ARIZONA, the "Apache State," is a State situated in the southwestern part of the United States of America, between 31° 20' and 37° N. and 109° 2' and 114° 45' W. It is bounded north by Utah, east by New Mexico, south by Mexico and west by California and Nevada, the Colorado river separating it from California and in part from Nevada. Of its total area of
sq.m. (water surface, 116sq.m.), approximately 39,00o are less than 3,000f t. above sea-level, 27,00o are from 3,00o to 5,000f t., and 47,000 are above 5,000 feet. The popular name "Apache State" was given it because it is the home of the most of the Apache Indians.
Three characteristic physiographic re gions are distinctly marked: first, the great Colorado plateau, some 45,000sq.m. in area, in the north part of the State; next, a broad zone of compacted mountain ranges with a southern limit of similar trend ; and, lastly, a region of desert plains, oc cupying the south-western quarter of the State. The plateau is not a plain. It is dominated by high mountains, gashed by su perb canyons of rivers, scarred with dry gullies and washes, the beds of intermittent streams, varied with great shallow basins, sunken deserts, dreary levels, bold buttes, picturesque mesas, for ests and rare verdant bits of valley. The surface in general is rolling and drains through the Little Colorado (or Colorado Chiquito), Rio Puerco and other streams into the Grand Canyon. Along the Colorado is the Painted Desert, remarkable for the bright colours—red, brown, blue, purple, yellow and white—of its sandstones, shales and clays. Within the desert is a petrified forest of Mesozoic time, the most remarkable in the United States. The marks of volcanic action, particularly lava-flows, are abun dant and widely scattered.
Separating the plateau from the mountain region is an abrupt transition slope, often deeply eroded. crossing the entire State. In localities the slope is a true escarpment falling 15o and even 2 5of t. per mile. The mountain region has a width of 7o to i 5om.
and is filled with short ranges parallel to the plateau escarp ment. Many of the mountains are extinct volcanoes. The south eastern corner of Arizona is a region of greatly eroded ranges and gently sloping valleys. This mountain zone has an average elevation of not less than 4,000 ft., while in places its crests are 5,000f t. above the plains below.
These plains, the third or desert region of the State, have their mountains also, but they are lower, and they are not compacted; the plains near the mountain region slope toward the Gulf of California across wide valleys separated by isolated ranges, then across broad desert stretches traversed by rocky ridges, and finally there is no obstruction to the slope at all.
Arizona has a wide variety of local climates. In general it is characterized by clear air and low humidity. The scanty rainfall is distributed from July to April, with marked excess from July to September and a lesser maximum in Decem ber. Very little rain comes from the Pacific or the Gulf of Cal ifornia, precipitation being diminished by the mountains and the desert, as well as the adverse winds. Rain and snowfall usually come from clouds blown from the Gulf of Mexico and not wholly dried in Texas. The mean annual rainfall varies from 2 to 5.5in. at various points in the lower gulf valley and on the western border to 25 to 3oin. in the mountains. Local thunderstorms and cloudbursts are a characteristic phenomenon, inundating limited areas and transforming dried-up streams into muddy torrents carrying boulders and debris. Often in the plateau country the dry under-air absorbs the rain as it falls; and rarely in the Moqui country do flooded gullies "run through" to the Little Colorado. The country of the cliff-dwellers in the north-east is desert-like. Only points high in altitude catch much rain. Mountain snows feed the Gila, the Little Colorado and the Col orado rivers. The floods come in May and June, and during the wet season the rivers, all with steep beds in their upper courses, wash along detritus that lower down narrows, and on smaller streams almost chokes their courses. These gradients enable the inconstant streams tributary to the Colorado to carve their canyons, some of which are in themselves very remarkable, though insignificant beside the Grand Canyon. From the Gila to the southern boundary the parched land gives no water to the sea, and the international boundary runs in part through a true desert. In the hot season there is almost no surface water. Ar tesian wells are used in places, as in the stock country of the Baboquivari valley.
The temperature of Arizona is somewhat higher than that of points of equal latitude on the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. In the mountains on the plateau it ranges from that of the temperate zone to that of regions of perpetual snow; south of the mountains it ranges from temperate heats in the foothills to semi-tropic heat in the lower valleys of the Gila and Colorado. The average annual temperature over the region north of 34° is about 55°; that of the region south is about 68 degrees. The warmest region is the lower Gila valley. The daily variation (not uncommonly 6o°) is of course greatest in the most arid regions, where radiation is most rapid. And of all Arizona it should be said that, owing to the extreme dryness of the air, evaporation from moist surfaces is very rapid, so that the high temperatures are decidedly less oppressive than much lower temperatures in a humid atmosphere. Intense heat prevails in July, August and September. In lowness of humidity and clarity of atmosphere, southern Arizona rivals Upper Egypt and other famous arid health resorts.
Within the borders of Arizona are areas representative of every life zone save the humid tropical. From the summit of the San Francisco mountains one may pass rapidiy through all these down into the Painted Desert. In the highlands coyotes are very common; wild cats and mountain lions are fairly plentiful, but animal life in general is rather scant. Jaguars oc casionally stray into Arizona from Mexico. Lizards and toads are conspicuous in the more desert areas. Snakes are not numerous. The Gila monster, tarantula and scorpion occur in some local ities in the rainy season. A narrow belt along the lower Colorado river, with a short arm extending into the valley of the Gila, is so arid that it supports only desert birds and mammals.
The general conditions of distribution of the fauna of Arizona are shown even more distinctly by the flora. There are firs and spruces on the mountains, pines farther down, and pinon juniper, grease-wood and the universally conspicuous sage-brush in the centre of the State. In southern and western Arizona the giant cactus grows in groves, attaining a height of 4o and even 50 feet. In many localities the mesquite is the only important na tive tree. It is easy to exaggerate greatly the barrenness of an arid country. There are fine indigenous grasses that spring up over the mesas after the summer rains, furnishing range for live stock; some of these grasses are extraordinarily independent of the rainfall. The cliff-dweller country supports a scant vegeta tion—a few cottonwoods in the washes, a few cedars on the mesas.
Continuous forest areas are few. A fair variety of trees—cot ton-wood, sycamore, ash, willow, walnut and cherry—grow in thickets in the canyons, and each mountain range is a forest area. Rainfall varying with the altitude, the lower timber line, below which precipitation is insufficient to sustain a growth of trees, is about 7,000ft., and the upper timber line about i i,5oo feet. Since 1898 about 86% of the wooded lands have been made reservations, and work has been done also to preserve the forest areas in the mountains in the south-east, from which there are few streams of permanent flow to the enclosing arid valleys.
The soils in the southern part of Ari zona are mainly sandy loams, but vary from light loam to heavy close adobe. They are rich enough but lack water. For the reser vation of the water partings, the increase of the forest areas and the creation of reservoirs, much has been done by the national Government. A reservoir below the junction of the Tonto and the Salt irrigates more than i,000,000 acres. An East Indian weir dam across the Colorado near Yuma and levees on both sides of the Gila and the Colorado conserve the water supply. The Colorado river problem is the chief one. In 1919 Arizona adopted a comprehensive code of water laws but was unable to solve the international, interstate, financial and administrative difficulties of the Colorado river problem. The Colorado River Compact, formed in 1922, was rejected by the Arizona legislature in 1923, and even when revised and accepted by the legislature was vetoed by the governor, who was disinclined to surrender rights to water and power to the other six States in the agreement. In 1925 a conference of States interested broke up because of the uncom promising attitude taken by all. The number of acres irrigated in Arizona was 185,00o in 1900, 320,051 in 1910, 467,565 in 1920 and 1,085,627 in 1930.
Arizona became a Territory of the first (or practically autonomous) class in 1863. Her organic law there after until 1910 consisted of various sections of the revised stat utes of the United States. From the beginning she had a terri torial legislature. Congress retained ultimately direct control of all government, administration being in the hands of resident officials appointed by the President and Senate. Special mention must be made of the secret police, the Arizona rangers, organized in 1901 to police the cattle ranges; they are "fearless men, trained in riding, roping, trailing and shooting," a force whose personnel is not known to the general public. The legislature repealed the law licensing public gambling in 1907 and provided for juvenile courts and probationary control of children. The State Constitu tion adopted in 1910 provides for the initiative and referendum and that no child under 16 may work "underground in mines, or in any occupation injurious to health or morals or hazardous to life or limb, nor in any occupation at night, or for more than eight hours in any day." By amendment to the Constitution ar ticles were added providing for the recall of judges (1912), for woman suffrage (1912) and for prohibition (1914, 1916) . The death penalty, abolished in 1916, was restored in 1918, and in
there was ratified the constitutional amendment making lethal gas the state's mode of capital punishment. In
a system of old-age pensions was created. A state convention voted repeal of national prohibition in September,
Population.—The first census of Arizona was in 1870, when the population was 9,658. The population was 40,440 in 1880; 88,243 in 1890; 122,931 in 1900; 204,354 in 191o; and 3
2 in 1920. The increase for the decade 1910-20 was 63.5%. By the Federal census, the population in 193o was 435,573
whites, 114,173 Mexicans, 43,726 Indians, 10,744 negroes, 1,110 Chinese, 879 Japanese, and 558 others). The urban population in creased from 9.4% in 1890 to 15.9% in 1900, 31% in 1910 and
in 1920. The actual farm population decreased from 90, 56o in 1920 to 71,954 in 1925. In church membership the leading denominations are Roman Catholics, Latter Day Saints, Metho dists, Presbyterians and Protestant Episcopalians. The growth in population of the two chief cities is shown in the following table: The Indians, organized in over 3o tribes, form an ever decreas ing proportion of the population, representing only io% in 1920. The more important are the Hualapaic or Apache-Yumas ; the Mohaves; the Yavapais or Apache-Mohaves; the Yumas, whose lesser neighbours on the lower Colorado are the most primitive Indians of the U.S. in habits; the Pimas and Papagoes, who fig ure much in early Arizona history, and who are superior in intel ligence, adaptability, application and character ; the Hopis or Moquis, possessed of the same good qualities and famous for their prehistoric culture (Tusayan) ; and the Navahos and kin dred Apaches, perhaps the most relentless and savage of Indian warriors. The Pimas and Papagoes, converted by the Spaniards, retain a smattering of Christianity, plentifully alloyed with pa ganism. Apaches, Pimas and Papagoes have been employed by the Federal Government on irrigation works and have proved industrious and faithful. Since 1900 a few hundred Yaquis, be cause of difficulties with the Alexican Government, have crossed into southern Arizona and settled there. They have rapidly ac quired American customs and make good labourers. All Indians of Arizona live on reservations save a few non-tribal Indians taxed and treated as citizens.
The chief source of revenue is the tax on property. The assessed property valuation rose from $38,853.831 in 1901 to $674,729,000 in 1931. In the fiscal year
July 1, 1930, to June 3o, 1931, the State spent $43,932,000; of
this amount $3,704,000 was for education,
$1,406,000 for public works, $653,000 for
health, charitable and penal institutions,
$398.000 for the administration of the
laws and $866,000 for the development
and conservation of natural resources.
Governmental costs exceeded the revenue
1931. The total gross debt of state and
subdivisions, less sinking fund assets,
amounted to $71,777,316. The funds
spent for education do not include the heavy disbursements of the counties and the school districts.
The controversy over the taxation of mining property has been acute since 1900.
The public school system was established in 1871. A compulsory attendance law (1921) applies to children between eight and 16 years of age, but it is not generally obeyed by the Mexican element. In 1932 the percentage of children aged 5-17, inclusive, in the public schools was 81. In
there were 81,942 pupils in the elementary schools, 15,958 in the high schools. The average teacher's salary was $1,605 a year. Illiteracy was reduced to 1 o• i % by 1930, over 90% of the illiterates being found among the Indians and the foreign-born population. There are 20 Indian schools, the largest of which are maintained by the national Government. The first juvenile reform school, called the Territorial (now State) Industrial school, was opened in 1903 at Benson and was removed to Fort Grant ten years later. There are 21 private schools. In 1916 a high school of the State was for the first time admitted to the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. In
35 of the 59 high schools of the State were in the association. The growth of the normal schools at Tempe and Flagstaff has kept pace in enrolment and equipment with the growth of the public schools, and in 1925 they were made State teachers' colleges with four-year courses leading to the bachelor's degree. In 1910 a State school for the deaf was organized, at first affiliated with the State university and under its direction, but later separated, with its own organization. The University of Ari zona increased its enrolment from 84 regular college students in 1910–II to 2,471 in 1935-36. The institution is composed of five colleges on the campus at Tucson : college of agriculture; college of education; college of law ; college of letters, arts and sciences; college of mines and engineering. The agricultural experiment station, the Stewart observatory, the Arizona bureau of mines, the State pure food laboratory and the State museum are also on the campus.
In 1916 the University of Arizona was admitted to the North Central Association; in 1919 it became a member of the Association of American Colleges, and in Nov. 1924 the As sociation of American Universities voted that it should be added to the list of approved institutions.
Farming in Arizona is varied and intensive. The crops include strawberries, dates, cotton, alfalfa, hay, wheat, sorghum, oranges, olives, sweet potatoes, yams and sugar-beets. Crop follows crop in quick succession, alfalfa producing from four to seven cuttings in a year. In 1935, 148,000 acres yielded 402,000 tons of hay. Stock-raising is a leading occupation, but it has probably attained its full development. The number of sheep and cattle, pastured mostly on public domain, is now limited by the extension of the national forest reserves (II,316,232ac. in Arizona in 1926) and the regulations enforced by the U.S. Government for the preservation of the ranges. Dairy farming varies in extent ; when the price of long or short staple cotton is high, as in 1920 or 1924, dairy farming is neglected and cotton is grown. From 1917 to 1920 the number of acres of cotton harvested increased from 41.000 to 230.000; in 1926 it was 167, 000 and in
The production of cotton was 41,000 bales in 1917, 103,000 in 1920, 115,000 in 1926, 160,00o in 1930 and 125,000 in 1935. The value of all crops in Arizona declined from $42,481,000 in 1919 to $25,852,000 in 1926, but rose in 1929 to
In 1930, 11,294 farms, consisting of 6,049,172 acres, were operated by owners, and 2.331 farms, consisting of 1,009,143 acres, were operated by tenants. $184,230,656 was invested in farm property.
Mining is the leading industry of Arizona. Con trary to venerable traditions there is no evidence that mining was practised except to a very inconsiderable extent by aborigines, Spanish conquistadores, or Jesuits. In 1738 an extraordinary deposit of silver nuggets, quickly exhausted (1741), was dis covered at Arizonac. At the end of the 18th century the Mex icans considerably developed the mines in the south-east. The second half of the 19th century witnessed several great finds: first, of gold placers on the lower Gila and Colorado (1858-69); later, of lodes at Tombstone, which flourished from 1879 to 1886, then decayed, but in 1905 had again become the centre of im portant mining interests; and still later, of copper at Jerome and around Bisbee. Several of the Arizona copper mines are among the greatest of the world. The Copper Queen at Bisbee from 1880-1902 produced 378,047,210 lb. of crude copper, which was then practically the total output of the Territory, other valu able mines having been developed later; the Globe, Morenci and Jerome districts are secondary to Bisbee. Important mines of gold and silver, considerable deposits of wolframite, valuable ores of molybdenum and vanadium, and quarries of onyx marble, are also worked. Low-grade coal deposits occur in the east central part of the State and near the junction of the Gila and San Pedro rivers. Some fine gems of peridot, garnet and tur quoise have been found. The mineral products of Arizona for 1929 were valued at $116,477,J36; of this $113,980,541 was the value of copper; $770,543, of lead; $515,135, of gold and silver; and $320,225, of asbestos. More copper was mined in Arizona than in any other State; in 1929 it contributed 40.2 per cent of the total value of products for the industry in the United States. The tendency during 1910-35 was toward the development of low-grade deposits. Sacramento hill, near Bisbee, was stripped by 1920 and has been furnishing since 1923 much ore containing 1.83% of copper.
The reopening of the United Verde mine in 1935 had much to do with the increase in production from 178,082,213 lb. in
to 270,500,000 lb. in
Manufactures.—The manufactures of Arizona are based chiefly upon the minerals in the State. The capital invested in creased from $9,517,573 in 1900 to $123,377,206 in 1919, and the value of the products from $20,438,987 in 1900 to $200,002,217 in 1929. The product of the principal industry in 1929, the smelting and refining of copper, was $156,671,668. The other manufactures are of relatively little importance, the principal ones being lumber and other timber products
; slaughter ing and meat packing
; and cotton-seed oil, meal and cake
The Navaho and Moqui Indians make woollen blankets and rugs, and the Pimas make baskets. Onyx marbles of local source are polished at Phoenix.
Two trans-continental railway systems, the South ern Pacific and the Santa Fe, were built across Arizona in 1878 83. They are connected by one line, and various branches have been built. The railway mileage on Jan. 1, 1935, was 2,316.
The history of the south-west is full of interest to the archaeologist. A prehistoric culture widely distributed has left abundant traces. Pueblo ruins are plentiful in the basins of the Gila and Colorado rivers and their tributaries. Geograph ical conditions and a hard struggle against nature fixed the char acter of this "aridian" culture and determined its migrations; the onslaughts of nomad Indians determined the sedentary civil ization of the cliff-dwellers. A co-operative social economy is evi denced by the traces of great public works, such as canals many miles in length. The pueblos of the Gila valley are held to be older than those of the Colorado. Casa Grande, 15m. S.E. of a railway station of the same name on the Southern Pacific rail way, is the most remarkable of plains ruins in the south-west, the only one of its type in the United States. It resembles the Casa Grande ruin of Chihuahua, Mexico, with its walls of sun-dried earth and its area of rooms, courts and plazas, surrounded by a wall. It was already a ruin when discovered in 1694 by the Jesuit Father Dino.
John Russell Bartlett described it in 1854, and in 1889 Con gress voted that it be protected as a government reservation; in 1892 it was set apart by the Government. Excavations were made there in 1906-07 by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes. The valleys of the Salt river and its affluents, the Agua Fria, Verde and Tonto, are strewn with aboriginal remains; but especially important in the northward migrations of culture was the Little Colorado. A very considerable population must have lived once in this valley. It is possibly represented to-day by the still undeserted habitats of Zuni (in New Mexico) and Tusayan; the Moquis, after the Zunis, are in customs and traditions the best survival of the ancient civilization.
Arizona north of the Gila, save for a very limited and intermit tent missionary effort and for scant exploring expeditions, was practically unknown to the whites until well after the beginning of American rule. The Santa Cruz valley, however, has much older annals of a past that charms by its picturesque contrasts with the present. Arizona history begins with the arrival in Sonora in 1S36 of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, who, although he had not entered Arizona or New Mexico, had heard of them, and by his stories incited the Spaniards to explore the unknown North in hope of wealth. Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan friar to whom the first reconnaissance was entrusted, was, in 1539, the first Spaniard to enter the limits of Arizona. Members of Coro nado's expedition explored the Moqui country and reached the Grand Canyon, and after this a succession of remarkable and heroic explorations followed through the century. All this has left traces in still living myths about the early history of the south-west. Early in the 17th century considerable progress had been made in Christianizing the Pimas, Papagoes and Moquis. Following 168o came a great Indian revolt in New Mexico and Arizona, and thereafter the Moquis remained independent of Spanish and Christian domination, although visited fitfully by rival Jesuits and Franciscans. In 1732 regular Jesuit missions were founded at Bac and Guevavi. The region south of the Gila had already been repeatedly explored. In the second half of the century there were a presidio at Tubac and some half dozen pueblos de visita, including the Indian settlement of Tucson.
A few errors should be corrected and some credit given with reference to this early period. The Inquisition never had any juris diction whatever over the Indians; compulsory labour by the Indians was never legalized except on the missions, and the law was little violated; the Indians were never compelled to work mines; of mining by them for precious metals there is no evidence; nor by the Jesuits (expelled in 1767, after which their missions and other properties were held by the Franciscans), ex cept to a small extent about the presidio of Tubac, although they did some prospecting. Persistent traditions have greatly exag gerated the former prosperity of the old south-west. The Span iards probably provoked some intertribal intercourse among the Indians and did something among some tribes for agriculture. Their own farms and settlements, confined to the Santa Cruz valley, were often plundered and abandoned, save in the immedi ate vicinity of the presidio. From about 1790 to 1822 was a pe riod of peace with the Apaches and of comparative prosperity for church and State. The fine Indian mission church at Bac, long abandoned and neglected, dates from the last decade of the i8th century.
The establishment of a presidio at Tucson in 1776 marks its beginning as a Spanish settlement.
The decay of the military power of the presidios during the Mexican war of independence, the expulsion of loyal Spaniards —notably friars—and the renewal of Apache wars led to the tem porary abandonment of all settlements except Tubac and Tucson. The church practically forsook the field about 1828.
American traders and explorers first penetrated Arizona in the first quarter of the i9th century. As a result of the Mexican war, New Mexico, which then included all Arizona north of the Gila, was ceded to the United States.
California gold discoveries drew particular attention to the country south of the Gila, which was wanted also for a trans continental railway route.
This strip, known as the "Gadsden Purchase" (see GADSDEN, JAMES), was bought in 1853 by the United States, which took possession in 1856.
This portion also was added to New Mexico. The Mexicans, pressed by the Apaches, had, in 1848, abandoned even Tubac and Tamacacori, first a visita of Guevavi, and after 1784 a mission. The progress of American settlement was interrupted by the Civil War, which caused the withdrawal of the troops and was the occasion for the outbreak of prolonged Indian wars.
Meanwhile a convention at Tucson in 1856 sent a delegate to Congress and petitioned for independent territorial government. This movement and others that followed were ignored by Con gress owing to its division over the general slavery question, and especially the belief of northern members that the control of Arizona was an object of the pro-slavery party. By act of Feb. 24, 1863, Congress organized Arizona Territory as the country west of 109° W. longitude. In December an itinerant government, sent out complete from Washington, crossed the Arizona line and effected a formal organization. The territorial capital was first at Prescott and finally at Phoenix (since 1889), where the State capital now is.
There have been boundary difficulties with every contiguous State or territory. The early period of American rule was ex tremely unsettled. The California gold discoveries and overland travel directed many prospecting adventurers to Arizona. For some years there was considerable sentiment in favour of filibust ering in Sonora, Mexico.
The Indian wars, breeding a habit of dependence on force, and the heterogeneous elements of cattle thieves, Sonora cowboys, mine labourers and adventurers led to one of the worst periods of American border history.
Agitation for statehood, which began as early as 1872, seemed on the point of success in 1891, when a Constitution was drafted, submitted to the people of the State and ratified. The U.S. Senate objected to this Constitution because it seemed to repudiate cer tain contracts and set up a double monetary standard. The Sen ate continued to reject bills providing for statehood until the State sent up a new Constitution in 1910.
This Constitution raised a question of national importance in the form of a provision for the recall of judges by popular vote. After much argument President Taft and the Congress finally agreed on a resolution granting statehood on condition that the provision for recall be struck out. This was done, and on Feb. 14, 1912, the President signed the proclamation admitting Arizona as a State. After admission the people of the State promptly in serted by amendment the original provision for the recall of judges.
Another issue of national interest was the Alien Labour law enacted by the voters of the State in 1914. The act provided that when any corporation, company, partnership or individual employed more than five workers, 8o% of them should be quali fied electors or native born citizens.
The ambassadors of Great Britain and Italy averred that the law violated existing treaties, and the Federal courts ruled that the law was unconstitutional because it denied equal protection to aliens.
Protest was made in 1934 by both the Japanese embassy in Washington and British consulate in Phoenix to the action of several hundred white farmers who had warned Japanese and Hindu farmers in the Salt river valley to leave, in view of a threatened enforcement of the state law prohibiting Orientals from owning or leasing land.
The election of Nov. 1916 resulted in a situation that aroused high party feeling. Previously Gov. Hunt, supported by a Demo cratic assembly, had been elected for two terms. In 1916 he was a candidate for the third time. On the face of the returns, Campbell, the Republican candidate, was elected; but Hunt, after being compelled to give up the office to Campbell, was restored by the State supreme court. The bitter political struggle reflected a tense industrial situation that culminated in a number of strikes, the most important of which was the one at Clifton and Morenci, beginning in Sept. 1915. The Bisbee deportation incident in July 1917, when more than a thousand members of the organiza tion called the Industrial Workers of the World were deported summarily to Columbus, N.M., produced an even more critical situation. President Wilson at once warned the governor of the danger of such a precedent and appointed a committee to investi gate and adjust the dispute. The committee found that any ad justment between employers and labour organizations was im possible and recommended a law making future deportation a Federal offence.
One of the major problems which confronted the State during the period from 1920 to 1935 was that of the future supply of water in the Colorado river for purposes of irrigation and hydro electric power. This problem was rendered critical by the posi tion of Arizona at the lower end of the river and by its own failure to develop hydro-electric power plants as extensively as its neighbours. Because of the fear that they might suffer from a lack of sufficient water for future irrigation projects if they were forced by any agreement to let Mexico have a large supply, the people of the State stood solidly behind their governors in the fight against the Colorado river compact and the construc tion of Boulder dam and afterwards against the building of the Parker dam to serve the Metropolitan Water District of Los Angeles, California.
In 1931 Arizona lost the suit, based on its contention that the Boulder dam act was unconstitutional and that the Secretary of the Interior was invading the state's rights by proceeding to con struct the dam. In dismissing the case, the United States Supreme Court held that, since the Colorado river was once navigable, "commercial disuse resulting from changed geographical condi tions and a congressional failure to deal with them does not amount to an abandonment of a navigable river or prohibit future exertion of Federal control." Twice during 1934, in connection with the construction of Parker dam, Gov. Moeur called out the state's National Guard to prevent work on Arizona's side of the Colorado river.
When the matter was referred to the United States Supreme Court, that body supported the governor's course; the state, therefore, felt its position strengthened in obtaining from the Colorado river 7,500,000 acre-feet of water a year instead of the previously demanded 2,800,00o.
The balance of parties in Arizona has been fairly close. In State politics the Republicans were successful in 1916, 1918, 1920 and 1928 whereas the Democrats carried the polls in 1922,
Almost the reverse order prevailed in national elections, the State's vote going to the Democrats under Wilson in 1912 and 1916 but thereafter consistently to the Republicans until 1932 when preference was given to Mr. Roosevelt by a popular ratio of 2 to I.
the early history of Arizona see H. H. BanBibliography.-For the early history of Arizona see H. H. Ban- croft, History of Arizona and New Mexico (San Francisco, 1877) ; A. F. A. de Bandelier in G. P. Winship's The Coronado Expedition; U.S: bureau of ethnology, i4th Annual Report (1892-93) , PP.
bibl. ; E. Coues, On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, Francisco Garth (1900). Comprehensive histories by J. H. McClintock, Arizona: Pre historic, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern (1916) ; W. H. Robinson, Story of Arizona (Phoenix, 1919) . Tl:'mas E. Farish, the former State historian, completed 8 vol. of his History of Arizona (Phoenix, 1915 18), giving the history up to 1872 in detail, with plentiful quotations from statements of pioneers and from memoirs, newspapers and documents. For a description of the State, see the bibliographies in the U.S. geological survey publications, Bulletins Nos. loo and
Fauna and flora are described in the Department of Agriculture publication, North American Fauna, No. 3 (189o), No. 7 (1893) and the U.S. biological survey publication, No. so (1898) . Climate and soil are described in various publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and in the Bulletins of the Arizona agricultural experiment station. Statistics of manufacturing can be found in U.S. census reports. Statistics of minerals can be found in the publication of the U.S. geological survey, in the reports of the bureau of mines on the Mineral Resources of the United States, and in the Bulletins of the Arizona bureau of mines, 1915 seqq. For information on archaeology consult numerous papers by A. F. A. de Bandelier, especially the "Final Report of Investigations among the Indians of the South Western United States" in Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America, American Series, vol. iii. and iv. (Cambridge, 189o--92). Special topics are treated in the Legislative History of Arizona (Phoenix, 1926), in the Blue Book issued annually by the secretary of State; in the Bulletins of the Arizona industrial congress (Phoenix, 1922 seqq.) ; in A. M. Farlow's "Arizona's Admission to Statehood" in Annual Publications of the Historical Soc. of Southern California (vol. ix., 1914), and in C. Ralph Tupper's Survey of the Arizona Public School System (Phoenix, 1925) . For the recall of judges, see Congressional Record, vol. 47, pt. iv., pp. 3,964-66; for the Arizona Alien Labour law case, see 219 Federal and 239 U.S.; for the Bisbee deportation, see the Report on the Bisbee Deportation, U.S. Depart ment of Labour (1918) ; and for the Colorado river compact, see Transactions of the Amer. Soc. C.E., vol. 88, pp.
; also G. E. P. Smith, Experiment Station Bulletins Nos. 95 and loo, and the messages of Gov. Hunt to the State legislature of Jan. 8, 1923, Jan. 12, 1925, and Jan. 4, 1927. Social life is brilliantly treated in Mrs. Mary Austin's Land of Journey's Ending (1924) ; her article "Arizona, the Land of the Joyous Adventure" in These United States (1923) is a skilful interpretation. (H. A. H.)