ANTONIUS, the name of a large number of well-known citizens of ancient Rome, of the gens Antonia. The following are important : (I) MARCUS ANTONIUS (143-87 B.C.), one of the most dis tinguished Roman orators of his time, was quaestor in 113, and praetor in 102 with proconsular powers, the province of Cilicia being assigned to him. He was consul in 99, censor g7, and held a command in the Marsic War in go. An adherent of Sulla, he was put to death by Marius and Cinna in 87. His reputation for elo quence rests on the authority of Cicero, none of his orations being extant. He is one of the chief speakers in Cicero's De Oratore.
See Velleius Paterculus ii. 22 ; Appian, Bell. Civ. i. 72 ; Dio Cassius xlv. 47; Plutarch, Marius, 44 ; Cicero, Orator, 5, Brutus, 37; Quin tilian, Instit. iii. I, 19; 0. Enderlein, De M. Antonio oratore (1882).
(2) MARCUS ANTONIUS, nicknamed CRETICUS in derision, elder son of the above, and father of the triumvir. He was praetor in 74 B.C., and received an extraordinary command to clear the sea of pirates. He failed in the task and made himself unpopular by plun dering the provinces (Sallust, Hist., iii., fragments ed. B. Mauren brecher, p. Io8; Velleius Paterculus ii., 31 ; Cicero, In Verrem, iii., 91) . He attacked the Cretans, who had made an alliance with the pirates, but was totally defeated. Diodorus Siculus (xl. 1) states that he only saved himself by a disgraceful treaty. He died (72– ;1) in Crete. All authorities are agreed as to his avarice and incompetence.
(3) GAIUS ANTONIUS, nicknamed HYBRIDA from his half-savage disposition (Pliny, Nat. Hist. viii. 213), second son of Marcus (1) and uncle of the triumvir. Despite a bad reputation, he held the consulship in 63, with Cicero, and was subsequently appointed to Macedonia. There he made himself so detested that he left the province, and was accused in Rome (59) both of having taken part in the Catilinarian conspiracy and of extortion in his province. In spite of Cicero's eloquent defence, Antonius was condemned and went into exile at Cephallenia. He seems to have been recalled by Caesar, since he was present at a meeting of the senate in 44, and was censor in 42.
See Cicero, In Cat. iii. 6, pro Flacco, 38 ; Plutarch, Cicero, 12 ; Dio Cassius xxxvii. 39, 40 ; xxxviii. In. On his trial see article Pauly Wissowa's Realencyklopadie.
(4) MARCUS ANTONIUS, commonly called MARK ANTONY, the Triumvir, grandson of (1) and son of (2), related on his mother's side to Julius Caesar, was born about 83 B.C. In 54 he was with Caesar in Gaul. Raised by Caesar's influence to the offices of quaestor, augur, and tribune of the plebs, he supported the cause of his patron, and was expelled from the senate-house when the civil war broke out. He was deputy-governor of Italy during Cae sar's absence in Spain (49), second in command in the decisive battle of Pharsalus (48), and again deputy-governor of Italy while Caesar was in Africa (47). In 46 he seems to have taken offence because Caesar insisted on payment for the property of Pompey which Antony had appropriated. But the breach was soon healed, for we find Antony meeting the dictator at Narbo the f ol lowing year, and refusing when Trebonius suggested that he should join in the conspiracy. In 44 he was consul with Caesar. After the murder of Caesar on March 15 Antony determined to make him self sole ruler. At first he seemed disposed to treat the conspirators leniently, but at the same time he so roused the people against them by the publication of Caesar's will and by his eloquent funeral oration that they were obliged to leave the city. He forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then held by Decimus Junius Brutus, one of the con spirators. Brutus refused to surrender the province and Antony set out to attack him in Oct. 44.
But at this time Octavian, whom Caesar had adopted, arrived in Italy and claimed the inheritance of his "father." Octavian ob tained the support of the senate and of Cicero ; and the veteran troops of the dictator flocked to his standard. Antony was de nounced as a public enemy and Octavian was entrusted with the command of the war against him. Antony was defeated at Mutina (43) , where he was besieging Brutus. The senate became suspi cious of Octavian, who, irritated by its treatment of him, entered Rome at the head of his troops and forced the senate to grant him the consulship (Aug. 29). Meanwhile, Antony escaped to Cisalpine Gaul, effected a junction with Lepidus, and marched towards Rome with a large force. Octavian came to terms with Antony and Lepi dus. The three leaders met at Bononia and adopted the title Tri umviri reipublicae constituendae as joint rulers. Gaul was to be long to Antony, Spain to Lepidus, and Africa, Sardinia, and Sicily to Octavian. The arrangement was to last for five years. A reign of terror followed ; proscriptions, confiscations, and executions became general, and Cicero, among others, fell a victim to Antony's revenge. In the following year (42) Antony and Octavian pro ceeded against the conspirators, and by the two battles of Philippi annihilated the senatorial and republican parties. Antony pro ceeded to Greece and thence to Asia Minor. On his passage through Cilicia in 41 he fell a victim to the charms of Cleopatra, in whose company he spent the winter at Alexandria. At length he was aroused by the Parthian invasion of Syria and the news that his wife Fulvia and his brother were at war with Octavian. On arriving in Italy he found that Octavian was already victorious; on the death of Fulvia, a reconciliation was effected between the triumvirs and cemented by the marriage of Antony with Octavian's sister. In the new division of the Roman world made at Brundusium Antony received the east. Returning to his province, he made several attempts to subdue the Parthians, without any decided suc cess. In 39 he visited Athens, where he behaved in a most extrava gant manner, assuming the attributes of the god Dionysus. In 37, after meeting Octavian in Italy and renewing the triumvirate for five years, he returned to Syria and Cleopatra. The way in which he disposed of kingdoms and provinces in her favour alienated his supporters, and in 32 the senate deprived him of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra. After two years spent in preparations, Antony was defeated at the battle of Actium (Sept. 2, 31) . He followed Cleopatra, who had escaped with 6o ships, to Egypt and there, pursued by his enemies and deserted by his troops, committed suicide in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had al ready done so (3o B.C.). Antony had been married in succession to Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia, and Octavia, and left a number of children.
See ROME, History, ii. "The Republic" (ad fin.) ; Caesar, De Bello Gallico, De Bello Civili; Plutarch, Lives of Antony, Brutus, Cicero, Caesar; Cicero, Letters (ed. Tyrrell and Purser) and Philippics; Appian, Bell. Civ. i.—v.; Dio Cassius xli—liii. In addition to the standard histories, see V. Gardthausen, Augustus and seine Zeit (1891 1904) ; W. Drumann, Geschichte Roms (2nd ed. P. Groebe), i. pp. 46-384 (1899) ; article by Groebe in Pauly-Wissowa's Realency klopadie; and a short but vivid sketch by de Quincey in his Essay on the Caesars.
See Appian, Bellum Civile, v. 14 ff.; Dio Cassius xlviii. (6) GAIUS ANTONIUS, second son of (2) and brother of the triumvir. He supported Caesar against Pompey, and in 44 was urban praetor. On his way to his province of Macedonia he fell into the hands of M. Junius Brutus, who at first kept him as hos tage but ultimately put him to death (42).
See Plutarch, Brutus, 28; Dio Cassius xlvii. 21-24. On the whole family, see the articles in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyklopadie i. pt. 2