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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Anti Or Campa
Anti Or Campa, A Tribe Of Arawakan Stock, Inhabiting The Forests Of The Upper Ucayali Basin, On The East Of The Andes, South Peru. They Gave Their Name To The Eastern Province Of Antisuyu, And Were Ferocious Cannibals. They Are Of Fine Physique And Wear A Robe With Holes For ...

Anti Saloon League
Anti-saloon League, An American Temperance Or Ganization Founded On May 24, 1893, At Oberlin, O. The Fore Runner Of The Anti-saloon League Was The Oberlin Temperance Alliance Founded At Oberlin On March 20, 1874. The Metcalf Law Of 1882, Granting Local Option To All Ohio College Towns, And The Beatty ...

Anti Semitism
Anti-semitism, A Religious, Political, And Social Agitation Against The Jews, Which Played A Conspicuous Part In The Political Struggles Of The Concluding Quarter Of The I9th Century And Which Manifested Itself Again In Germany After The Advent Of Hitler In The Jews Contend That Anti-semitism Is A Mere Atavistic Revival ...

Anti Slavery Society
Anti-slavery Society. The And Aborigines Protection Society Is A Fusion Of Two Societies, Founded In 1837 And 1839 Respectively. The Aborigines Protection Society Was Formed Mainly Through The Efforts Of Thomas Hodgkin And Thomas Fowell Buxton, As The Outcome Of A Select Parliamentary Committee Appointed To Consider Measures For Securing ...

Antibes
Antibes, Winter Resort, Southern France, Department Of The Alpes-maritimes (formerly In That Of Var, But Transferred After Alpes-maritimes Was Formed In 186o Out Of The County Of Nice) . Pop. (1931) 13,074. Antipolis, Named From Its Position "facing The City" (of Nice), Is Said To Have Been Founded About 34o ...

Anticathode
Anticathode, The Target Inserted In An X-ray Tube On Which The High-speed Electrons, Or Cathode Rays (q.v.), Are Directed. In Tubes With A Separate Anode The Anticathode Is Generally Connected Electrically, And Outside The Tube, To The Anode (q.v.). In A Coolidge Tube The Anticathode Acts Also As The Anode. ...

Antichrist
Antichrist. The Earliest Mention Of The Name Anti Christ, Which Was Probably First Coined In Christian Eschatological Literature Is In The Epistles Of St. John (i. Ii., 18, 22, Iv. 3; Ii. 7), And It Has Since Come Into Universal Use. The Conception, Para Phrased In This Word, Of A ...

Anticlimax
Anticlimax (i.e., The Opposite To "climax"), In Rhetoric, An Abrupt Declension (either Deliberate Or Unintended) On The Part Of A Speaker Or Writer From The Dignity Of Idea Which He Ap Peared To Be Aiming At ; As In The Following Well-known Distich : The Great Dalhousie, He, The God ...

Anticosti
Anticosti, Island Province Of Quebec, Canada, In The Gulf Of St. Lawrence, 49° To 50° N., 61° 4o' To 64° 3o' W., Length 135m., Breadth 30m. Pop. 25o, Chiefly Lighthouse-keepers. The Coast Is Dangerous, And The Harbours, Ellis Bay And Fox Bay, Are Poor. Its Main Wealth Consists Of Timber. ...

Anticyclone
Anticyclone, A Name First Proposed By F. Galton For An Atmospheric System Opposite To A Cyclone (q.v.). In An Anti Cyclone The Barometric Pressure Is High, Seldom Less Than 1,015 M.bars, Or 3o Inches, And There Is A Steady Decrease From The Centre; In A Well-marked Anticyclone The Isobars Are ...

Anticyra
Anticyra, The Ancient Name Of Three Cities Of Greece. (1) (mod. Aspraspitia), In Phocis, On The Bay Of Anticyra, In The Corinthian Gulf ; Some Remains Are Still Visible. It Was A Town Of Considerable Importance, Famous For Its Black Hellebore, A Herb Regarded As A Cure For Insanity. (2) ...

Antidotes For Special Poisonings
Antidotes For Special Poisonings Lead: Epsom Salts In Large Doses, 2 Tablespoonfuls To A Glass Of Water, Bland Liquors, Castor-oil, Milk Or Eggs. Phosphorus: Magnesia In Water, Potassium Permanganate 1 To 1,000 Solution In Water, Copper Sulphate (bluestone In Water), Repeated V. Gr. Doses To Cause Vomiting, Turpentine, A Half ...

Antidotes
Antidotes, Remedies For Counteracting Poisons. The Fol Lowing Antidotes For Special Poisons Are Sometimes Given In Case Of Emergency Usually Following And Followed By An Emetic, And Whenever Possible Under The Supervision Of A Physician. In Gen Eral, Antidotes For Acid Poisons Are : Ammonia (a Teaspoonful To Half A ...

Antient Concerts
Antient Concerts, The Name Of A Famous Series Of London Concerts, Started In 1776 And Continued Without A Break Till 1848. The Founders Of The Concerts Were A Body Of Aristo Cratic Amateurs, Who Were Supported By All The Best Musicians And Cultivated Music-lovers Of The Period. The Programmes Were ...

Antifebrin
Antifebrin, A Name Commonly Employed For Acetanilide (q.v.), An Organic Compound Present In Various Headache Powders. The Name Given In The Political History Of The United States To Those Who, After The Formation Of The Federal Constitution Of 1787, Opposed Its Ratification By The People Of The Several States. The ...

Antigonds Of Carystus
Antigonds Of Carystus (in Euboea), Greek Writer, Flourished In The 3rd Century B.c. At The Court Of Attalus I. (241 '97) Of Pergamum. His Chief Work Was The Lives Of Philosophers, Drawn From His Personal Knowledge, Of Which Considerable Frag Ments Are Found In Athenaeus And Diogenes Laertius. His Collec ...

Antigonus Cyclops Or Monophthalmos
Antigonus Cyclops Or Monophthalmos B.e.) So Called From His Having Lost An Eye—macedonian King, Son Of Philip, Was One Of The Generals Of Alexander The Great. He Was Made Governor Of Greater Phrygia In 333, And In The Division Of The Provinces After Alexander's Death (3 23) Pamphylia And Lycia ...

Antigonus Gonatas
Antigonus Gonatas (c. 319-239 B.e.), Macedonian King, Was The Son Of Demetrius Poliorcetes, And Grandson Of Antigonus Cyclops (q.v.) . On The Death Of His Father (283), He Assumed The Title Of King Of Macedonia, But Did Not Obtain Pos Session Of The Throne Till 2 76, After It Had ...

Antigua Guatemala
Antigua Guatemala, The Ancient Capital Of Guate Mala, Central America, And Now The Centre Of The Growing Of The Finest Grades Of Coffee Of That Country. Antigua Was Partially Destroyed By An Earthquake In '773, And The Capital Was Thereafter Removed To The Present Site Of Guatemala City, 2 7m. ...

Antigua
Antigua, An Island In The British West Indies, Forming, With Barbuda And Redonda, One Of The Five Presidencies In The Colony Of The Leeward Islands. It Lies 5om. E. Of St. Kitts, In 6' N. And 61° 45' W., And Is 54m. In Circumference, With An Area Of 1o8 Square ...

Antilegqmena
Antilegqmena (ayrtxeybµeya, Contradicted, Disputed), An Epithet Used By The Early Christian Writers To Denote Those Books Of The New Testament Which, Although Sometimes Publicly Read In The Churches, Were Not For A Considerable Time Admitted To Be Genuine, Or Received Into The Canon Of Scripture; And Applied Later To Those ...

Antilia Or Antilla Or
Antilia Or Antilla Or Island Of The Seven Cities (portuguese Isla Das Sete Cidades), A Legendary Island In The At Lantic Ocean. The Oldest Etymology (1455) Connects It With Plato's Atlantis (q.v.), Others With Latin Anterior (i.e., The Island That Is Reached "before" Cipango), Or With The Jezirat Al Tennyn, ...

Antilochus
Antilochus, In Greek Legend, Son Of Nestor, King Of Pylos. One Of The Suitors Of Helen, He Accompanied His Father To The Trojan War, And Distinguished Himself As Acting Commander Of The Pylians. He Was An Intimate Friend Of Achilles, To Whom He Was Commissioned To Announce The Death Of ...

Antimacassar
Antimacassar, A Protective Covering Thrown Over The Back Of A Chair Or The Head Or Cushions Of A Sofa, Named From Macassar, A Hair-oil In General Use In The 19th Century. The Original Antimacassars Were Made Of Stiff, White Crochet-work, But Later Soft Coloured Materials, Embroidered In Wools Or Silks, ...

Antimachus
Antimachus, Of Colophon Or Claros, Greek Poet And Grammarian, Flourished About 400 B.c. His Chief Works Were : A Lengthy Epic Thebais, An Account Of The Expedition Of The Seven Against Thebes And The War Of The Epigoni ; And An Elegiac Poem Lyde, So Called From The Poet's Mistress. ...

Antimony In Medicine
Antimony In Medicine So Far Back As Basil Valentine And Paracelsus, Antimonial Prep Arations Were In Great Vogue As Medicinal Agents, And Came To Be So Much Abused That A Prohibition Was Placed Upon Their Em Ployment By The Paris Parliament In 1566. Metallic Antimony Was Utilized To Make Goblets ...

Antimony
Antimony, A Bluish-white, Exceedingly Brittle Metal. In Its Naturally Occurring Sulphide (stibnite) It Has Been Known From Very Early Times, More Especially In Eastern Countries, Reference To It Being Made In The Old Testament. Basil Valentine Alludes To Stibnite In His Triumphal Car Of Antimony (c. 1600), And At A ...

Antinomianism
Antinomianism, An Interpretation Cif The Antithesis Be Tween Law And Gospel, Recurrent From The Earliest Times (gr.avri Against Vopos, Law). Christians Being Released, In Important Par Ticulars, From Conformity To The Old Testament Polity As A Whole, A Real Difficulty Attended The Settlement Of The Limits And The Im Mediate ...

Antinomy
Antinomy, Literally The Mutual Incompatibility, Real Or Apparent, Of Two Laws. The Term Acquired A Special Significance In The Philosophy Of Kant, Who Used It To Describe The Contradic Tory Results Of Applying To The Universe Of Pure Thought The Cate Gories Or Criteria Proper To The Universe Of Sensible ...

Antinozjs
Antinozjs, A Beautiful Youth Of Claudiopolis In Bithynia Was The Favourite Of The Emperor Hadrian, Whom He Accompanied On His Journeys. He Committed Suicide By Drowning Himself In The Nile (a.d. 130). After His Death Hadrian Caused The Most Extrava Gant Respect To Be Paid To His Memory. He Was ...

Antioch College
Antioch College, An Institution Of Higher Education At Yellow Springs (0.). The College Is Governed By A Board Of 20 Trustees, The President Of The College Being Ex Officio President Of The Board, And Was Opened In 1853, Horace Mann Being Its First President. As Reorganized In 1921, By Arthur ...

Antioch In Pisidia
Antioch In Pisidia, An Ancient City, The Remains Of Which Lie Close To The Modern Yalovach, In The Vilayet Of Hami Dabad In Turkey. It Was Situated On The Lower Southern Slopes Of The Sultan Dagh, On The Right Bank Of A Stream, The Ancient Anthius, Which Flows Into The ...

Antiochus Ii Theos
Antiochus Ii. Theos (262-247 B.c.), Made Peace With Egypt By His Marriage With The Daughter Of Ptolemy Philadelphus, But Was Tyrannical And Unpopular With His People. Antiochus Iii., Sur Named The Great (223-187 B.c.), And Most Famous Of The Line, Was A Nephew Of Antiochus Theos. By Wars In The ...

Antiochus Of Ascalon
Antiochus Of Ascalon (1st Century, B.c.), Greek Philosopher Who Attempted To Reconcile The Doctrines Of His Teachers Philo Of Larissa And Mnesarchus The Stoic. Against The Scepticism Of Philo, He Held That The Intellect Has In Itself A Sufficient Test Of Truth; Against Mnesarchus, That Happiness, Though Its Main Factor ...

Antiochus Of Syracuse
Antiochus Of Syracuse, Greek Historian, Flourished About 420 B.c. He Wrote A History Of Sicily From The Earliest Times To 424, Which Was Used By Thucydides, And The Colonizing Of Italy, Frequently Referred To By Strabo And Dionysius Of Hali Carnassus See Muller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, I.; Wolfflin, Antiochos Von ...

Antiochus
Antiochus, The Name Of 13 Kings Of The Seleucid Dynasty In Nearer Asia. Antiochus I. Soter (281-262 B.c.) Was The Son Of Seleucus, A General Of Alexander The Great And Founder Of The Dynasty. Upon His Father's Assassination B.c.) He Succeeded To The Difficult Task Of Holding The Seleucid Empire ...

Antiope I
Antiope. (i) In Greek Legend, The Mother By Zeus Of Amphion And Zethus. Her Beauty Attracted Zeus, Who, Assum Ing The Form Of A Satyr, Took Her By Force. She Ran Away From Her Father And Married Epopeus, King Of Sicyon. Thereupon Her Father Killed Himself, First Bidding His Brother ...

Antioquia
Antioquia, An Interior Department Of The Republic Of Colombia, Lying South Of Bolivar, West Of The Magdalena River, And East Of Cauca. Area, 25,516 Sq.m. ; Population (census 1896) 648,190; (1928) 1,01i,324. The Greater Part Of Its Territory Lies Between The Magdalena And Cauca Rivers And Includes The North Ern ...

Antiparos
Antiparos (anc. Oliaros), A Greek Island In The Modern Eparchy Of Naxos, Separated By A Narrow Strait From The West Coast Of Paros; 7m. Long By 3 Broad. Pop. (1928) 612, Mostly In Kastro, On The North Coast, Employed In Agriculture And Fishing. Formerly Piracy Was Common. The Only Remarkable ...

Antipater
Antipater (398?-319 B.c.), Macedonian General, And Regent Of Macedonia During Alexander's Eastern Expedition (334 323). He Had Previously (346) Been Sent By Philip As Ambassa Dor To Athens And Negotiated Peace After The Battle Of Chaeroneia About 332, While He Was Dealing With A Rebellion In Thrace, The Spartan King ...

Antipathy
Antipathy Is A Permanent Emotional Attitude Of Dislike And Aversion Felt Toward Both People And Things, An Attitude Usually Originating In Some Sort Of Conflict, Real Or Imagined, Be Tween The Person Feeling The Antipathy And The Object Toward Which The Antipathy Is Felt. If One Person Has Been Compelled ...

Antiphanes
Antiphanes (c. 408-334 B.c.), The Most Important Writer Of The Middle Attic Comedy With The Exception Of Alexis. He Was Apparently A Foreigner Who Settled In Athens, Where He Began To Write About 387. More Than 200 Of The 365 (or 26o) Comedies Attributed To Him Are Known To Us ...

Antiphilus
Antiphilus, A Greek Painter, Of The Age Of Alexander. He Worked For Philip Of Macedon And Ptolemy I. Of Egypt. The Descriptions Of His Works Extant Show That He Excelled In Light And Shade, In Genre Representations And In Caricature. ...

Antiphon
Antiphon, Of Rhamnus In Attica, The Earliest Of The "ten" Attic Orators, Was Born In 48o B.c. He Was Largely Responsible For The Establishment Of The Four Hundred In 411 (see Theramenes) ; On The Restoration Of The Democracy He Was Accused Of Treason And Condemned To Death (thuc. Viii. ...

Antiphony
Antiphony, A Species Of Psalmody In Which The Choir Or Congregation, Being Divided Into Two Parts, Sing Alternately In A Manner Suggested By The Derivation Of The Word (gr. Avri, And Ccovi, A Voice). The Peculiar Structure Of The Hebrew Psalms Renders It Probable That The Antiphonal Method Originated In ...

Antipodes
Antipodes, A Term Applied Strictly To Any Two People Or Places On Opposite Sides Of The Earth, So Situated That A Line Drawn From The One To The Other Passes Through The Centre Of The Globe And Forms A Globe Diameter. (gr. Cirri, Opposed To, And Irober, Feet.) Any Two ...

Antipolo
Antipolo, A Municipality In The Highlands Of The Prov Ince Of Rizal, In Luzon, In The Philippine Islands, About Tom. From Manila. Pop. (1918), 5,657, Of Whom 2,842 Were Males (no Whites). It Is Situated In The Midst Of A Rich Agricultural Dis Trict, And Has Many Waters Which Are ...

Antipyretics
Antipyretics Are Agents Used To Reduce The Tempera Ture In Fever. They May Be Classified Under Two Headings, Namely, Chemical And Physical. Until About 1885 The Chief Chemical Antipyretic Was Quinine, Which Was Used Most Successfully In Malaria. Soon After That Numerous Other Drugs Were Introduced And It Is Mainly ...

Antipyrine
Antipyrine, A Colourless And Slightly Bitter Alkaloidal Substance Derived From Coal Tar, Used In Medicine As An Antipy Retic And Analgesic, Called Also Phenazonum And Analgesine. It Melts At 113° C, Is Soluble In 1.3 Parts Of Water And Dissolves Even More Readily In Alcohol. It Reduces The Temperature Of ...

Antiquary
Antiquary, A Person Who Devotes Himself To The Study Of Ancient Learning And "antiques"; I.e., Ancient Objects Of Art Or Science. In 1572 A Society Was Founded By Bishop Matthew Parker, Sir Robert Cotton, William Camden, And Others For The Preservation Of National Antiquities, And Existed Till 1604, When It ...

Antique
Antique, Belonging To Former Times, Venerable. The Term Is Applied To The Remains Of Ancient Art, Such As Sculptures, Gems, Etc., Principally To Those Of Greek Or Roman Origin; To Furniture Of An Early Period, And To Anything Out Of Date Or Old-fashioned. ...

Antiseptics
Antiseptics And Asepsis. Antiseptics Are Substances Used For The Prevention Of Bacterial Development In Animal Or Vegetable Matter. Some Are True Germicides, Capable Of De Stroying The Bacteria, Whilst Others Merely Inhibit Their Growth. The Antiseptic Method Of Treating Wounds (see Surgery) Was Introduced By The Late Lord Lister, And ...

Antisthenes
Antisthenes (c. 444–c. 365 B.e.), The Founder Of The Cynic School Of Philosophy, Was Born At Athens Of A Thracian Mother. In His Youth He Studied Rhetoric Under Gorgias, Perhaps Also Under Hippias And Prodicus. He Came Under The Influence Of Socrates, And Became A Devoted Pupil. So Eager Was ...

Antistreptococcus Serum
Antistreptococcus Serum Is The Serum Obtained From An Animal (usually A Horse) Which Has Been Repeatedly In Jected With Streptococcus. Such Serum Is Prepared For Use In The Prevention And Treatment Of Streptococcus Infections In Man, And Is Valuable On Account Of The Antibodies Contained In It Which Have Been ...

Antistrophe
Antistrophe, The Portion Of An Ode Which Is Sung By The Chorus In Its Returning Movement From West To East, In Re Sponse To The Strophe, Which Was Sung From East To West. It Is Of The Nature Of A Reply, And Balances The Effect Of The Strophe. Thus, In ...

Antithesis
Antithesis (the Greek For "setting Opposite"), In Rhetoric, The Bringing Out Of A Contrast In The Meaning By An Obvious Con Trast In The Expression, As In The Following :—"when There Is Need Of Silence, You Speak, And When There Is Need Of Speech, You Are Dumb ; When Present, ...

Antitoxin
Antitoxin, A Principle In The Blood Serum Which Combats The Bacteria Causing A Disease. When The Blood Of The Patient Is Deficient In Antitoxins, Serum Containing The Appropriate Antitoxin Is Injected. (see Diphtheria; Scarlet Fever And Medical Research.) ...

Antitype
Antitype, The Correlative Of "type," To Which It Corre Sponds Either As The Stamp To The Die Or As The Die To The Stamp (gr. Avtltv7ros). It Is Used In The New Testament In Heb. Ix. 24, I. Peter Iii. 21, Translated "figure" (a.v.) And "pattern" Or "likeness" (r.v.). So, ...

Antium
Antium (mod. Anzio), Ancient Volscian City, On The Coast Of Latium, About 33m. S. Of Rome. The Legends Are Fanciful. Antium, Ardrea, And Circeii Lavinium Appear As Under Roman Protection In The Treaty With Carthage In 348 B.c. In 341 It Lost Its Independence After Rising With Latium Against Rome, ...

Antivari
Antivari (montenegrin Bar), So Called By The Venetians From Its Position Opposite Bari, In Italy, A Seaport Of Yugo Slavia, Turkish Until 1878. Pop. 5,544. The Old Town Is Built Inland, Hidden Among Dense Olive Groves, And Overshadowed By The Peak Of Rumija (5,226ft.). It Is A Ruinous Walled Village ...

Antlers
Antlers, The Name Given To The Bony Outgrowths On The Heads Of Deer, Which Are Shed And Renewed Each Year. For Details See Deer. ...

Antofagasta
Antofagasta, A Town And Port Of Northern Chile, And Capital Of The Chilean Province Of The Same Name, Situated About 768m. N. Of Valparaiso In Lat. 23° 38' 39" S. And Long. 24' 39" W. Of Greenwich. Population (estimated 1902) 16,084; Antofagasta Is The Seaport For A Railway Running To ...

Antoine Jerome Balard
Balard, Antoine Jerome French Chemist, Was Born At Montpelier. In 1826 He Discovered In Sea Water A Substance Which He Recognized As A Previously Unknown Element And Named Bromine. He Then Succeeded L. J. Thenard In The Chair Of Chemistry At The Faculty Of Sciences In Paris, And In 1851 ...

Antoine Vincent Arnault
Arnault, Antoine-vincent (1766-1834), French Dramatist, Was Born In Paris. His First Play, Marius A Minturnes (i791), Immediately Established His Reputation. A Year Later He Followed Up His First Success With A Second Republi Can Tragedy, Lucrece. He Was Commissioned By Bonaparte In 1797 To Reorganize The Ionian Islands, And Was ...

Anton Alexander Auersperg
Auersperg, Anton Alexander, Graf Von (1806-1876), Austrian Poet, Who Wrote Under The Pseudonym Of Anastasius Grun, Was Born On April Ii 1806 At Laibach, And Died At Graz On Sept. 12, 1876, And Was Head Of The Thurn-am Hart Branch Of The Carniolan Cadet Line Of The House Of Auersperg. ...

Anton Stephanovich Arensky
Arensky, Anton Stephanovich Russian Musical Composer, Was Born At Novgorod, July 31, 1861, And After Studying With Various Teachers Finally Became A Pupil Of Rimsky-korsakov At The Conservatoire Of St. Petersburg. In 1882 He Became A Professor At The Moscow Conservatoire, And From 1894 To I 90i Was Director Of ...

Antonello Da Messina
Antonello Da Messina (c. Italian Painter, Was Probably Born At Messina About The Beginning Of The 15th Century. He Spent Some Time In The Netherlands Study Ing The Methods Of The Disciples Of Jan Van Eyck; Returned With His Secret To Messina About 1465; Probably Visited Milan; Removed To Venice ...

Antonini Itinerarium
Antonini Itinerarium, A Valuable Register, Still Ex Tant, Of The Stations And Distances Along The Various Roads Of The Roman Empire. The Original Edition Probably Dated From The Be Ginning Of The 3rd Century While The Extant Portion Is Assigned To The Time Of Diocletian. If It Is To Be ...

Antoninus Liberalis
Antoninus Liberalis, Greek Grammarian, Probably Flourished About A.d. 150. He Wrote A Collection Of 41 Tales Of Mythical Metamorphoses (meramop4wuewv Ivva-ycvyrl), Chiefly Valuable As A Source Of Mythological Knowledge. ...

Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius (titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionus Ar Rius Antoninus) (a.d. 86-161), Roman Emperor 138-161, The Son Of Aurelius Fulvus, A Roman Consul Whose Family Had Originally Belonged To Nemausus (nimes). He Was Brought Up By His Grandfather, Arrius Antoninus, A Friend Of The Younger Pliny. He Was Consul In 120, ...

Antonio De Lebrija Antonius
Antonio De Lebrija (antonius Nebrissensis) (1444-1522) , Spanish Scholar, Born At Lebri J A In The Province Of Andalusia, Studied At Salamanca And At Bologna. After Hold Ing The Professorship Of Poetry And Grammar At Salamanca, He Was Transferred To The University Of Alcala De Henares, Where He Lectured Until ...

Antonio
Antonio , Claimant Of The Throne Of Portugal, Known As The Prior Of Crato, Was A Grandson Of King Emanuel The Great And Son Of Luis, Duke Of Beja, By A Jewess, Yolande Gomez. On The Death Of King John Iii. (1557) He Claimed The Portuguese Throne, To Which Philip ...

Antonius
Antonius, The Name Of A Large Number Of Well-known Citizens Of Ancient Rome, Of The Gens Antonia. The Following Are Important : (i) Marcus Antonius (143-87 B.c.), One Of The Most Dis Tinguished Roman Orators Of His Time, Was Quaestor In 113, And Praetor In 102 With Proconsular Powers, The ...

Antonomasia
Antonomasia, In Rhetoric, The Greek Term For A Sub Stitution Of Any Epithet Or Phrase For A Proper Name; As "the Author Of Paradise Lost" For Milton. ...

Antrim
Antrim, A County In Ulster, Northern Ireland. It Is Bounded North And East By The Narrow Seas Separating Ireland From Scotland, The Atlantic Ocean And Irish Sea, South By Belfast Lough And The Lagan River Dividing It From Down, West By Lough Neagh, Dividing It From Armagh And Tyrone, And ...

Antrim_2
Antrim, A Town, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, In A Valley Half A Mile From Lough Neagh. Pop. (1926) 1,979. Near The Town Is One Of The Most Perfect Of The Round Towers Of Ireland, 93ft. High And Soft. In Circumference At The Base, Which May Per Haps Have Been A ...

Antrum
Antrum, A Chamber Or Recess. When Applied To The Human Body, The Unqualified Term Usually Refers To The Antrum Of High More Or Maxillary Sinus. This Is An Air Space Situated In The Cheek Bone On Either Side Of The Nasal Orifice. It Is The Largest Of The Bony Sinuses ...

Antrustion
Antrustion, The Name Of The Members Of The Military Household Of The Merovingian Kings. Any One Desiring To Enter The Body Of Antrustions Had To Present Himself Armed At The Royal Palace, And There, With His Hands In Those Of The King, Take A Special Oath In Addition To The ...

Antung
Antung, A Treaty Port In Eastern South Manchuria On The Korean Frontier 59' N. 3o' E.). It Lies At The Mouth Of The Yalu River And Is The Natural Outlet Of Its Basin, Which Drains The Tangled Forested Mountain Country Of East Manchuria And West Korea. Its Importance As A ...

Antwerp
Antwerp, The Most Northern Of The Nine Provinces Of Belgium, Conterminous With The Dutch Frontier On The North. Malines, Lierre And Turnhout Are Among Its Towns, But The Chief One Is The Commercial Metropolis Of Belgium. It Is Divided Into Districts (arrondissements), Viz., Antwerp, Malines, Lierre, Turn Hout And Boom. ...

Antwerp_2
Antwerp, A Fortified City In Belgium On The Right Bank Of The Schelde. It Is The Capital Of The Province Of The Same Name And Belgium's Commercial Centre. In The 4th Century Antwerp Is Mentioned As One Of The Places In The Second Germany, And In The I I Th ...

Anu
Anu, A Babylonian Deity, Who, As The First Figure In The Triad Anu, Enlil And Ea, Came To Be Regarded As The Father And King Of The Gods. Anu Is Prominently Associated With The City Of Erech In Southern Babylonia, But The Cult Was Transferred To This Place In Prehistoric ...

Anura
Anura, The Name For That Division Of The Amphibia (q.v.) Which Includes The Frogs And Toads (qq.v.); It Is Characterized By The Absence Of A Tail And The Elongation Of The Hind Legs. ...

Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura, The Second And Most Famous Capital Of The Ancient Sinhalese Kings. It Is To-day The Administrative Capital Of The North Central Province, And Is The Resort Of Large Numbers Of Buddhist Pilgrims. It Was Established In The 5th Century B.c., And Was The Seat Of Government At The Time ...

Anus
Anus, The Terminal Aperture Of The Intestinal Tract. This Is Not To Be Confused With The Rectum, Of Which It Is The Final Portion. In The Embryo The Anus Is Closed By A Membrane Which Normally Ruptures Shortly Before Birth. Encircling The Anal Canal Are The Muscle Fibres Which Control ...

Anvari
Anvari (auhad-uddin Ali Anvari), Persian Poet, Born In Khorasan Early In The 12th Century, Enjoyed The Especial Favour Of The Sultan Sinjar, Whom He Attended In All His Warlike Expedi Tions. Anvari Died At Balkh Towards The End Of The 12th Century. The Diwan, Or Collection Of His Poems, Consists ...

Anvil
Anvil, A Mass Of Iron On Which Material Is Supported While Being Shaped Under The Hammer. The Blacksmith's Common Anvil Is Made Of Wrought Iron, Often In America Of Cast Iron, With A Smooth Working Face Of Hardened Steel. It Has At One End A Pro Jecting Conical Beak Or ...

Anweiler Or Annweiler
Anweiler Or Annweiler, A Town In The Bavarian Palatinate, Germany, On The River Queich, 8m. W. Of Landau. Pop. 4,267. A Well-known Red Sandstone Is Quarried In The Pic Turesque Neighbouring Hills Of The Haardt, Here Called The Palati Nate Switzerland. On The Sonnenberg (1,600ft.) Is The Ruined Castle Of ...

Anzin
Anzin, A Suburb Of Valenciennes, North France, Depart Ment Of Nord, On The Scheldt. Pop. (1931) 16,090. It Is The Centre Of The French "house-coal" Region, Mining Going Back To 1717. Metallurgical Industries Include Iron And Copper Found Ing And The Manufacture Of Steam Engines, Machinery, Chain Cables And A ...

Anzoategui
Anzoategui, A North-eastern State Of Venezuela, Be Tween The Caribbean Sea And The Orinoco River, Bounded East By The Gulf Of Paria And West By The States Of Guarico And Miranda. Pop. (1926) 161,703. The State Includes Some Of The Oldest Settle Ments In Venezuela. Its Principal Productions Are Coffee, ...

Aonia
Aonia, A District Of Ancient Boeotia Containing The Moun Tains Helicon And Cithaeron, And Thus Sacred To The Muses. ...

Aorist
Aorist, The Name Given In Greek Grammar To Certain Past Tenses Of Verbs (first Aorist, Second Aorist). (gr. Aopewros, In Definite.) Corresponding Tenses In Sanskrit Are Also Called Aorist. ...

Aorta
Aorta, The Main Systemic Artery Arising From The Heart. It Receives The Blood, Which Has Been Aerated In The Lungs, From The Left Ventricle Of The Heart, And Starts It On Its Way To All Parts Of The Body. From The Left Ventricle The Aorta Arches First Upward, Then To ...

Aortic Valve
Aortic Valve, A Valve Separating The Left Ventricle Of The Heart And The Aorta. It Consists Of Three Semicircular, Pocket Like Folds, Whose Free Edges Are Directed Away From The Heart. Blood Flows Into The Aorta With Each Beat Of The Heart, But Be Tween Beats The Blood Is Prevented ...

Aosta
Aosta (anc. Augusta Praetoria Salassorum), Town And Epis Copal See, Piedmont, Italy, Province Of Aosta, 8om. N.n.w. By Rail From The Town Of Turin, And 48m. Direct ; 1,91 Of T. Above Sea Level, At The Confluence Of The Buthier And Dora Baltea, And At The Junction Of The Great ...

Apache
Apache, An Aggregation Of Tribes Or Bands, Forming With The Navaho The Southernmost Offshoot Of The Great Athabascan Family Of North American Indians, And Noted For A Ferocity, Wili Ness And Raiding Disposition Which Have Made Their Name A By Word. In General Physical Type They Resemble The Other South ...

Apalachee
Apalachee, A Tribe Of North American Indians Of Musk Hogean Stock. They Have Been Known Since The I 6th Century, And Formerly Ranged The Country Around Apalachee Bay, Florida. The Name Is Apparently Choctaw, Meaning "people On The Other Side." About 1600 The Spanish Franciscans Founded A Successful Mission Among ...

Apalachicola
Apalachicola, A City Of Florida, U.s.a.; A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Franklin County; On The Gulf Of Mexico, About 15om. S.e. Of Pensacola, At The Mouth Of The Apalachicola River And On A Bay Of The Same Name. It Is Served By River And Coasting Steamers, ...

Apamea Apameia
Apamea (apameia), The Name Of Several Towns In Western Asia. 1. A Treasure City And Stud-depot Of The Seleucid Kings In The Valley Of The Orontes, So Named By Seleucus Nicator, After Apama, His Wife. Destroyed By Chosroes In The 7th Century A.d., It Was Partially Rebuilt And Known As ...

Aparri
Aparri, A Municipality (with Administrative Centre And 15 Barrios Or Districts) Of The Province Of Cagayan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, Situated On The Cagayan River Near Its Mouth, About 55m. N. Of The Capital Tuguegarao, With Which It Has Communication By Small Steamers. Population (1918) 20,603, Of Whom 10,489 Were Males; ...