part Of His Reign He Was At War With Kent, But Peace Was Made In 694, When The Men Of Kent Gave Compensation For The Death Of Mul, Brother Of Ceadwalla, Whom They ...

Ineboli
Ineboli, A Town On The North Coast Of Asia Minor, 7o M. W. Of Sinub (sinope). Ineboli Represents The Ancient Abonou Teichos, Famous As The Birthplace Of The False Prophet Alexander, Who Established There (2nd Century A.d.) An Oracle Of The Snake God Glycon-asclepius. Alexander Obtained Leave From The Em ...

Infamy
Infamy, Public Disgrace Or Loss Of Character. Infamy Oc Cupied A Prominent Place In Roman Law, And Took The Form Of A Censure On Individuals Pronounced By A Competent Authority In The State. Such A Censure Involved Disqualification For Certain Rights Both In Public And In Private Law. In English ...

Infancy
Infancy, In Medical Practice, The First Year Of Life. On Being Born The Normal Infant Cries Lustily, Drawing Air Into Its Lungs. As Soon As The Umbilical Cord Which Unites The Child To The Mother Has Ceased To Beat, It Is Tied About 2in. From The Child's Navel And Is ...

Infant Incubators
Infant Incubators Tarnier's Incubator.—the First Incubator Designed For Rearing Children Who Are Too Weak To Survive Under Normal Conditions, Or Who Are Prematurely Born, Was That Of Dr. Tarnier. It Was Con Structed In 188o And Was First Used At The Paris Maternity Hospital. Its Form Is That Of A ...

Infant Schools
Infant Schools. The Provision In Modern Times Of Systematised Training For Children Of Pre-school Age May Be Dated From The Village School At Waldbach Founded By Jean Frederic Oberlin In 1774. James Buchanan Started A School For Infants In Robert Owen's Mill, New Lanark, 1800. A New Direction Was Given ...

Infant
Infant, In Non-legal Use, A Very Young Child, A Baby, Or One Of An Age Suitable To Be Taught In An "infant School"; In Law, A Person Under Full Age, And Therefore Subject To Disabilities Not Affecting Persons Who Have Attained Full Age. This Article Deals With "infants" In The ...

Infante
Infante, A Title Of The Sons Of The Sovereigns Of Spain And Portugal, The Corresponding Infanta Being Given To The Daughters. (from Lat. In F Ans, Young Child.) The Title Is Not Borne By The Eldest Son Of The King Of Spain, Who Is Prince Of Asturias, Il Principe De ...

Infantile Paralysis Poliomyelitis
Infantile Paralysis (poliomyelitis) In Its Developed Form Is A Paralytic Disease, Of Children Chiefly, But Not Exclusively. It Prevails During The Summer-autumn Period Of The Year. The Most Susceptible Ages Are Up To The Fifth, And From The Fifth To The Tenth Years Of Life. One-half Or More Of The ...

Infantry In Modern War
Infantry In Modern War The Net Result Of The Franco-german War On Infantry Tactics, So Far As It Can Be Summed Up In A Single Phrase, Was To Transfer The Fire-fight To The Line Of Skirmishers. Henceforward The Old And Correct Sense Of The Word "skirmishers" Is Lost, And Their ...

Infantry
Infantry, The Collective Name Of Soldiers Who Fight On Foot. The Word Is Derived Ultimately From Lat. In F Ans, Infant, But It Is Not Clear How The Word Came To Be Used To Mean Soldiers. The Suggestion That It Comes From A Guard Or Regiment Of A Span Ish ...

Infectious Fevers
Infectious Fevers. See Chickenpdx, Measles, Scarlet Fever, Typhoid Fever, Whooping-cough, Etc. Inference: See Locie. ...

Inferiority Complex
Inferiority Complex, A Psychoanalytical Term, Sig Nifying A Complex, Or Pattern Of Emotionally Toned Ideas Concern Ing What The Subject Feels To Be His Own Inferiority. The In Feriority May Actually Exist, Or It May Be Imaginary. The Emo Tions Attaching To The Ideas Of Inferiority Are Supposed To Cause ...

Infinite
Infinite, A Term Used In Mathematics, Philosophy And Theology With Various Meanings Which Are Apt To Cross Each Other And Cause Confusion. It Is Not Possible To Do More Here Than Indi Cate The Chief Notions Associated With The Term. Negative And Positive.—speaking Broadly, One May Distin Guish Between The ...

Infinitive
Infinitive, A Form Of The Verb, Properly A Verbal Noun, But Usually Taken As A Mood. (see Grammar.) Latin Gramma Rians Gave It The Name Of In Finitus Or In Finitivus Modes, As Not Having Definite Persons Or Numbers. The Infinitive Form Of The English Verb Consists Of The Preposition ...

Infinity
Infinity, A Term Employed In Common Usage For Anything Of Vast Size, But Strictly Applicable Only With The Implication Of The Immeasurably Or Innumerably Great, Or Of The Impossibility Of Being Measured Or Counted. In The Strict Sense The Term Is Employed In Metaphysics And Theology And Mathematics. The Term ...

Inflammation And Its Sequels
Inflammation And Its Sequels. The Protean Character Of Inflammation Is Sufficient Explanation Of The Fact That None Of The Numerous Attempts To Define The Condition Has Been Entirely Successful. The Term Represents The Sum Of Changes Loc Ally Produced In A Living Tissue By The Action Of An Irritant, And ...

Inflation And Deflation
Inflation And Deflation. If We Define Inflation As An Abnormal Increase In The Quantity Of Purchasing Power, And Deflation As An Abnormal Decrease In The Quantity Of Purchasing Power, The First Issue Which Arises Is : Under What Technical Con Ditions Are Inflation And Deflation Respectively Possible? This Question Cannot ...

Inflexion
Inflexion, The Action Of Bending Inwards, Or The Condi Tion Of Being Bent Or Curved (from Lat. Inflectere, To Bend). In Optics, The Term "inflexion" Was Used By Newton For What Is Now Known As "diffraction Of Light" (q.v.). For Inflexion In Geo Metry See Curve. Inflexion Of The Voice ...

Inflorescence
Inflorescence, The Arrangement Of The Flowers On The Axis, Or The Ramification Of The Floral Axis, Composed Of The Rachis, Which Forms The Stalk Supporting The Flower Or Cluster Of Flowers, Called The Peduncle. A Flower Having No Stalk Is Called Sessile. The Floral Axis May Be Shortened, Assuming A ...

Influence Line
Influence Line, In Engineering, A Curve Showing, For One Component Part Of A Beam Or Truss, The Shearing Force, Bend Ing Moment, Stress Or Deflection For All Positions Of A Moving Load. (see Bridges : Construction.) ...

Influence
Influence, In Astrology (q.v.) An Ethereal Fluid, Supposed To Flow From The Stars, Which Affected The Course Of Events On Earth And The Destiny And Character Of Man. The Word Is Derived From Lat. Influere, To Flow In. For The Law As To "undue Influence" See Contract. ...

Influenza
Influenza. The Term Influenza Will Be Used To Imply "a Pandemic Outburst Of Disease Characterized, Clinically, By A Rapid Course, Catarrh Of The Respiratory Tract, Pyrexia And Some Degree Of Prostration; And Epidemiologically, By A Tendency To Occur In Several Successive Waves At Short Intervals Of Time." This Pro Visional ...