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INDONESIA, a term used to indicate the group of islands variously known as the East Indian archipelago, the East Indies and Philippine islands, etc. In Ethnologic usage the term relates to a family speaking languages of a well defined type, and having physical characteristics which are easily recognizable. (See Ethnology.) Geographically the term Indonesia comprises eight areas : (1) Malay peninsula, (2) the Sumatra group, (3) the northern part of the Malacca peninsula, (4) Java, Madura and Bali, (5) Celebes, (6) Borneo, (7) the Philippines and (8) the islands east of long. E. The basis of the classification is mainly linguistic, and the Indonesian language family has supplied many of the links between Polynesian, Melanesian and Micro nesian speech-systems. For the geography, etc., of Indonesia, see the articles under headings 1-7 above and PACIFIC ISLANDS.

For anthropology see ASIA; Anthropology and Ethnology, § Farther Asia. (X.) In Indonesia there have been found remnants of human types and cultures still represented in Australia and the Pacific.

The skull fragments found by Earl in a shell-mound in the Province of Wellesley on the west cost of the Malay Peninsula were described by Huxley as Australoidic. Skulls of Melanesian type were excavated in the caverns of Tongking by Mansuy and his collaborators. The skulls and fragmentary skeletons of a man and a woman, discovered by Van Riedschoten and Dubois in 1889 and 1890 in a mountain slope above Lake Rawa Bening near Wadjak in eastern Java, belong to a dolichocephalic tall race thoroughly different from the present inhabitants of Java and resemble the skulls of recent Australians. Dubois therefore terms the Wadjak men "Proto-Australians." The term palaeolithic is not used here as indicating that the palaeolithic civilizations of south-eastern Asia are of the same age as those of Europe. All the palaeolithic finds as yet known from Indonesia belong to the geological present.

The Palaeolithic Culture in Celebes and Sumatra.—The Lamontjong caves are situated in the interior of the south-western peninsula of Celebes, about 6okm. east of Makassar in the terri tories of the Toala, a tribe now tilling the soil, though they prob ably lived till recently by hunting and collection of natural products. The caves were discovered and examined in 1902 and 1903 by Paul and Fritz Sarasin. In five of them the ash stratum forming the ground contained remnants of game animals, imple ments of stone, bone, teeth and shells. The stone implements (mostly of quartzite, andesite, limestone, only exceptionally flint) betray a very crude manufacture. The whole stone lump was caused to burst with a blow after which the few suitably splintered flakes were selected for further fashioning and the rest were thrown away. Among the implements were scrapers, points and two-edged, more seldom one-edged knives. Especially numerous were stone arrowheads, partly with dented edges, partly barbed. Dented stone flakes of scale-like shape were probably inserted into wooden clubs like those now used by the Toala with metal flakes. Spindle or prick-shaped arrow-heads of bone or the teeth of the wild boar were probably used, the one end serving for a point, the other one for a barb as in the South Seas and America. Small whistles were manufactured of long and phalangeal bones; pieces of shells were used as scrapers and scratchers. Perforated fragments of human bones were probably worn as amulets. Re mains of domestic animals and cultivated plants are completely absent. The dog perhaps was known. All the animal species re mains of which have been found in the caves still live in Celebes.

Most of the stone implements of Lamontjong at first sight re semble those of late European palaeolithic times, especially the Magdalenian, but were manufactured in a far more primitive way. The barbed arrow-heads, however, show a form which, in other parts of the globe, only occurs in neolithic times. The culture of the cave-dwellers of Lamontjong was probably influenced by some neighbouring neolithic civilization. A fragment of an earthen pot was found in the ash layer. The occurrence of stone arrow-heads in the caves is also remarkable since the bow is al most unknown at present in Celebes, and with this sole exception stone arrow-heads are not found among the prehistoric finds of Indonesia and Indo-China. Since barbed arrow-heads are frequent in the neolithic period of Japan, and arrow-heads of stone are said to have been used in the Philippine islands as late as the I 7th century, these implements may be regarded as remnants of an ancient cultural current that in the neolithic period may have come from Japan through the Philippines as far as Celebes. In any case this contact must have been but slight. The culture of Lamontjong is therefore a culture of hunters and collectors of natural produce with a palaeolithic base and a slight neolithic touch. The stone implements were immediately covered by a very recent layer with iron implements and fragments of china. The present Toala may be considered the direct descendants of the stone-age cave-dwellers.

In the cave of Ulu Tjanko in the basin of the River Djambi, in central Sumatra, Dr. Tobler found a palaeolithic dwelling contain ing remnants of food and skeletal fragments, apparently of a slender-framed race, a number of implements manufactured of obsidian, especially knives and points of different size, and some scrapers. Typologically this Sumatra palaeolithic culture is con nected with that of the Toala caves of Celebes, yet differs from it by the diverse material, the better working of the stone, the lack of the barbed and dented arrow-heads and of any percep tible neolithic influence. In both cases we have "point and blade civilizations" with rather small implements, which cannot, how ever, be called microliths. They are radically different from the coup-de-poing culture of India, in spite of local differences, but are probably related to the stone-age culture of Ceylon and that discovered by Notling and Swinhoe at Yenangyaung in Upper Burma. This late palaeolithic point and blade culture must have been once widely spread over broad areas in southern Asia, pos sibly propagated by the small and cymotrichous race now sur viving in small, scattered remnants like the Veddah, Sakai, Toala, etc.

The Coup-de-Poing Culture of Sumatra.

A culture of different character has lately been discovered by Dr. van Stein Callenfels in the country around Medan and Deli in the eastern division of north Sumatra. It is characterized by crude imple ments of almond-like, elliptical or pointed-oblong shape. These coups-de-poing and pick-axes are mostly manufactured by work ing a stone nodule with blows on only one side, the other side showing the natural unworked surface. On account of its fre quency in Sumatra Dr. van Stein Callenfels termed this type which also occurs on the Indo-Chinese mainland, the Sumatra type. Traces of this civilization were found along the river courses of eastern Sumatra. In a shell mound in the neighbour hood of Medan examined in 1925-26, the stratum containing the coups-de-poing was immediately covered by another one con taining iron weapons of types identical with those still used to day in northern Sumatra though somewhat old-fashioned. This north Sumatra coup-de-poing palaeolithic culture which began at the latest about 5000 B.C. lasted up to a late time, and was succeeded by a culture already acquainted with iron. This Su matra culture is closely related to that from the oldest cave strata of the Malay Peninsula and Tongking, where the palaeoliths and coups-de-poing worked exclusively on one side are found in great number, but together with so-called protoneoliths, roughly worked or even unworked stone axes with ground edges. Since these protoneoliths are missing in Sumatra, Stein Callenfels re gards this Sumatra culture as an earlier stage of the continental one, brought to Sumatra by a tribal and cultural wave still ignor ant of stone-grinding. These coup-de-poing cultures of Sumatra and Indo-China belong probably to a great group of related late palaeolithic and mesolithic cultures once widely spread over large parts of the globe.

The "Horn and Bone Civilization" of Java.

A third, ap parently preneolithic civilization of Indonesia was discovered in 1926 by Engineer van Es near Sampung, Residency of Madiun, Java, in a cave on the slope of Volcano Lawu. The very thick layer contained two skeletons of a tall-grown race (1 • 7om. to 1.8om.) interred as lying squatters, numerous implements of horn and bone (arrow-heads, fishing-hooks, etc.), grinding stones that had served for grinding ruddle, thousands of unworked frag ments of silex, jasper and agate, but no worked stone implement.

The number of neolithic objects in the museums is very large, almost exclusively stone axes found by chance. About pottery, as yet practically nothing is known. Most of the megalithic monu ments undoubtedly belong to the metal periods. The neolithic cultures of Indonesia may be divided by local criteria.

Eastern Indonesia and the Philippine Islands.—The neolithic period of eastern Indonesia (Celebes, Moluccas, Little Sunda islands, South-west and South-east islands) is characterized by two types of stone axes (a) somewhat clumsy broad-necked axes having the shape of a short rectangle or trapezium, often approaching the quadrate and square in the transverse section; (b) narrow or pointed-neck axes with lenticular or oval transverse section. The second type is very frequent in ancient Europe, is characteristic of the neolithic period of India, occurs, though seldom, in Japan, and is still present in New Guinea and Mela nesia, directly derived from the ancient forms of east Indonesia. It is not known how this type came into Eastern Indonesia as, except there and in Borneo, it is not known in Indonesia or further India. It may be due to influences from India, or, with the stone arrow-heads of the Toala caves, to a cultural current from Japan. The occurrence of ancient stone hooks reminiscent of the magatama of the Japanese neolithic period possessed by some Dayaks in Borneo might thus be explained. As is shown by the shouldered celts found in Formosa the neolithic culture of this island must at some time have been in close connection with that of Indo-China. The existence of stone axes is however proved with certainty at least for Mindanao and the Visayas. Two such axes from a cave on the Island of Masbate have been published with illustrations. Of oblong-rectangular shape they resemble certain Indo-Chinese stone-axes more than those from Indonesia. In the same place numerous pottery fragments decor ated with scratched waving lines and points were found. It is, however, impossible to say with certainty, whether they were coeval with the stone implements.

Western Indonesia.

The oldest neolithic type of western Indonesia, especially of Java, according to Stein Callenfels seems to be a broad-necked axe the two broad sides of which have a swell whereas the narrow sides frequently do not show a single plane but several narrow ones joining at greater or smaller angles. This axe is about as thick as it is broad. Java has furnished by far most of the neolithic material, due partly to her dense popu lation and very extensive agriculture as the occasions for finds are thus multiplied. The neolithic civilization there seems to have reached a very high level, as shown by the beauty and per fect working of the implements of the late neolithic period, which are frequently made of precious stones: jasper, chalcedony, lydite, opal, agate. Especially characteristic of Java are thin flat-axes of oblong trapezium-shape, mostly with distinct side-planes and frequently with chisel-like edge of one-sided bevel. Frequently one side is convex, the other concave so as to make the whole head longitudinally crooked. All these types which also occur in Sumatra, show a certain resemblance to those of the Malay Peninsula and of Upper Laos. It thus seems that in late neolithic times a cultural and perhaps also tribal wave spread from the region of Luang Prabang on the Mekong southwards over Siam and the Malay Peninsula as far as Java. Besides these flat-axes and adzes, gouges also occur in Java. The most characteristic type, however, probably found exclusively in Western Indonesia, are the pick-axes. On their upper side either they have a swell or show two planes sloping like a roof from a middle ridge. The transverse section may be semicircular, triangular or pentangu lar according as they have side-planes or not. The upper side is frequently convex, the under side sometimes concave, thus mak ing the axe head longitudinally crooked. The edge always forms a point. On the under side it is frequently ground hollow. Such pick-axes are also known from Bali and the southern half of Sumatra.

Neolithic Cultural Provinces and Chronology.

In the Malay Peninsula another kind of pick-axe occurs the upper side of which is for the most part flat and is ground to a point only in front. The under side is always flat and sometimes ground hol low at the edge. Since the neolithic civilization of the Malay Peninsula is in other respects very closely related to that of Upper Laos (region of Luang Prabang), it represents perhaps a transition or a mixture of the stone-age civilization of Indo-China and Western Indonesia. The south of the Malay Peninsula is dis tinctly opposed to the remaining part of Indo-China by the lack of shouldered ctlts and by the occurrence of the pick-axes men tioned. Thus the south of the peninsula belongs rather to In donesia than to Indo-China.

The division between the territories of the neolithic axe-types of Eastern and Western Indonesia, seems to correspond with the division between the East and West Indonesian languages and represents to-day the limit of distribution of many important cultural elements. In Borneo Eastern as well as Western In donesian axe-types (also pick-axes) are found side by side, and the Dayak languages are intermediate between those of Eastern and Western Indonesia. Thus the present distribution of tribes and languages in Indonesia goes in substance back to the neolithic period, at least therefore to the first millennium B.C.

More accurate criteria for the chronology of the Indonesian neo lithic period are derived from the distribution of the Indo-Chinese shouldered celts. The distribution of these celts closely agrees with that of the Austro-Asiatic languages and from that it is to be inferred that they belonged to the cultural inventory of the ancient Austro-Asiatics (Mon-Khmer) . They are found in Indo-China (except the south of the Malay Peninsula) in Assam, Orissa, Chota Nagpur, in the Santal Parganas and near Allaha bad, in regions of India in which Mon-Khmer or Munda (Austro Asiatic) languages are either spoken to-day or once were spoken. There was probably a tribal migration starting from Indo-China, hardly later than between 150o to i 000 B.C. Since the shouldered Celt is missing in Indonesia and the south of the Malay Peninsula, we may infer that the separation of the Austronesians (Malayo Polynesians) from the Austro-Asiatics (Mon-Khmer) and also their migration to Indonesia took place at a time when the shouldered celt had not yet been developed, that is about from 2000 to 1500 B.C., though it may have happened earlier. Since the late phases of the Indonesian neolithic period are ascribable to these migrations, we must suppose a considerably greater age for the earlier phases.

The stone-age appears to have terminated at very different times in the different parts of Indonesia. In Western Indonesia (Java, Sumatra) the foundation of Indian expansion and rule commenced at the latest in the second century A.D., perhaps earlier. Yet it is almost certain that mining and the manufacture of iron were known there before the arrival of the Hindus. Traces of a bronze age spread to the remotest east of the archi pelago, and are especially numerous in Sumatra, Java, Celebes and Sumba. Therefore it is probable that in some parts of In donesia the neolithic period had terminated in pre-Christian times. In other parts, however, it appears to have lasted much longer. The working of metals has not yet been fully established in every part of Indonesia, and the use of implements of stone, bone, wood and bamboo still survives.


B. Meyer and O. Richter, Steinzeit in Celebes Bibliography.-A. B. Meyer and O. Richter, Steinzeit in Celebes (Abhandlungen and Berichte des Koniglichen Zoologischen and Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden vol. x., No. 6, 1903, bibl.) ; Paul and Fritz Sarasin, Reisen in Celebes (Wiesbaden, 19o5) ; Paul and Fritz Sarasin, Die Toala-Hohlen von Lamontjong (Wiesbaden, 19o5) ; H. H. Juynboll, Katalog des Ethnographischen Reichsmuseums, vol. v., Javanische Altertumer (Leyden, 1909, bibl.) ; I. H. N. Evans, "On a Collection of Stone Implements from the Tempassuk District, British North Borneo" (Man, vol. xiii., 1913) ; P. Sarasin, Neue lithochrone Funde im Innern von Sumatra (Verhand lungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Basel, vol. xxv., 1914) ; W. D. Smith, "Ancient Cave Dwellers of Batwaan, Masbate, Philippine Islands" (The Philippine Journal of Science, vol. xix., 1921) ; P. V. van Stein Callenfels, Bijdrage tot de Chronologie van het Neolithicum in Zuid-Oost Azie (Oudheidkundige Dienst in Nederlandsch-Indie, Oudheidkundig Verslag 1926) ; R. Heine-Geldern, "Die Steinzeit Siidostasiens" (Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, vol. lvii., 1927, bibl.) ; R. Heine-Geldern, "Ein Beitrag zur Chronologie des Neolithikums in Stidostasien" (P. W. Schmidt-Fest schrift, 1928, bibl.). (R. H.-G.)

neolithic, stone, sumatra, culture, found, implements and peninsula