INDEPENDENCE, a city of Missouri, U.S.A., tom. E. of Kansas City and 3m. S. of the Missouri river, at an altitude of I,000ft. ; the county seat of Jackson county. It is served by the Chicago and Alton, the Kansas City Southern and the Missouri Pacific railways. The population was 11,686 in 192o (88% native white) 15,296 in 193o, United States census. There are various manufacturing industries, with an output in 1925 valued at $4,231,807. Independence was laid out and chosen as the county seat in 1827, and was chartered as a city in 1849. In 1831 Joseph Smith selected a tract here to be the site of the New Jerusalem, and was followed in 1832 by some 1, 50o Mormons from Ohio, but they were not welcome to the "Gentile" inhabi tants, and in 1833 they were driven out. In 1867-69 a few families belonging to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (monogamists) settled here, and by 1881 they had built a church. In 1907 a number of Mormons from Utah came to Independence, moving the headquarters of the "Central States' Mission" from Kansas City, and establishing a publication office. After 1831, until its river landing was destroyed by flood in Independence was headquarters of the wagon-trains starting west over the Santa Fe, the Old Salt Lake and the Oregon trails.