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Indiana

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INDIANA, popularly known as the "Hoosier State," is one of the north-central group of the United States of America, and the second State to be erected out of the old North-west Territory. It is located between lat. 47' and 41 ° 5o' N. and long. 84° 49' and 88° 2' W. Indiana is bounded on the north by Michigan and Lake Michigan, on the east by Ohio, on the south by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, and on the west by Illinois. In size Indiana ranks 37th among the States of the Union, its total area being 36,354 sq.m., of which 309 sq.m. exclusive of its Lake Michigan jurisdiction are water surface.

Physical Features.—Topographically, Indiana is similar to Ohio and Illinois, the greater part of its surface being undulating prairie land, with a range of sand-hills in the north and a chain of picturesque and rocky hills, known as "knobs," some of which rise to a height of Soo ft. above the surrounding country, in the southern counties along the Ohio river. This southern border of hills is the edge of the "Cumberland plateau" physiographic prov ince. In the northern portion of the State there are a number of lakes of glacial origin of which the largest are English lake in Stark county, James lake and Crooked lake in Steuben county, Turkey lake and Tippecanoe lake in Kosciusko county and Lake Maxinkuckee in Marshall county. In the limestone region of the south there are numerous caves, the most notable being Wyan dotte cave in Crawford county, next to Mammoth cave the larg est in the United States. In the southern and south-central part of the State, particularly in Orange county, there are many min eral springs; the best known are French Lick and West Baden.

The larger streams flow in a general south-westerly direction, and the greater part of the State is drained into the Ohio through the Wabash river and its tributaries. The Wabash, which has a total length of more than Soo m., has its source in the western part of Ohio, and flows in north-west, south-west and south across the State, emptying into the Ohio river and forming for a con siderable distance the boundary between Indiana and Illinois. Its principal tributaries are the Salamanie, Mississinewa, Wild Cat, Tippecanoe and White rivers. Of these the White river is by far the most important, being second only to the Wabash itself in ex tent of territory drained. It is formed by the confluence of its East and West Forks, almost 5o m. above its entrance into the Wabash, which it joins about Ioo m. above the Ohio. Other por tions of the State are drained by the Kankakee, a tributary of the Illinois ; the St. Joseph and its principal branch, the Elkhart, which flow north through the south-west corner of Michigan and empty into Lake Michigan; the St. Mary's and another St. Joseph, whose confluence forms the Maumee, which empties into Lake Erie; and the White Water, which drains a considerable portion of the south-west part of the State into the Ohio.

The soil of the greater part of the State consists of a drift deposit of loose calcareous loam, which extends to a considerable depth, and which is exceedingly fertile. In the Ohio and White Water river valleys a sandstone and limestone formation pre dominates. The north and north-central portions of the State, formerly rather swampy, have become since the clearing of the forest and drainage as productive as the south-central. The most fertile part of the State is the Wabash valley; the least fertile, the sandy region of small extent immediately south of Lake Michigan.

A large portion of the central and northern part and a consider able area in the south-west corner of Indiana have been included in drainage enterprises. About three-fourths of these enterprises were reported as having been organized for the purpose of draining land that was swampy or so generally wet as to interfere with profitable cultivation. In 1930, 80,058 of the 181,570 farms reported land having drainage. In the same year 6,806,417 ac. of the total farm-land of 19,688,675 ac. was reported as pro vided with drainage. The operating drainage enterprises in 193o consisted of 20,786.8 miles of open ditch and miles of tile drains, and represented a capital investment of $54,I Climate.—The climate of Indiana is unusually equable. The mean annual temperature is about 5 2 ° F, ranging from in the north to S4° in the south. The mean monthly temperature varies from 25° in the months of December and January to 79° in July and August. Cold winds from the Great Lakes region frequently cause a fall in temperature to an extreme of —25° in the north and north-central parts of the State. The mean annual rainfall for the entire State is about 43 in., varying from 35 in. in the north to 46 in. in the Ohio valley.

Government.

Indiana is governed under a Constitution adopted in 1851, which superseded the original State Constitution of 1816. An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed by either branch of the general assembly; if a majority of both houses vote in favour of an amendment and it is favourably voted upon by the general assembly chosen by the next general election, the amendment is submitted to popular vote and a majority vote is necessary for its ratification. The Constitution of 1816 had con ferred the suffrage upon all "white male citizens of the United States of the age of 21 and upward," had prohibited slavery and had provided that no alteration of the Constitution should ever introduce it. The new Constitution contained similar suffrage restrictions, and further by Article xiii., which was voted upon separately, prohibited the entrance of negroes or mulattoes into the State and made the encouragement of their immigration or em ployment an indictable offence. This prohibition was held by the United States Supreme Court in 1866 to be in conflict with the Federal Constitution and therefore null and void. It was not until 1881 that the restriction of the suffrage to "white" males, which was in conflict with the 15th amendment (1870) to the Federal Constitution, was removed by constitutional amendment. Suffrage is now granted to all citizens 21 years old and upward who have lived in Indiana six months immediately preceding the election, and in the township for at least 6o days.

The Australian ballot was adopted in 1889. The general State election (up to 1881 held in October) takes place on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November of even-numbered years. The governor and lieutenant governor (minimum age, 30 years) and the clerk of the supreme court are chosen in presi dential years for a term of four years, the other State officers— secretary of State, attorney general, auditor, treasurer and super intendent of public instruction—every two years. The State legis lature, known as the general assembly, which meets biennially in odd-numbered years and in special session summoned by the gov ernor, consists of a senate of 5o members (minimum age, 25 years) elected for four years, and a house of representatives of ioo mem bers (minimum age, 21 years) elected for two years. Two-thirds of each house constitute a quorum to do business. The governor has the veto power, but a bill may be passed over his veto by a majority of all elected members.

The judiciary consists of a supreme court of five members elected for districts by the State at large for a term of six years, an appellate court (first constituted in 1891) of six members elected for a term of four years and a system of circuit courts with judges elected for six years.

The system of local government has undergone radical changes in recent years. A law of 1899, aimed to separate the legislative and executive functions, provided for the election of legislative bodies in every township and county. These bodies have control of the local expenditures and tax levies, and without their consent the local administrative officers cannot contract debts. In 1905 a new municipal code, probably the most elaborate and complete local government act in the United States, providing for a uniform system of government in all cities and towns, went into effect. Its controlling principle was the more complete separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers. For this purpose all cities are divided into five classes according to population, the power being concentrated and simplified by degrees in the case of smaller cities, and reaching a maximum of separation and com pleteness in class I.; i.e., cities of ioo,000 and over, which included only Indianapolis. In 1921 the system was amended so as to allow cities, at their option, to provide for city planning and to adopt the city manager or commission form of city government. Com munities under 2,500 in population are regarded as towns, and have a separate form of government by a board of trustees.

in the Union as regards population was 1 1 th. The rank was the same in 193o when the population had grown to 3,238,503. In 181o, the year following the erection of the western part of Indiana into Illinois Territory, the population was 24,520; in 182o it had increased to 147,178; in 185o to 988,416; in 1870 to 1,680,63 7 ; in 1890 to 2,19 2,404 ; in 190o to 2, 516,46 2 ; and in 1910 to 2,700,876. The density of population in 193o was 89.8 to the sq.m. ; in 1920, 81.3. The foreign-born white popula tion in 1930 amounted to 225,153, or 7•0% of the whole, and the negro population to 111,982 or 3.5%. The urban population (in places over 2,500) was 55.5% of the whole in 1930, as against 50-6% in 1920.

Finances.

The total true receipts for the year ending Sept. 30, 1931 for the state and its subdivisions were $221,546,561. Of this amount the tax on property furnished $138,341,947; poll taxes $1,585,000; licenses and permits, $27,294,000; special assessments, $6,579,000; fines, forfeits and escheats, subventions and grants, $15,080,000; donations, gifts and pen sion assessments, $1,939,000; highway privilege, rents and in terests, $3,334,000. The total true disbursements were $209, 0532,920. The chief disbursements were: general government, $12,663,000; protection to person and property, $14,276,000; health and sanitation, $4,071,000; highways, $22,770,000; char ities, hospitals and corrections, $15,135,000; schools, libraries, $1,925,000; operation and maintenance of public service enterprises, $7,341,000. The balance in the treasury on Sept. 30, 1931, was $12,513,641. The total gross debt (1931) for the state and its subdivisions, less sinking fund assets, was Education.—Indiana has a well-organized free public school system. Provision was made for such a system in the first State Constitution, by utilizing school lands set aside in all the North west Territory by the Ordinance of 1787, but the existing system is of later growth. The first step toward such a system was a law of 1824 which provided for the election of school trustees in every township and for the erection of school buildings, but made no provision for support. Therefore, before 185o what schools there were were not free. The Constitution of 1851 made further and more complete provisions for a uniform system, and on that basis the general school law of 1852 erected the framework of the exist ing system. It provided for the organization of free schools, sup ported by a property tax, and for county and township control. The movement, however, was retarded in 1858 by a decision of the supreme court holding that under the law of 1852 the system was not "uniform" as provided for by the Constitution. In 1865 a new and more satisfactory law was passed, which, with supplemental legislation, is still in force. Under the existing system administra tive control is vested in a State superintendent elected biennially. County superintendents, county boards, city boards and township trustees are also chosen, the last possessing the important power of issuing school bonds.

In 1921 the State increased the tax for common school support as well as for the support of the higher educational institutions, and provision for teachers' pensions was enacted. There was a tax levy of five cents on each $ioo of taxable property for the support of the higher educational institutions of the State, producing about and a levy of a fraction of a cent for vocational edu cation, which had been introduced by a law of 1913, producing yearly about $115,000. In 1925 the tax levy for higher education was repealed and the State schools received special appropriations. The expenditures for public elementary and secondary schools in 1932 were $57,984,00o as compared with $35,764,00o in 1920; the per capita expenditure based on population 5-17, inclusive, was $73.21 and $50.18 respectively. The proportion of illiterates is very small; in 1930 only 1.7% of the population (of io years old or over) were unable to read and write. Of the total public school enrolment (687,629) in 1932, 526,558 were in the kinder garten and elementary grades and 161,071 in secondary schools.

The average number of days attended per year per pupil en rolled increased from 125.8 in 1920 to 149 in 1932. School attendance has been compulsory since 1897.

The State-supported institutions for the training of teachers are the State normal school (organized 1870) at Terre Haute and the Ball Teachers' college (organized 1918) at Muncie. Other normal schools, which are on the State's "accredited" list but not supported by it, are the Central normal college at Danville and the Teachers' College of Indianapolis at Indianapolis. A State college was opened in 1824 at Bloomington; it was rechartered in 1838 as Indiana university. Purdue university (organized 1869) at Lafayette is the State's school of agriculture and mechanical arts. It received the benefit of the Federal land grants under the Morrill and subsequent acts. In 1933 there were 21 non-State supported educational institutions of college rank within the State. The better known of these included the University of Notre Dame (1842, Roman Catholic) at Notre Dame; DePauw university (1837, Methodist Episcopal) at Greencastle; Butler college (1855, Christian) at Indianapolis; Wabash college (1832, non-sectarian) at Crawfordsville; and Valparaiso university.

Charities and Correctio.

The charitable and correctional institutions of Indiana are well administered and form one of the most complete and adequate systems possessed by any State in the Union. The State was one of the first to establish schools for the deaf and the blind. The State School for the Deaf was established in 1844, and the School for the Blind in 1847, both being in Indianapolis. The first State hospital for the insane was opened in Indianapolis in 1848 and became the Central State hospital in 1883; other similar institutions are the Logansport State hospital at Logansport, the Richmond State hospital at Richmond, the Evansville State hospital at Evansville, and the Madison State hospital at North Madison. Institutions for the feeble-minded include the School for Feeble-minded Youths at Ft. Wayne, the Farm Colony for Feeble-minded at Butlerville, and the Village for Epileptics at Newcastle. There is a State Soldiers home at LaFayette, a Soldiers and Sailors Orphans' home at Knightstown, a State sanatorium at Rockville and the Indiana University hospitals at Indianapolis. There are six correctional and penal institutions: the Boys' school at Plainfield, the Girls' school at Indianapolis, the prison for women at Indianapolis, the State reformatory at Pendleton, the State prison at Michigan City and the State farm at Putnamville. Indiana has a habitual-criminal law, and a law providing for the sterilization of mental degener ates, confirmed criminals and rapists. There are also an adult probation law and a juvenile court law, the latter applying to every county in the State. Each of the State institutions men tioned above is under the control of a separate bipartisan board. The whole system of public charities is under the supervision of a bipartisan board of State charities (1889), which is appointed by the governor.

Industry, Trade and Transportation.

Agriculture has al ways been an important industry of the State of Indiana. Accord ing to the 193o census of agriculture, the farm population was 808,981, or 25% of the total population. In 1920 the farm acreage was 21,063,000, or 91.3% of the total land area; by the acreage had decreased to 20,518,745, or 86.3% of the total area. The actual acreage of crop land in 1934 was and 10,102,689 ac. produced crops for harvest. The number of farms has also shown a steady decrease since 1900. In 1935 the total number of farms was 200,835 as compared with 205,126 in 192o and 221,897 in 1900. The value of all farm property in creased rapidly during the World War period, reaching a value of in 1920; by 1935 the total value of all farm prop erty had decreased to $1,040,238,254. The number of full farm owners in 1935 was 106,047; tenant farmers numbered The average size of farms which in 185o was 136.2 ac. was 124.1 ac. in Indiana was i6th in the value of its farm crops in 1934, the total product being valued at $155,000,000. The principal crops in which the State has maintained a high relative rank are Indian corn, oats, rye and hay; the acreage devoted to oats and rye has increased considerably since 1910. In 1934, according . to the United States Department of Agriculture at Washington, the acreage of Indiana corn was 4,060,646, and the yield of corn was 106,068,436 bushels; and of wheat, 1,844,966 acres were planted, and the total crop was 31,810,639 bushels; from the 1,125,072 acres in the state devoted to oats the total yield was bushels; and the 2,117,191 acres in the state given to hay produced 1,882,125 tons.

Indiana

Other important staple crops were potatoes, rye and barley, of which the crops in 1934 were respectively 7,057,084 bu., 1,520,129 bu. and 206,029 bu. The tobacco crop in 1934 was lb. valued at $1,002,339• In the production of onions the state ranked second only to that of New York; in the acreage devoted to the commercial tomato crop, Indiana ranked first. Orchards in 1933 produced 819,00o bu. of apples, 221,000 bu. of peaches and 100,00o bu. of pears. The canning industry both for fruits and vegetables is valuable ($27,724,00o in The number of live stock reported on Jan. 1, 1935 was 401,808 horses, valued at ; 81,503 mules, valued at $8,761, 677; 852,829 sheep, valued at $4,605,277; 2,540,071 swine, valued at and 1,604,368 cattle, valued at According to the 193o census there were raised in 1929, 29,048,000 chickens, while those on hand numbered 14,083,000 ; these laid dozens of eggs.

Indiana ranked 12th in value of mineral products for 1934. The chief products, in order of value were : coal, cement, stone and clay. The 14,793,643 tons of coal produced in 1934 represented, in value, about 5o% of the total mineral products of the State. Indiana continued to rank 6th among the States of the Union as a producer of coal. The coal-producing area of the State is part of the eastern-interior coal-field which extends into Illinois and Kentucky and covers approximately 7,50o sq.m. in 22 counties in the south-western part of Indiana. The deposit con sists of workable veins, 5o to 220 ft. in depth, and averaging 8o ft. below the surface. It is a high-grade block, or "splint" coal, remarkably free from sulphur and rich in carbon, peculiarly adapted to blast-furnace use. The limestone industry was second in importance. The chief enterprises were in the Bedford-Bloom ington district in Lawrence and Monroe counties. This district produced about 7 o% of the limestone used in the United States for building, the 1924 output being 3,824,44o tons, valued at $17,269,407. In 1935 production had shrunk to 367,00o tons, val ued at $1,854,245. Indiana oolitic limestone is used in nearly every state and abroad. Beds of brick-clays and potters' clay are distributed throughout the State, the total value of clay products sold by producers in the year 1935 being $79,827. Marls adapted to the manufacture of Portland cement are found along the Ohio river, and in the lake region of the north.

The petroleum and natural gas industries were once of great importance in Indiana. In 1906 the State ranked 5th in the Un ion in the value of natural gas produced and 6th in petroleum; in 1936 the State's rank was 14th and 17th respectively. The natural gas production in (1,400,000,00o cu.ft.) showed a slight increase over that of pre ceding years, while the petroleum production for the foregoing year (757,00o bbl.) showed a decrease.

The industry is located in two fields, the Lima-Indiana field in east-central Indiana, which ex tends into Ohio, and the south western Indiana field, which is continuous with the Illinois field.

There are many mineral springs in the State, and there are fa mous resorts at French Lick and West Baden in Orange county.

A large part of the water bottled is medicinal. In 1923 500,064 gal.

of mineral water, valued at $15 2,08 2, were sold. The total mineral production of the State in 1933 had a value of I ,000.

In the value, extent and producing power of her manufacturing industries Indiana has advanced rapidly. This was largely due to excellent transport facilities, to the discovery and development of natural gas and an abundant coal supply. The number of manu facturing establishments in the State was 8,022 in 3,373 in the number of wage-earners was 197,503 in 1914 and 198,94o in 1933; and the value of their total product was $730, 795,00o in 1914 and $1,040,148,315 in 1933. Comparing the State with other States of the Union in the value of its manu factured products, Indiana ranked ninth in 1933. The most im portant of the manufactured products in 1933 were iron and steel, and these were valued at ($18,151,0oo for blast-furnace products and $116,190,000 for steel and roller-mill products). Next in importance was the manufacture of motor vehicles ($45,883,000) and motor vehicle parts ($33,611,000). Other manufactured products exceeding $10,000,00o in value in were: those of machine shops and foundries, $42,288,000; slaughtering and meat-packing, $44,136,000; furniture, $21,269, 000; electrical machinery and apparatus, $50,380,000; electric and steam railway cars, $4,382,675; coke, not including gas-house production, $13,266,000; flour and grain mill products, $18,238, 000 ; glass, $ 2 2, 5 21,000 ; canned fruits and vegetables, $2 7, 7 24, 000; butter, cheese and condensed milk, $18,474,000; and bread and bakery products, $19,444,000. The most important manufac turing centres were Indianapolis, South Bend, East Chicago, In diana Harbor, Gary, Whiting, Ft. Wayne, Evansville, Hammond, Anderson, Muncie, Michigan City, Mishawaka, Elkhart, Kokomo, Marion, La Porte and Terre Haute, most of them having before the depression a gross annual product of more than $20,000,000. Indianapolis, with a product valued at was by far the chief industrial centre. It was the centre of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals; it was also an important centre for the motor vehicle, furniture and foundry industries. The cities of East Chicago, Gary and Hammond were the centre of the State's iron and steel industry. South Bend was the principal manufacturing centre of Indiana's motor vehicle and clock and watch industries.

During the early period, the settlement of the northern and central portions of the State was greatly retarded by the lack of highways or navigable waterways. The Wabash and Erie canal (1843), which connected Lake Erie with the Ohio river, entering the State in Allen county, east of Ft. Wayne, and following the Wabash river to Terre Haute and the western fork of the White river from Worthington, Greene county, to Petersburg, Pike county, whence it ran south-south-west to Evansville ; and the White Water canal from Hagerstown, Wayne county, mostly along the course of the White Water river, to Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio river, in the south-eastern corner of the State, although now abandoned, served an important purpose in their day. The com pletion (about 185o) of the national road, which traversed the State, still further aided the internal development. With the be ginning of railway construction (about 1847), however, a new era was opened. Indiana is unusually well served with railways, which form a veritable network of track in every part of the State. It is traversed by nearly all the great transcontinental trunk-line systems, and also by important north and south lines. The total railway mileage in Jan., 1935, was 7,061 miles. This figure repre sents a slight decrease from the 7,479 m. in operation in 1915. There was great development also in interurban electric lines, which have been adapted both to passenger and to light freight and express traffic; in 1925 there were 28 street and interurban electric lines within the State with a mileage of 2,485, but in 1932 this figure had decreased to 1,583. The State highway sys tem under the control of the highway commission was, on Jan. I, 8,439 m•, of which 8,302 m. were surfaced. During 1932, 563 m. of new surfacing were laid. The annual expenditures for rural highways under the State highway dept. increased rapidly from $401,00o in 1919 to $14,920,000 in 1924, $23,183,00o in 1932.

History.—Of the prehistoric inhabitants of Indiana little is known, but extensive remains in the form of mounds and forti fications abound in every part of the State. Upon the earliest arrival of Europeans the State was inhabited chiefly by the vari ous tribes of the Miami confederacy, a league of Algonquin Indi ans formed to oppose the advance of the Iroquois. The first Europeans to visit the State were probably French coureurs de bois or Jesuit missionaries. Apparently a French trading-post was in existence on the St. Joseph river of Michigan about 1672, but it was in no sense a permanent settlement. It also seems probable that the Wabash-Maumee portage was known to Father Claude Jean Allouez as early as 1680. A few years later this portage came to be generally used by traders, and the necessity of establishing a base on the upper Wabash as a defence against the Carolina and Pennsylvania traders became evident ; however, the first perma nent settlement was not made until well into the 18th century. The military post at Vincennes was founded about 1731 by Francois Margane, Sieur de Vincennes (or Vincent), but it was not until about 1735 that eight French families were settled there. Vincennes, which thus became the first actual white settlement in Indiana, remained the only one until after the Revolutionary War, although military posts were maintained at Ouiatenon and at the head of the Maumee, the site of the present Ft. Wayne, where there was a French trading-post (168o) and later Ft. Miami. After the fall of Quebec the British took possession of the other forts, but not at once of Vincennes, which remained for several years under the jurisdiction of New Orleans, both under French and Spanish rule. The British garrisons at Ouiatenon and Ft. Miami (near the site of the later Ft. Wayne) on the Maumee were cap tured by the Indians as a result of the Pontiac conspiracy. All Indiana was united with Canada by the Quebec act (1774), but it was not until three years later that the forts and Vincennes were occupied by the British, who then realized the necessity of ensur ing possession of the Mississippi valley to prevent its falling into the hands of the rebellious Colonies. Nevertheless, in 1778 Vin cennes fell an easy prey to agents sent to occupy it by George Rogers Clark (q.v.), and although again occupied a few months later by the British under Gen. Henry Hamilton, the lieutenant governor at Detroit, it passed finally into American control in Feb., 1779, as a result of Clark's remarkable march from Kas kaskia. Ft. Miami remained in British hands until the close of the war.

The first American settlement was made at Clarksville, be tween the present cities of Jeffersonville and New Albany, at the Falls of the Ohio (opposite Louisville), in 1784. The decade fol lowing the close of the Revolutionary War was one of ceaseless Indian warfare. The disastrous defeats of Gen. Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in Oct., 179o, on the Miami river in Ohio, and of Gov. Arthur St. Clair on Nov. 4, 1791, near Ft. Recovery, 0., were followed in 1792 by the appointment of Gen. Anthony Wayne to the command of the frontier. By him the Indians were sig nally defeated in the battle of Fallen Timbers (or Maumee Rapids) on Aug. 20, 1794, and Ft. Wayne, Ind., was erected on the Maumee river. On Aug. 3, 1795, at Greenville, 0., a treaty was concluded between Wayne and 12 Indian tribes, and a narrow slice of the east-south-eastern part of the present State (the dis puted lands in the valley of the Maumee) and various other small but not unimportant tracts were ceded to the United States. Then came several years' respite from Indian war, and settlers began at once to pour into the region. The claims of Virginia (1784) and the other eastern States having been extinguished, a clear field existed for the establishment of Federal jurisdiction in the "Territory North-west of the Ohio," but it was not until 1787 that by the celebrated ordinance of that year such jurisdiction be came an actuality. In 1800 the North-west Territory was divided, and from its western part (including the present States of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin, the north-east part of Minnesota, and a large part—from 1803 to 1805 all—of the present State of Michi gan) Indiana Territory was erected, with Gen. William Henry Harrison as first governor, and Vincennes as the seat of govern ment. Harrison made many treaties with the Indians, the most important being that signed at Ft. Wayne on June 7, 1803, defin ing the Vincennes tract transferred to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville ; those signed at Vincennes on Aug. 18 and 27, 1804, transferring to the United States a strip north of the Ohio river and south of the Vincennes tract ; that concluded at Grouseland on Aug. 21, 1805, procuring from the Delawares and others a tract along, the Ohio river between the parcels of and 1804; and the treaties of Ft. Wayne, signed on Sept. 3o, 1809, and securing one tract immediately west of that of 1795 and an other north of the Vincennes tract defined in 1803. In Jan., 1805, Michigan Territory was erected from the northern part of Indiana Territory, and in the following July the first general assembly of Indiana Territory met at Vincennes. In March, 1809, the terri tory was again divided, Illinois Territory being established from its western portion; Indiana was then reduced to its present limits. In 1810 began the last great Indian war in Indiana, in which the confederated Indians were led by Tecumseh, the cele brated Shawnee chief ; it terminated with their defeat at Tippe canoe (the present battle ground) by Gov. Harrison on Nov. 7, 1811. After the close of the second war with Great Britain, immigration began again to flow rapidly into the territory, and, having attained a sufficient population, Indiana was admitted to the Union as a State by joint resolution of Congress Dec. 11, 1816. The seat of government was established at Corydon, whither it had been removed from Vincennes in 1813. In 1820 the site of the present Indianapolis was selected for a new capital, but the seat of government was not removed thither until 1825.

The first great political problem presenting itself was that of slavery, and for a decade or more the only party divisions were on pro-slavery and anti-slavery lines. Although the Ordinance of 1787 actually prohibited slavery, it did not abolish that already in existence. Slavery had been introduced by the French, and was readily accepted and perpetuated by the early American settlers, almost all of whom were natives of Virginia, Kentucky, Georgia or the Carolinas. According to the census of 1800 there were slaves in the Territory. It was but natural, therefore, that efforts should at once have been made to establish the institution of slavery on Indiana soil, and as early as 1802 a convention, called to consider the expediency of slavery, asked Congress to suspend the prohibitory clause of the ordinance for ten years, but a com mittee of which John Randolph of Virginia was chairman reported against such action. Within the Territory attempts to escape the effects of the ordinance led to the enactment of a law regulating the status of "servants" and another which established a system of indenture. By 1808 the opponents of slavery, found chiefly among the Quaker settlers in the south-eastern counties, began to awake to the danger that confronted them, and in 1809 elected their candidate, Jonathan Jennings (1776-1834), to Congress on an anti-slavery platform. In 181o, by which year the number of slaves had increased to 237, the anti-slavery party was strong enough to secure the repeal of the indenture law, and the State Constitution of 1816 pronounced strongly against slavery. The liberation of most of the slaves in the eastern counties followed; and some slave-holders removed to Kentucky. In 1830 there were only three slaves in the State, and the danger of the establish ment of slavery as an institution on a large scale was long past.

The problem of "internal improvements" came to be of para mount importance in the decade 1820-3o. In 1827 Congress granted land to aid in the construction of a canal to connect Lake Erie and the Ohio river. This canal was completed from the St. Joseph river to the Wabash in 1835, opened in 1843 and later abandoned. In 1836 the State legislature passed a law providing for an elaborate system of public improvements, consisting largely of canals and railways. The State issued bonds to the value of $10,000,000, a period of wild speculation followed, and the finan cial panic of 1837 forced the abandonment of the proposed plan and the sale to private persons of that part already completed. The legislature authorized the issue of $1,500,000 in Treasury bonds, which by 1842 had fallen in value to 4o or 5o% of their face value. A new Constitution was adopted in Feb., 1851, by a vote of 109,319 against Despite its large Southern population, Indiana's answer to Presi dent Lincoln's first call for volunteers at the outbreak of the Civil War was prompt and spirited. In all the State furnished 208,000 officers and men for the Union armies, besides a home legion of some 50,00o, organized to protect the State against pos sible invasion. The efficiency of the State military organization as well as that of the civil administration during the trying years of the war was largely due to the extraordinary ability and energy of Gov. Oliver P. Morton, one of the greatest of the "war gov ernors" of the North. The problems met and solved by Gov. Morton, however, were not only ones of furnishing troops as re quired. The legislature of 2863 and the State officers were opposed to him politically; and did everything in their power to thwart him and deprive him of his control of the militia. The Republican members seceded, legislative appropriations were blocked, and Gov. Morton was compelled to take the extra-constitutional step of arranging with a New York banking-house for the payment of the interest on the State debt, of borrowing money for State expenditure on his own responsibility, and of disbursing money in disregard of the State officers.

Furthermore Indiana was the principal centre of activity of the disloyal association known as the Knights of the Golden Circle or Sons of Liberty, which found a ready growth among the large Southern population. The Knights of the Golden Circle at first confined their activities to the encouragement of desertion and resistance to the draft, but in 1864 a plot to overthrow the State Government was discovered, and Gov. Morton's prompt action resulted in the seizure of a large quantity of arms and ammunition, and the arrest, trial and conviction of several of the leaders. In June, 1863, the State was invaded by Confederate cavalry under Gen. John H. Morgan, but most of his men were captured in Indiana and he was taken in Ohio.

Politically Indiana has been rather evenly divided between the parties. Before the Civil War, except when William Henry Har rison was a candidate for the presidency, its electoral vote was generally given to the Democratic Party, to which also most of its governors belonged. After the war the control of the State alternated between the Republican and Democratic Parties, the Republicans gaining a small but fairly steady preponderance in national elections after 1900. Woodrow Wilson carried the State in 1912 only as a result of the Republican split. But in 1932 a genuine political upset occurred when Indiana went for Mr. Roosevelt by an actual majority of nearly i 5o,000 votes.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.—For the history of Indiana see W. H. Smith, The Bibliography.—For the history of Indiana see W. H. Smith, The History of Indiana (1897) ; Logan Esarey, A History of Indiana to 1850 (1915) ; Julia H. Levering, Historic Indiana (1916) ; Jacob P. Dunn, Indiana and Indianans (1919) ; J. B. Dillion, History of Indiana (1859) , one of the most authoritative accounts of the early history to 1816; J. P. Dunn, Indiana, a Redemption from Slavery (1888) in the "American Commonwealths" series, is devoted principally to the strug gle over the provision in the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery. For the Civil War period see J. A. Woodburn, "Party Politics in Indi ana during the Civil War," Annual Report of the American Historical Association (1902) ; W. H. H. Terrell, "Indiana in the War of the Rebellion" (Official Report of the Adjutant General, Indianapolis, 1869) ; and E. B. Pitman, Trials for Treason at Indianapolis (1865). See also Meredith Nicholson, The Hoosiers (1900) ; Thomas R. Mar shall, Recollections of Thomas R. Marshall, Vice President and Hoosier Philosopher (1925) ; the files of the Indiana Magazine of History (1905 et seq.) ; the Indiana Historical Society Publications (1897 et seq.) ; the publications of the Indiana Historical Commission, since called the Bureau of History (1916 et seq.) ; and the collections of the Indiana historical survey of Indiana university.

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