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JAMBI, a residency in Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, area sq.km., on the east coast, separated from the islands of Singkep and Lingga by the Straits of Berhala, bounded on the south by Palembang residency, north by the mainland dependency of Riouw and west by Sumatra West Coast residency (Dutch : Djambi). It is a long and narrow strip of territory, extending nearly across the country to the mountain range which traverses Sumatra west coast and throws out spurs into Jambi. On its borders are Mt. Tuju, 8,466 ft., and the Peak of Indrapura, 12,484 ft., and, well within them, Mts. Tebatalas, 6,662 ft., and Mesarai, 8,125 feet. Except for a hilly range in the mid-north region extend ing from Bukit Merbau, 2,500 ft., the country slopes gradually to the sea, and, some distance before reaching it, is very flat and swampy, whilst near the coast it is intersected by numerous small rivers, Sungei Tungkal being the largest. A number of rivers, large and small, flow down from the western mountains, water the country abundantly and unite at a point in the centre, not tat from Muaru Tembesi, to form the Batang Hari (Jambi river) which is navigable for ocean-going ships from Jambi, the capital to the sea, a distance of 5o miles. High up among the western mountains there is a small lake—Korinchi. There are no railways, and roads are few and poor, but Jambi is connected by road with Palembang. Many of the rivers are used for great distances by

the natives for small-craf t transport ; and Jambi is sea-connected with Java, Sumatra and Straits Settlements' ports, and by tele graph with Padang, whilst several of the small towns of the in terior are connected with each other and with Palembang by tele phone. Jambi with a population of 245,272 (495 Europeans and Eurasians and 10.244 foreign Asiatics, including Chinese), is almost wholly village-settled and Malay in character, though in the extreme west there are some Korinchis, a warlike and very little-known people. Jambi (pop. 22,071), Muaru Tembesi, Bangku, Sarolangun, Muaru, Bungu, Muaru Tebu and Sungai Penuh are the chief centres of population, and all but Jambi are quite small. The people are agriculturists and fishermen, rice is grown very largely, and a great proportion of it is sawah, or dry culture. Coffee is grown for export, chiefly in the districts of Muaru Bungu and Bangku, and Jambi is one of the chief centres of native-grown rubber which is also exported. Jambi, under an independent sultan, caused the Dutch considerable trouble (they were established in the neighbouring territory of Palembang), until, in 1901, they sent an armed expedition into the country, and later made it into a Dutch residency. (E. E. L.)

muaru, ft, residency and dutch