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Industrial Buildings Interiors

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INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS : INTERIORS Interior Surfaces.—The interior surfaces of factory build ings are largely controlled by the manufacturer and there are many ways of treating wall surfaces, ceilings and floors. A grano lithic concrete surface has been found satisfactory, and is used extensively in England. Maple and woods offering similar proper ties are also used, but the surface of floors has not come so near perfection as other materials in factory work.

All excrescences and ledges on wall surfaces are reduced to an absolute minimum. Generally the wall surfaces are painted in a light colour; in corridors and passages they should always receive a dado of a darker colour at least shoulder-height. The actual wall surface is best left in concrete and all edges protected with metal casings where liable to be in contact with trucking. The floors of lavatories should be laid to falls, and the walls tiled.

The divisioning of a factory should generally be reduced to a minimum. Where it is essential the division walls should take the form of metal-glazed removable screens so that in the event of any future alteration they may be taken down and re-used without interference either to themselves or floor and walls to which they were attached.

Ceilings of both one-storey and multi-storey buildings should act as reflecting surfaces and should be designed so that they may be easily cleaned and are not liable to condensation.

Miscellaneous Buildings.—There are many structures com plementary to the purely industrial or manufacturing make-up of any large centre of commercial production; e.g., warehouses, silos, gate houses, railway sidings, chimney stacks, power sta tions, reservoirs, markets, coal bunkers, fire stations, water towers, etc. These structures are necessary adjuncts to the factory proper, but they may form units by themselves.

When they are part of the factory group, the location of these smaller dependent units may form part of the sequence of manu facture. They should be placed so as to function with the factory and incidentally they themselves must be capable of further extension. It is in these structures that the industrial architect is given the opportunity to create a layout that not only allows the most efficient manufacturing process, but also gives relief and contrast in building shapes.

The warehouse, usually a large multi-storey building of low floor heights and small window area, is in direct contrast with the airy and light feeling of the manufacturing plant.

The chimney stack, always a dominating feature, need not be looked upon as something to be rid of, for if in itself it is well designed it can serve a useful purpose, to mark the main axis.

Many water towers have been designed in reinforced concrete and treated frankly as such. Others have been erected in structural steelwork and both of these types have their merits but the latter has to be studied very carefully in order to produce an effect which will be in sympathy with the rest of the group of buildings.

Independent Structures.—When these complementary build ings are independent structures they must be designed from an other aspect and are usually on a much larger scale. The ware house, and more especially the grain elevator and market, are buildings which sometimes dominate all surrounding architec ture. There are many examples of silos, towering structures in concrete, whose mass effect is one of the finest achievements in modern architecture. Grain elevators, in which huge quantities of grain are stored, weighed and shipped need not be the ungainly structures which they are occasionally. An example of well de signed silos is that at Capetown Harbour where a large grain elevator gives a scale and fits well into the background afforded by Table Mountain.

The enormous height of the grain elevator is mainly due to the fact that the thrust of the grain is constant and it is therefore economic design to carry these structures to a great height. In addition to these huge structures, small silos are found alongside the railroads in agricultural districts of the grain producing countries for ensiling the produce of the local centres.

Markets.

In recent times there have been a few new exam ples of that old institution, the market, which is now chiefly used for the sale of perishable goods. The advent of the large store buildings has been a determent to their extended use, and so it is only in a few cases where a large self contained market has been a practical proposition. The huge factories which now deal in perishable manufactures have also restricted the extension of the market system. But there are examples such as T. Garnier's market at Lyons which is in itself an industrial group and has skillfully combated the problem of dealing with a large floating population. (D. T. W.)

structures, grain, factory, surfaces, market, designed and silos