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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 2: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

Itri
Itri, A Town Of Campania, Italy, Province Of Rome, 4 M. By Rail From Formia. Pop. (1931) 6,081. The Town Is 690 Ft. Above Sea-level, In The Mountains Which The Via Appia Traverses Between Fondi And Formia. Interesting Remains Of The Ancient Road Are Preserved In Itri Itself ; And ...

Itucalean
Itucalean, A Small Group Of Tribes Of South American Indians, Supposed On Very Insufficient Evidence To Constitute An Independent Linguistic Stock. The Itucales, Or Uarinas Lived In North-eastern Peru On The Chambira River, A Northern Tributary Of The Marafion Between The Tigre And The Pastaza. Little Or Noth Ing Is ...

Itza
Itza, An American-indian People Of Mayan Stock, Inhabiting The Country Around Lake Peten In Northern Guatemala. Chichen Itza, Among The Most Wonderful Of The Ruined Cities Of Yucatan, Was The Capital Of The Itzas. Thence, According To Tradition They Removed, On The Breaking Up Of The Mayan Kingdom In 2420, ...

Itzehoe
Itzehoe, A Town In The Prussian Province Of Schleswig Holstein, On The Stor, 32 M. N.w. Of Hamburg And 15 M. N. Of Gliickstadt. Pop. (1933) 20,906. Itzehoe, The Oldest Town In Hol Stein, Had As Its Nucleus A Castle, Built In 809. In 1201 The Town Was Destroyed, But ...

Iuka
Iuka, The County Seat Of Tishomingo County, Mississippi, U.s.a., C. 25 M. S.e. Of Corinth, N.e. Corner Of The State And 8 M. S. Of The Tennessee River. Pop. (1920) 1,306; (1930) 1,441. In The American Civil War, A Confederate Force Under Gen. Sterling Price Occupied The Town On Sept. ...

Iulus
Iulus, In Roman Legend : (a) The Eldest Son Of Ascanius And Grandson Of Aeneas, Founder Of The Julian Gens (gens Julia), Deprived Of His Kingdom Of Latium By His Younger Brother Silvius (dion. Halic. I. 7o) ; (b) Another Name For Ascanius. ...

Iuturna
Iuturna, Previously Diuturna, "the Lasting," Latin Divin Ity, A Personification Of The Never-failing Springs. Her Original Home Was On The River Numicius Near Lavinium, Where There Was A Spring Called After Her, Supposed To Possess Healing Qualities (whence The Old Roman Derivation From Iuvare, "to Help"). Her Worship Was Early ...

Ivan I
Ivan I., Called Kalita, Or Money-bag (d. 1341), Grand Duke Of Vladimir, Was First Sobiratel, Or "gatherer" Of The Scattered Russian Lands, Thereby Laying The Foundations Of The Future Autocracy As A National Institution. He Adopted A Policy Of Complete Subserviency To The Khan Of The Golden Horde, Who In ...

Ivan Ii
Ivan Ii. (1326-1359), Grand Duke Of Vladimir, A Younger Son Of Ivan Kalita, Succeeded His Elder Brother Simeon As Grand Duke In 1353, Despite The Competition Of Prince Constantine Of Suzdal, The Khan Hanibek Preferring To Bestow The Yarluik, Or Letter Of Investiture, Upon Ivan Rather Than Upon Constantine. At ...

Ivan Iii
Ivan Iii. (1440-1505), Grand Duke Of Muscovy, Son Of Vasily (basil) Vasilievich The Blind, Grand Duke Of Moscow, And Maria Yaroslavovna, Was Born In 1440. He Was Co-regent With His Father During The Latter Years Of His Life, And Succeeded Him In 1462. Ivan M.'s First Enterprise Was A War ...

Ivan Iv
Ivan Iv., Called "the Terrible" Tsar Of Mus Covy, Was The Son Of Vasily [basil] Iii. Ivanovich, Grand Duke Of Muscovy, By His Second Wife, Helena Glinska. Born On Aug. 25, 153o, He Was Proclaimed Grand Duke On The Death Of His Father (1533), And Took The Government Into His ...

Ivan V
Ivan V.' (1666-1696), Tsar Of Russia, Was The Son Of Tsar Alexius Mikhailovich And His First Consort Miloslavzkoya. Phys Ically And Mentally Deficient, Ivan Was The Mere Tool Of The Party In Muscovy Who Would Have Kept The Children Of The Tsar Alexis, By His Second Consort Natalia Naryshkina, From ...

Ivarr Beinlausi
Ivarr Beinlausi (d. 873), Son Of Ragnar Lothbrok, The Great Viking Chieftain, Is Known In English And Continental Annals As Inuaer, Ingwar Or Hingwar. He Was One Of The Danish Leaders In The Sheppey Expedition Of 855 And Was Perhaps Present At The Siege Of York In 867. The Chief ...

Ivories Of The Christian
Ivories Of The Christian Era The Ivory Carvings Of The Earlier Centuries Of The Christian Era Show A Close Continuity In Style With Those Of The Preceding Period, And Much Of The Finest Work, Such As The Well-known Symma Chorum-nicomachorum Diptych In The Victoria And Albert And Cluny Museums, May ...

Ivory Bill Or Ivory Billed
Ivory Bill Or Ivory-billed Woodpecker (campephihis Principalis), The Largest North American Wood Pecker, Reaches A Length Of 20 In. Formerly Extending North To Illinois, Indiana And North Carolina, The Ivory Bill Is Now Very Rare Everywhere And Is Almost Confined To Cypress Swamps In A Few Isolated Portions Of Florida. ...

Ivory Black
Ivory Black, A High Grade Carbonaceous Black Sometimes Prepared By Carbonizing Ivory Turnings And Cuttings, But More Often Made By The Calcination Of Bone, Only The Best Grades Of Product Being Selected. It Should Have A Deep Black, Velvety Tint. It Is Largely Composed Of Mineral Matter, From 65 To ...

Ivory Carving
Ivory Carving. The Use Of Ivory As A Material Pecu Liarly Adapted For Sculpture And Decoration Has Been Universal In The History Of Civilization. In Order To Treat The Subject Adequately And Give The Relative Importance Of The Art In Different Countries, The Following Division Is Made : History, Covering ...

Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast (cote D'ivoire), A French West African Colony, Bounded South By The Gulf Of Guinea, West By Liberia And French Guinea, North By The Colony Of French Sudan, East By The Gold Coast. Its Area Is 18o,800 Square Miles, The Population Is About 3,860,000 (2,85o Europeans). The Most Densely ...

Ivory
Ivory, Strictly Speaking A Term Confined To The Material Represented By The Tusk Of The Elephant, And For Commercial Purposes Almost Entirely To That Of The Male Elephant. In Africa Both The Male And Female Elephant Produce Good-sized Tusks; In The Indian Variety The Female Is Much Less Bountifully Pro ...

Ivrea
Ivrea, A Town And Episcopal See Of Piedmont (anc. Epo Redia), Italy, Province Of Turin, 38 M. North-north-east From The City Of Turin By Rail And 27 M. Direct, 77o Ft. Above Sea-level, On The Dora Baltea At The Point Where It Leaves The Mountains. Pop. (1931) 10,640 (town), 15,402 ...

Ixion
Ixion, In Greek Legend, Son Of Phlegyas, King Of The Lapithae In Thessaly (or Of Ares), And Husband Of Dia. Having Treacher Ously Murdered His Wife's Father Defoneus He Could Find None To Purify Him Until Zeus Did So And Admitted Him As A Guest To Olympus. Ixion Abused His ...

Ixtaccihuatl Or Iztaccihuatl
Ixtaccihuatl Or Iztaccihuatl ("white Woman"), A Lofty Volcano, Iom. N. Of Popocatepetl And About 4om. S.s.e. Of The City Of Mexico, Forming Part Of The Short Spur Called The Sierra Nevada. According To Angelo Heilprin (1853-1907) Its Elevation Is 16,96oft. ; Other Authorities Make It Much Less. Its Apparent Height ...

Ixtlilxochitl Ii
Ixtlilxochitl Ii. (c. 55o), Chief Of The Texcu Cans, One Of The Most Civilized Tribes Of Ancient Mexico. He Be Came An Enemy Of Montezuma, Emperor Of Mexico, Because Mon Tezuma Aided His Brother In The Struggle For Leadership Which Fol Lowed Upon The Death Of Their Father, Netzahualpilli. When ...

Iyrcae
Iyrcae An Ancient Nation On The North-east Trade Route Described By Herodotus (iv.22) Beyond The Thyssagetae (q.v.), Somewhere About The Upper Basins Of The Tobol And The Irtysh. They Were Distinguished By Their Mode Of Hunting, Climb Ing A Tree To Survey Their Game, And Then Pursuing It With Trained ...

Izard
Izard (rupicapra Pyrenaica), The Chamois Of The Pyrenees, Differing From The Typical Alpine Form (see Chamois) In Its Red Dish Colour And Smaller Size. The Name Is Also Spelt "isard." ...

Izbarta Or Sparta
Izbarta Or Sparta (anc. Baris), A Town In Asia Minor, Well Situated On The Edge Of A Fertile Plain At The Foot Of Aghlasun Dagh. It Was Once The Capital Of The Emirate Of Hamid. It Suffered Severely From An Earthquake In 1889. It Has Been An Im Portant Centre ...

Izhevsk
Izhevsk, The Administrative Centre Of The Udmursk Auton Omous Area Of The R.s.f.s.r. On The Izh River, A Tributary Of The Kama River, In Lat. 56° 52' N. And Long. 53° 14' E. Pop. (1926) 63,088. Its Steel Foundries And Ammunition Works Were Established In 1807, But Have Increased Rapidly ...

Izu No Shichi To
Izu-no-shichi-to, The Seven (shichi) Islands (to) Of Izu, Included In The Empire Of Japan. They Stretch In A Southerly Direction From A Point Near The Mouth Of Tokyo Bay, And Lie Between 33° And 48' N. And Between 139° And 14o° E. Their Names, Beginning From The North, Are Izu-no-oshima, ...

J F C F
(j. F. C. F.) Also Called Tuz-kul Or Salt Lake, Owing To Its Brackish Waters, And By The Kalmucks Temurtu-nor (iron Lake), A Lake In The Kirghiz A.s.s.r. (q.v.) Lying In A Deep Basin, Appar Ently Of Tectonic Origin, 5,400 Ft. Above Sea-level. It Extends From 76° Io' E. To ...

Jaalin
Ja'alin, The Largest, Most Widely Distributed And Most Loosely Knit Main Group Of The Arabs Of The Sudan. The Term Is Used Generally Of Most Of The Northern Riverain Tribes And In A More Restricted Sense Of A Large Group Comprising The Sa'adab, Nifi'at, Kiti'ab And Other Tribes. They Claim ...

Jabiru
Jabiru, An American Stork, Mycteria Americana, Found From Mexico To The Argentine. It Stands Between 4 And 5 Ft. In Height, With A Massive Bill And White Plumage. The Head And Neck Are Bare, And Black And Red In Colour. The Old World Genera Xenorhynchus And Ephippior Hynchus Are Nearly ...

Jablonec Nad Nisou
Jablonec Nad Nisou, A Manufacturing Town In North Eastern Bohemia Noted For The Famous Gablonz Ware, And A Centre For The Glass Industry And The Preparation Of Cheap Jewellery And Imitation Stones. Apart From This It Has Important Textile Factories And Is An Administrative Centre. Pop. (1930) 33,855. ...

Jaborandi
Jaborandi, A Name Given In Brazil And South America Generally To Various Plants Which Increase Perspiration And The Flow Of Saliva. In The Year 1875 A Drug Was Introduced Under This Name, Its Botanical Source Being Then Unknown. Pilocarpus Pennatifolius, A Member Of The Family Rutaceae, The Plant From Which ...

Jaca
Jaca, A City Of Northern Spain, In The Province Of Huesca, 114 M. N. By W. Of Saragossa, On The Left Bank Of The River Aragon, And Among The Southern Slopes Of The Pyrenees, 2,38o Ft. Above The Sea. Pop. (1930), 7,056. The Origin Of The City Is Unknown. The ...

Jacamar
Jacamar, The Brazilian Name Of Birds Forming The Family Galbulidae, With Zygodactylous Or Pair-toed Feet, And Glossy White Eggs. They Are All Rather Small Birds, The Largest Known Being Little Over Loin. In Length, With Long Sharp Bills, And The Plumage With Golden Or Bronze Reflections. With The Exception Of ...

Jacana Or Acana
Jacana Or Acana (native West Indian Name), A Very Common Timber-tree (lucuma Multiflora, Family Sapotaceae) Of The West Indies. The Tree Grows To A Height Of 75 To 90 Feet And Gives Straight Logs Of Very Durable Timber. The Wood Is Hard, Very Fine-grained, Light-coloured And Very Heavy, And Used ...

Jacare
Jacare, A Brazilian Name For The Spectacled Cayman (caiman Sclerops) Of Tropical America. The Jacare Tinga Is The Smaller C. Trigonatus. (see Crocodile, Cayman.) ...

Jack In The Pulpit
Jack-in-the-pulpit (arisaema Triphyllum), A North American Plant Of The Arum Family (araceae), Called Also Indian Turnip, Bog-onion, Brown-dragon And Starchwort, Native To Wet Woods And Thickets From Nova Scotia To Minnesota And South Ward To Florida And Texas. It Is A Stoutish Perennial, 1 To 21 Ft. High, Rising From ...

Jack
Jack, A Word With A Great Variety Of Meanings And Appli Cations. In The History Of The Monastery Of St. Augustine At Canterbury, 1414, Jack Is Given As A Form Of John—"pro Johanne Jankin Sive Jacke" (see E. W. B. Nicholson, The Pedigree Of Jack And Other Allied Names, 1892). ...

Jackal
Jackal (canis Aureus), A Wolf-like Wild Member Of The Dog Family Inhabiting Eastern Europe And Southern Asia. The Name Is Also Applied To A Number Of Allied Species. Jackals Re Semble Wolves And Dogs In Their Dentition, The Round Eye-pupils, The Period Of Gestation, And To A Large Extent Also ...

Jackdaw Or Daw
Jackdaw Or Daw, One Of The Smallest Species Of The Genus Corvus (see Crow), And A Well-known Inhabitant Of Europe, C. Monedula. It Associates With The Rook During A Great Part Of The Year ; But Almost Invariably Chooses Holes For Its Nest Of Sticks, Sometimes Even Breeding In Rabbit ...

Jackson Highway
Jackson Highway, An American Thoroughfare Begin Ning At Chicago, Ill., And Ending At New Orleans, La. It Is 1,060 M. In Length And Is Mostly Paved From Chicago To Florence, Ala., Where It Crosses The Tennessee River At Muscle Shoals, The Site Of The Great Dam Of That Name. It ...

Jackson
Jackson, A City Of Michigan, U.s.a., 75m. W. Of Detroit, On The Grand River; County Seat Of Jackson County. It Is On Fed Eral Highways 12 And 127; Has A Municipal Airport Of 166ac. (rey Nolds Field) ; And Is Served By The Cincinnati Northern, The Grand Trunk, The Michigan ...

Jacksonville
Jacksonville, A City Of North-eastern Florida, U.s.a., On The St. John's River, 27m. Above The Government Jetties At The Mouth; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Duval County. It Is On Federal Highways I, 17 And 90 ; Has A Fully Equipped Munic Ipal Airport, And Is ...

Jacksonville_2
Jacksonville, One Of The Oldest And Most Beautiful Cities Of Illinois, U.s.a., On Mauvaiseterre Creek, 9om. N. Of Saint Louis ; The County Seat Of Morgan County. It Is On Federal High Way 36, And Is Served By The Burlington, The Chicago And Alton, The Jacksonville And Havana, And The ...

Jackson_2
Jackson, The Capital City Of Mississippi, U.s.a., On The West Bank Of The Pearl River, 45m. E. Of Vicksburg; The County Seat Of Hinds County. It Is On Federal Highways 49, 51 And 8o, I Has A Municipal Airport, And Is Served By The Gulf, Mobile And ' Northern, The ...

Jackson_3
Jackson, A City Of Southern Ohio, U.s.a., About Tom. S.e. Of Columbus ; The County Seat Of Jackson County. It Is Served By The Baltimore And Ohio, The Detroit, Toledo And Ironton, And The Hocking Valley Railways. The Population In 1920 Was 5,842 (97% Native White) And Was 5,922 By ...

Jackson_4
Jackson, A City Of Western Tennessee, U.s.a., On The Forked Deer River, 85m. N.e. Of Memphis; The County Seat Of Madison County. It Is On Federal Highway 7o, And Is Served By The Gulf, Mobile And Northern, The Illinois Central, The Mobile And Ohio, And The Nashville, Chattanooga And St. ...

Jacob Ben Asher
Jacob Ben Asher Codifier Of Jewish Law, Was Born In Germany And Died In Toledo. A Son Of Asher Ben Yehiel (q.v.), Jacob Helped To Restore The Legal Casuistry Over Thrown By Maimonides (q.v.). Jacob Ben Asher Is Known As The Bacal Ha-turim (literally "master Of The Rows") From His ...

Jacob Of Edessa
Jacob Of Edessa, Who Ranks With Barhebraeus As The Most Distinguished For Scholarship Among Syriac Writers, Was Born At 'en-clebha In The Province Of Antioch, Probably About A.d. 64o. He Spent Nine Years In Revising And Emending The Peshitta Version Of The Old Testament By The Help Of The Various ...

Jacob Of Serugh
Jacob Of Serugh (451-521), Syriac Author, Was Born At Kurtam, A Village On The Euphrates To The West Of Harran, And Was Probably Educated At Edessa. He Wrote A Series Of Metrical Homilies (ed. P. Bedjan, Paris, 1905 Seq.). Ordained To The Priesthood, He Became Episcopal Visitor Of Haura, In ...

Jacob
Jacob Was The Son Of Isaac And Rebecca, The Grandson Of Abraham, And The Traditional Ancestor Of The People Of Israel. He Is Represented As The Twin Brother Of Esau, The Ancestor Of Edom, And The Two Are Representatives Of Two Grades Of Social Order, Jacob Being A Pastoral Nomad, ...

Jacoba Or Jacqueline
Jacoba Or Jacqueline (1401-1436), Countess Of Holland, Was The Only Daughter And Heiress Of William, Duke Of Bavaria And Count Of Holland, Zeeland And Hainaut. She Was Married As A Child To John, Duke Of Touraine, Second Son Of Charles Vi., King Of France, Who On The Death Of His ...

Jacobabad
Jacobabad, A Town Of British India, The Administrative Headquarters Of The Upper Sind Frontier District In Bombay With A Station On The Quetta Branch Of The North-western Railway, 37 M. From The Junction At Ruk, On The Main Line. Pop. (1931), 15,748. It Is Famous As Having Consistently The Highest ...

Jacobean Style
Jacobean Style, In Architecture, That Style Of Early English Renaissance (see Renaissance Architecture) Which Followed The Elizabethan (see Elizabethan Style) And Is Gen Erally Contemporary With The Reign Of James I. (1603-1625). It Is Characterized By A Combination Of Late Perpendicular Gothic Motives With A Great Use Of Crude And ...

Jacobite Church
Jacobite Church. The Name Of "jacobites" Is First Found In A Synodal Decree Of Nicaea A.d. 787, And Was Invented By Hostile Greeks For The Syrian Monophysite Church As Founded, Or Rather Restored, By Jacob Or James Baradaeus, Who Was Ordained Its Bishop A.d. Or 543. James Was Born A ...

Jacobites
Jacobites, The Name Given After The Revolution Of I688 To The Adherents, First Of The Exiled English King James Ii., Then Of His Descendants, And After The Extinction Of The Latter In 1807, Of The Descendants Of Charles I., I.e., Of The Exiled House Of Stuart (lat. Jacobus, James). The ...

Jacobs Cavern
Jacobs' Cavern, A Cavern In Latitude 36° 35' N., 2 M. E. Of Pineville, Mcdonald County, Mo., Named After Its Discoverer, E. H. Jacobs, Of Bentonville, Ark. It Was Scientifically Explored By Him, In Company With Professors Charles Peabody And Warren K. Moorehead, In 1903. This Small Cave Is Hardly ...

Jacobs Well
Jacob's Well, The Scene Of The Conversation Between Jesus And The "woman Of Samaria" Narrated In The Fourth Gos Pel, Is Described As Being In The Neighbourhood Of An Otherwise Unmentioned Called Sychar." From The Time Of Eusebius This City Has Been Identified With Sychem Or Shechem (modern Nablus), And ...

Jacobus De Voragine
Jacobus De Voragine (c. 1230—c. 1298), Italian Chronicler, Archbishop Of Genoa, Was Born At Varazze, Near Genoa, And Joined The Dominicans In 1244. He Was Provincial Of Lom Bardy From 1267 Till 1286, And Represented His Own Pro :ince At The Councils Of Lucca (1288) And Ferrara In 1288 Nicholas ...

Jacobus
Jacobus, The Name Of A British Gold Coin Issued In The Reign Of James I. And Called After Him, Jacobus Being Latin For James. It Was Of The Value Of 25 Shillings. ...

Jacopone Da Todi Jacobus
Jacopone Da Todi (jacobus De Benedictis) (c. I230 1306), Italian Franciscan Poet, Was Born Of Noble Family At Todi. He Practised As An Advocate In His Native Town And Acquired Considerable Wealth, But On The Death Of His Wife About 1268 Became A Franciscan. On Account Of His Satire On ...

Jacques Jasmin
Jasmin, Jacques (1798-1864), Provençal Poet, Was Born At Agen, His Family Name Being Boe. In 1825 He Published His First Volume Of Papillotos ("curl Papers"), Containing Poems In French, And In The Familiar Agen Patois—the Popular Speech Of The Working Classes. Jasmin Was The Most Famous Forerunner In Provençal Literature ...

Jactitation
Jactitation, In English Law, The Maliciously Boasting Or Giving Out By One Party That He Or She Is Married To The Other. In Such A Case, In Order To Prevent The Common Reputation Of Their Marriage That Might Ensue, The Procedure Is By Suit Of Jactitation Of Marriage, In Which ...

Jade And Other Hard
Jade And Other Hard Stone Carvings. There Are Three Minerals That Are Called Jade: (i) Nephrite, Known Since Earliest Times; (2) Jadeite, Described In 1868 By A. Damour, The Famous French Mineralogist, As New. The Stone Was Of Pure White With A Faint Purple Tint. Jadeite Is Also Often The ...

Jade Or Jahde
Jade Or Jahde, A Deep Bay And Estuary Of The North Sea, Belonging To Oldenburg. The Bay, Which Was For The Most Part Made By Storm-floods In The I3th And I6th Centuries, Measures 7o Sq.m., And Has Communication With The Open Sea By A Fairway, M. Wide, Which Never Freezes, ...

Jade
Jade, A Name Applied To Certain Minerals Of Compact Texture And Colour Varying From Nearly White To Dark Green Which Have Been Used From Prehistoric Times In The Manufacture Of Weapons, Utensils And Ornaments. The Name Is Often Restricted To Two Minerals, Jadeite And Nephrite. The Word Jade Is Derived ...

Jaeger
Jaeger, In Ornithology, The Name Given In North America To Several Of The Skuas (q.v.). ...

Jaen
Jaen, An Inland Province Of Southern Spain, Formed In 1833 Of Districts Belonging To Andalusia ; Bounded On The North By Ciudad Real And Albacete, East By Albacete And Granada, South By Granada, And West By Cordova. Pop. (1930), Area, 5,848 Sq.m. Jaen Comprises The Upper Basin Of The River ...

Jaen_2
Jaen, The Capital Of The Spanish Province Of Jaen, On The Linares-puente Genil Railway, 1,500 Ft. Above The Sea. Pop. (1930), 39,787. Jaen Is Finely Situated On The Well-wooded Northern Slopes Of The Jabalcuz Mountains, Overlooking The Valleys Of The Jaen And Guadalbullon Rivers, Which Flow North Into The Guadalquivir. ...

Jafarabad
Jafarabad, State Of India, In The Western India States Agency, Kathiawar, Bombay, Forming Part Of The Territory Of The Nawab Of Janjira ; Area, 53 Sq.m. ; Pop. (1931), 12,083. The Town Of Jafarabad (pop. 5,535), Situated On The Estuary Of A River, Carries On A Coasting Trade. ...

Jaffna
Jaffna (native Yalpannan), A Town Of Ceylon, At The Northern Extremity Of The Island. Pop. (1931) It Was Occupied By The Tamils About 204 B.c., And There Continued To Be Tamil Rajahs Of Jaffna Till 1617, When The Portuguese Took Pos Session Of The Place. As Early As 1544 Missionaries ...

Jagersfontein
Jagersfontein, A Town In South Africa, 42' S., 25° 25' E. White Pop. (1931) 1,723; Native (1921) The Town Is Situated About 4,500 Ft. Above Sea-level, And Owes Its Existence To The Most Important Diamond Mine In The Orange Free State. The Mine Was Originated In 187o, And Produces Stones ...

Jaguar
Jaguar (felis Onca), The Largest Species Of The Felidae On The American Continent, Where It Ranges From Texas Through Central And South America To Patagonia. In The Countries Which Bound Its Northern Limit It Is Not Frequently Met With, But In South America It Is Quite Common. The Jaguar Is ...

Jaguarondi Or Yaguarondi
Jaguarondi Or Yaguarondi (felis Jaguarondi), A South American Wild Cat, Found In Brazil, Paraguay, And Guiana, Ranging To North-eastern Mexico. This Small Cat Is Generally Brownish Grey, But In Some Individuals The Fur Has A Rufous Coat, While In Others Grey Predominates. The Names Jaguarondi And Eyra Are Applied Indifferently ...

Jahangir Or Jehangir
Jahangir Or Jehangir (1569-1627), Mogul Emperor Of Delhi, Succeeded His Father Akbar The Great In 16o5. His Name Was Salim, But He Assumed The Title Of Jahangir, "conqueror Of The World," On His Accession. During His Father's Deccan Cam Paign Of 1598-99, He Had Meditated Rebellion, But In 1604 They ...

Jahiz Abu Uthman Amr
Jahiz (abu (uthman 'amr Ibn Bahr Ul-jahiz I.e., "the Man Of Whose Eyes Are Prominent") (d. 1869), Arabian Writer, Spent His Life In Basra Where He Devoted Himself Chiefly To The Study Of Polite Literature. A Muttazilite In His Religious Beliefs, He Developed A System Of His Own And Founded ...

Jahrum
Jahrum, A Town Of Persia In The Province Of Fars, About 90 Miles S.e. Of Shiraz. The Neighbourhood Is Celebrated For Its Dates, Which Are Exported In Great Quantities ; It Also Produces Much Tobacco And Fruit. The Water Supply Depends On Wells. It Has A Population Of About 15,000. ...

Jains
Jains, An Important Sect Of Dissenters From Hinduism, Whose Wealth Gives Them Greater Influence Than Their Numbers, Only 1,252,105 In 1931. Being Generally Traders They Are Found In Most Indian Cities, Especially In Those Of Mewar, Guzerat And The Upper Malabar Coast. Their Religious Centres Are Mt. Abu In Rajpiltana, ...

Jaintia Hills
Jaintia Hills. A Mountainous Region Which With The Khasi Hills Forms One Of The Districts Of British India In The Hills Division Of Assam. (see Khasi And Jaintia Hills.) ...

Jaipur
Jaipur, An Indian State In The Rajputana Agency; Area 15,579 Sq.m., Pop. (1931) 2,631,775. The Centre Of The State Is A Sandy And Barren Plain 1,600 Ft. Above Sea-level, Bounded On The East By Ranges Of Hills Running North And South. On The North And West It Is Bounded By ...

Jaisalmer
Jaisalmer, An Indian State In The Rajputana Agency. Its Area Is 16,062 Sq.m. ; And In 1931 The Population Was 76,255. Jaisalmer Is Almost Entirely A Sandy Waste, Forming A Part Of The Great Indian Desert (q.v.). The General Aspect Of The Country Is That Of An Interminable Sea Of ...

Jajce
Jajce, A Town Of Bosnia, Yugoslavia. Pop. (1931) 7,515. Jajce Occupies A Conical Hill, Overlooking One Of The Finest Water Falls In Europe, Where The Pliva Rushes Down Into The Vrbas, 1 Oo Ft. Below. The 14th Century Citadel Which Crowns The Hill Is Said To Have Been Built For ...

Jajpur
Jajpur, A Town Of British India, In Cuttack District, Behar And Orissa, Situated On The Right Bank Of The Baitarani River. Pop. (1931) 10,673. It Was The Capital Of Orissa Some Time Prior To The Iith Century, When It Was Superseded By Cuttack. A Mono Lithic Shaft, Called The Chandeswar ...

Jakova
Jakova (also Written Diakovo, Gyakovo And Gjakovica), The Largest Town In Montenegro, Yugoslavia. Pop. (1921) 12,72.4. Almost Entirely Muslim Albanians. It Is A Miserable, Badly-paved Town, Lying In A Fertile Plain Surrounded By Wild, Wooded Moun Tains. Its Inaccessibility And The Lawlessness Of Its Inhabitants Protect It From The Inroads ...

Jakun
Jakun, A Proto-malayan Tribe Of The Malay Peninsula. Divided Into The Orang Bukit Or Hill Jakun And The Orang Laut Or Sea Jakun. The Former Include Sub-tribes Such As Besisi, Badu Anda, Mantra, And The Latter, Including The Seletar Among Others, Are Akin To The Mawkhen Tribe. They Are Largely ...

Jalalabad Or Jellalabad
Jalalabad Or Jellalabad, A Town And Province Of Afghanistan. The Town Lies At A Height Of 1,95o Ft. In A Plain On The South Side Of The Kabul River, 96 M. From Kabul And 76 From Peshawar. Estimated Pop., 6,000. Between It And Peshawar Intervenes The Khyber Pass, And Between ...

Jalap
Jalap, A Cathartic Drug Consisting Of The Tuberous Roots Of Ipomaea Purga, A Convolvulaceous Plant Growing On The Eastern Declivities Of The Mexican Andes At An Elevation Of 5,000ft. To 8,000ft. Above The Level Of The Sea. The Jalap Plant Has Slender Herbaceous Twining Stems, With Alternately Placed Heart-shaped Pointed ...

Jalapa
Jalapa (or Jalapa Enriquez), A City Of Mexico And Capital Of The State Of Veracruz, 70m. By Rail N.w. Of The Port Of Veracruz. Pop. (1930) 36,812. It Is Picturesquely Situated On The Slopes Of The Sierra Which Separates The Central Plateau From The Tierra Caliente Of The Gulf Coast, ...

Jalaun
Jalaun, A Town And District Of British India, In The Jhansi Division Of The United Provinces. Pop. Of Town (1931), 8.236. Formerly It Was The Residence Of A Mahratta Governor, But Never The Headquarters Of The District, Which Are At Orai, An Equally In Significant Village (pop. The District Of ...

Jalisco Or Xalisco
Jalisco Or Xalisco, A Pacific Coast State Of Mexico. Pop. (193o) 1.255.346. Area, 31,151 Sq. Miles. Jalisco Is Traversed From North North-west To South South-east By The Sierra Madre, Locally Known As The Sierra De Nayarit And Sierra De Jalisco, Which Divides The State Into A Narrow, Heavily Forested Coastal ...

Jalpaiguri
Jalpaiguri, A Town And District Of British India, In The Rajshahi Division Of Bengal. The Town Is On The Right Bank Of The River Tista, With A Station On The Eastern Bengal State Rail Way. Pop. (1931), 18,962. It Is The Headquarters Of The Com Missioner Of The Division. The ...

Jalud
Jalud, A Tributary Of The River Jordan In Palestine. It De Scends From The Plains Of Esdraelon To Near Beisan. See Jordan ; Palestine. ...

Jam Nur Ed Din Abd Ur Rahman Ibn
Jam' (nur-ed-din 'abd-ur-rahman Ibn Ahmad) 1492) , Persian Poet And Mystic, Was Born At Jam In Khurasan, Whence The Name By Which He Is Usually Known. In His Poems He Mystically Utilizes The Connection Of The Name With The Same Word Meaning "wine-cup." He Was The Last Great Classic Poet ...

Jamaica
Jamaica, The Largest Island In The British West Indies. It Lies About 8o M. S. Of The Eastern Extremity Of Cuba, Between 17° 43' And 18° 32' N. And 76° 1o' And 78° 20' W., Is 144 M. Long, So M. In Extreme Breadth And Has An Area Of 4,207 ...

Jamaica_2
Jamaica, Formerly A Village Of Queens County, Long Island, N.y., U.s.a., But Since 1898 A Part Of The Borough Of Queens, New York City. For Two Guns, A Coat And A Quantity Of Powder And Lead, Several New Englanders Obtained From The Indians A Deed For A Tract Of Land ...

Jamb
Jamb, In Architecture, Originally The Post At Each Side Of A Door, Window Or Opening To Carry The Lintel ; Now, More Loosely, The Side Surfaces Of Any Opening. Colonettes, Flanking Doors And Windows, Are Known As Jamb-shafts. ...

Jambi
Jambi, A Residency In Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, Area Sq.km., On The East Coast, Separated From The Islands Of Singkep And Lingga By The Straits Of Berhala, Bounded On The South By Palembang Residency, North By The Mainland Dependency Of Riouw And West By Sumatra West Coast Residency (dutch : ...

James I
James I. (1566-1625), King Of Great Britain And Ireland And James Vi. Of Scotland, The Only Child Of Mary Queen Of Scots, And Her Second Husband, Henry Stewart Lord Darnley, Was Born In Edinburgh Castle On June 19. 1566. He Was Pro Claimed King Of Scotland On July 24, 1567, ...

James Ii
James Ii. King Of Great Britain And Ireland, Second Surviving Son Of Charles I. And Henrietta Maria, Was Born On Oct. 14, 1633, And Created Duke Of York In January, James Was At Oxford When The City Surrendered In 1646, And By The Terms Of Capitulation Was Handed Over To ...