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INDORE, an Indian State in the Central India agency, com prising the dominions of the Maharaja Holkar. Its area, exclusive ' of guaranteed holdings on which it has claims, is 9,518 sq.m. and the population in 1931 was 1,318,277. As in the case of most states in Central India the territory is not homogeneous, but dis tributed over several political charges. The Vindhya range trav erses the southern division of the state from east to west, a small part of the territory lying to the north of the mountains, but by far the larger part to the south. The latter is a portion of the valley of the Nerbudda, and is bounded on the south by the Satpura hills. Basalt and other volcanic formations predominate in both ranges, although there is also much sandstone. The Ner budda flows through the state.

The state had its origin in an assignment of lands made early in the 18th century to Malhar Rao Holkar, a peasant's son who worked his way up to a cavalry command in the army of the Mah ratta peshwa. Of the Dhangar or shepherd caste, he was born in 1694 at the village of Hol near Poona, and from this circum stance the family derives its surname of Holkar. Before his death in 1766 Malhar Rao had added to his assignment large territorial possessions acquired by his armed power during the confusion of the period. By the end of that century the rulership had passed to another leader of the same clan, Tukoji Holkar, whose son, Jaswant Rao, took an important part in the contest for predomi nance in the Mahratta confederation. At first he defeated a Brit ish force that had marched against him under Colonel Monson; but when he made an inroad into British territory he was com pletely defeated by Lord Lake in 1804, and compelled to sign a treaty which deprived him of a large portion of his possessions. In 1818, by the treaty of Mandason, the state transferred to the British government its suzerainty over a number of minor tribu tary states, and acknowledged the British protectorate. For many years afterwards the administration of the Holkar princes was troubled by intestine quarrels, misrule and dynastic contentions, necessitating the frequent interposition of British authority; and in 1857 the army, breaking away from the chief's control, be sieged the British residency. In 1899 a British resident was ap pointed, and a change was made in the system of administration, which was from that date carried on by a council. Of its last two rulers, one abdicated in 1903 and his successor in 1926. The pres ent Maharaja was born in 5906. His salute is 59 guns.

The CITY OF INDORE (pop. I27,327) is situated I,738 ft. above the sea, on the river Saraswati, near its junction with the Khan. It is one of the most important trading centres in central India, with flourishing cotton-mills, a good hospital and college, besides palaces and gardens.

East of the city lies the British Residency, an area reserved by treaty under British jurisdiction. The Resident and his staff live here, and it is the site of the Daly college, a fine marble building, for the education of young Indian princes and nobles.

british, holkar, central, territory and india