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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Arete
Arete, A Ridge Or Sharp Edge (o.fr. Areste, Lat. Arista, Ear Of Corn, Fish Bone Or Spine), A French Term Used In Switzer Land To Denote Any Sharp Bayonet-like Ridge Of Precipitous Rock; E.g., The Weisshorn Is Formed Of Three Great Sharp Ridges Which Meet In A Pyramidal Point. Arete ...

Arethas
Arethas (c. 86o-94o), Byzantine Theological Writer And Scholar, Archbishop Of Caesarea In Cappadocia, Was Born At Patrae. He Was A Pupil Of Photius, And Was The Author Of A Greek Commentary On The Apocalypse Avowedly Based Upon That Of Andrew, The Previous Archbishop. He Annotated The Margins Of His Classical ...

Arethusa
Arethusa (arethusa Bulbosa), A Common North Ameri Can Plant Of The Orchis Family, Found In Bogs And Swampy Regions During May And June From Newfoundland South To North Caro Lina And West To Indiana And Minnesota. The Flowers Are Magenta Crimson, Having A Crest Formed Of Three Hairy Ridges, White ...

Arethusa_2
Arethusa, In Greek Mythology, A Nymph Who Gave Her Name To A Spring In Elis And To Another In The Island Of Ortygia Near Syracuse. The River-god Alpheus Fell In Love With Arethusa, One Of The Retinue Of Artemis; Arethusa Fled To Ortygia, Where She Was Changed Into A Spring ...

Arezzo
Arezzo (anc. Arretium), Town And Episcopal See, Tuscany, Italy, Capital Of Province Of Arezzo, 54m. S.e. Of Florence By Rail. Pop. (1931) Town, 25,407; Commune, 56,976. It Is Attractively Situated On A Hill 84o To 97of T. Above Sea-level, In A Fertile District. Its Walls Were Erected In 132o By ...

Argali
Argali (ahr'ga-li), The Tartar Name Of The Great Wild Sheep, Ovis Amnion, Of The Altai And Other Parts Of Siberia. Standing As High As A Large Donkey, The Argali Is The Finest Of All The Wild Sheep. There Are Several Related Central Asian Species, Such As 0. Sairensis And 0. ...

Argand Burner
Argand Burner, The First Scientifically Constructed Oil Burner, Was Invented By A. Argand Of Geneva In 1784. It Con Sisted Of A Cylindrical Wick Confined Between Two Concentric Tubes; This Device Gave A Circular Flame With A Current Of Air Brought To Play Upon Its Inner Surface. A Glass Chimney ...

Argao
Argao, A Municipality (with Administrative Centre And 36 Barrios Or Districts), On Bohol Strait, 36m. S.s.w. Of The Municipal Ity Of Cebu, The Capital Of The Province Of Cebu, Philippine Islands. Population (1918) 39,121, Of Whom 18,627 Were Males; There Were 12 Whites; Literacy (based On Io Years And Up, ...

Argaum
Argaum, A Village Of British India In The Akola District Of The Central Provinces, 32m. North Of Akola. The Village Is Memorable For An Action Which Took Place On Nov. 28, 1803, Be Tween The British Army, Commanded By Maj.-gen. Wellesley (afterwards Duke Of Wellington), And The Mahrattas Under Sind ...

Argei
Argei (ahr-ga'-e), The Name Given By The Ancient Romans To A Number Of Rush Puppets (24 Or 27), Resembling Men Tied Hand And Foot, Which Were Taken Down To The Ancient Bridge Over The Tiber (pons Sublicius) On May 14 By The Pontifices And Magis Trates, With The Wife Of ...

Argenson
Argenson, The Name Of A French Family, Derived From An Old Hamlet In What Is Now The Department Of Indre-et-loire. Marc Rene De Voyer, Marquis De Paulmy And Marquis D'argen Son (1652-1721) Held Various Legal Offices At The French Court, And In 1697 Was Appointed Lieutenant-general Of Police. He Held ...

Argenta
Argenta, Province Of Ferrara, Emilia, Italy, 25m. S. Of Ravenna By Rail, 13 Ft. Above Sea-level. Pop. (1931) Town, 5,335; Commune, 25,719. It Has Some Interesting Mediaeval And Renais Sance Buildings And Churches, And A Good Picture Gallery. See A. Beltramelli, Da Comacchio Ad Argenta (bergamo, Arti Grafiche, 1905). ...

Argentan
Argentan, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Orne, N.w. France, 27m. N.n.w. Of Alencon By Rail. Pop. 5,97o. It Is Situated On The Slope Of A Hill On The Right Bank Of The Orne At Its Confluence With The Ure. Argentan Was A Viscounty From The 11th Century ...

Argenteuil
Argenteuil, A Town Of Northern France, In The Depart Ment Of Seine-et-oise, On The Seine, 5m. North-west Of The Forti Fications Of Paris. Pop. (1931) 70,378. Argenteuil Grew Up Round A Monastery (a.d. 656), Which Charlemagne Changed Into A Nun Nery; It Was Afterwards Famous For Its Connection With Heloise ...

Argentina Or
Argentina Or The Argentine Republic (officially Repub Lica Argentina) Is Second In Area And Population Of The Countries Of South America. It Has The Shape Of A Wedge With The Point Towards The South And Occupies The Greater Part Of The Southern Extremity Of The Continent. The Length Of Argentine ...

Argentine
Argentine, Formerly A City Of Wyandotte County, Kan., U.s.a. ; Since 1910 A Part Of Kansas City, Kansas. ...

Argentite
Argentite, A Mineral Consisting Of Silver Sulphide It Is Occasionally Found As Uneven Cubes And Octahedra, But More Often As Dendritic Or Earthy Masses, With A Blackish Lead-grey Colour And Metallic Lustre. The Mineral Is Perfectly Sectile And Has A Shining Streak; Hardness 2.5, Specific Gravity '7.3. It Occurs In ...

Argenton
Argenton, A Town On The North-western Flank Of The Plateau Central Of France, On The Creuse, In The Department Of Indre. Pop. Picturesque Old Houses Line The River. Linen Goods Are Made And There Are Numerous Tanneries. ...

Argentoratum Or Argentoratus
Argentoratum Or Argentoratus, The Name Of The Roman Settlement On The Site Of The Present Strasbourg (q.v.). ...

Arghandab
Arghandab, An Afghan River Rising In The Hazara Coun Try North-west Of Ghazni And Flowing South-westward Into The Hel Mand, Tom. Below Girishk. Its Upper Course Is Said To Be Shallow And Almost Dry In Summer, But It Is Very Rapid And Difficult To Ford At Other Times. Irrigation Results ...

Arghool Or Arghul Arghoul
Arghoul, Arghool Or Arghul (in The Egyptian Hieroglyphs, As Or As-it), An Ancient Egyptian And Arab Wood Wind Instrument, Still In Use. It Consists Of Two Reed Pipes Of Unequal Lengths Bound Together So That The Two Mouthpieces Lie Side By Side, And Can Be Taken By The Performer Into ...

Argiletum
Argiletum, A District In Ancient Rome, South Of The Quiri Nal Hill, Occupied Chiefly By Mechanics And Booksellers. Through It Ran The Street Subura. ...

Arginusae
Arginusae, The Name Of Certain Islands Off The Coast Of Asia Minor, Opposite The Southern End Of Lesbos, And The Scene Of The Last Athenian Victory In The Peloponnesian War (aug. 406 B.c.). The Athenian Admiral Conon, Having Been Pinned By Superior Spartan Forces In Mitylene, The Athenians By Ruthless ...

Argo
Argo, The Large Ptolemaic Constellation (q.v.) Of The South Ern Hemisphere (cargo, A Ship), Which Was Subdivided By Sir John Herschel (q.v.) Into Vela (sails), Puppis (poop), And Carina (keel) (qq.v.). Some Writers However Still Refer To It As One Complete Constellation, E.g., The Variable Star J Carinae Is Also ...

Argol
Argol, The Commercial Name Of Crude Tartar (q.v.). It Is A Semi-crystalline Deposit Which Forms On Wine Vats, And Is Generally Grey Or Red In Colour. ...

Argon
Argon, A Gaseous Constituent Of Atmospheric Air. For More Than Zoo Years Before 1894 It Had Been Supposed That The Com Position Of The Atmosphere Was Thoroughly Known. Beyond Vari Able Quantities Of Moisture And Traces Of Carbonic Acid, Hydrogen, Ammonia, Etc., The Only Constituents Recognized Were Nitrogen And Oxygen. ...

Argonauta
Argonauta, The Paper Nautilus, Common In The Medi Terranean. The Female Secretes A White Beautifully Fluted Shell From Two Of Her Arms And Carries Her Eggs Therein. (see Cepha Lopoda, Nautilus.) ...

Argonauts
Argonauts, In Greek Legend, A Band Of Heroes Who Went With Jason (q.v.) To Fetch The Golden Fleece In The Ship "argo" (gr. 'apyovavrat, Sailors Of The "argo"). This Task Had Been Imposed On Jason By His Uncle Pelias (q.v.), Who Had Usurped The Throne Of Iolcus In Thessaly, Which ...

Argonne
Argonne, A Wooded Plateau Of North-east France, Forming A Natural Barrier Between Lorraine And Champagne, And Includ Ing Portions Of The Departments Of Ardennes, Meuse, And Marne. The Argonne, S.s.e. To N.n.w., Is 44m. Long With An Average Breadth Of Iom. And An Average Height Of I,' Soft. It Connects ...

Argos
Argos, The Name Of Several Ancient Greek Cities Or Districts. Most Important Was The Chief Town In Eastern Peloponnese, Whence The Peninsula Of Argolis Derives Its Name. The Argeia, Or Argos Proper, Is A Shelving Plain At The Head Of The Argive Gulf, Well Watered And Fertile, With Easy Communications ...

Argostoli
Argostoli, The Capital Of Cephalonia, One Of The Ionian Islands, And Seat Of A Bishop Of The Greek Church. Pop. 9,030. It Possesses An Excellent Harbour, A Quay A Mile In Length, And A Fine Bridge. Shipbuilding And Silk-spinning Are Carried On. West Of The Harbour There Is A Curious ...

Argosy
Argosy, The Term Originally For A Carrack Or Merchant Ship From Ragusa And Other Adriatic Ports, Now Used Poetically Of Any Vessel Carrying Rich Merchandise. In English Writings Of The 16th Century The Seaport Named Is Variously Spelt Ragusa, Aragouse Or Aragosa, And Ships Coming Thence Were Named Ragusyes, Arguzes ...

Arguin
Arguin, An Island (identified By Some Writers With Hanno's Cerne) , Off The West Coast Of Africa, Immediately South-east Of Cape Blanco, In 20° 25' N., 16° 37' W. It Is Some 4m. Long By 21 Broad, Produces Gum-arabic, And Is The Seat Of A Lucrative Tur Tle-fishery. Off The ...

Argument
Argument, A Word Meaning "proof," "evidence." (lat. Arguere, To Make Clear, From A Root Meaning Bright, Appearing In Greek Apyrls, White). From Its Primary Sense Are Derived Such Applications Of The Word As A Chain Of Reasoning, A Fact Or Reason Given To Support A Proposition, A Discussion Of The ...

Argus
Argus, In Greek Mythology, The Son Of Inachus, Agenor Or Arestor, Or, According To Others, An Earthborn Hero (autochthon). From The Number Of Eyes In His Head Or All Over His Body, He Was Called Panoptes (all-seeing). He Was Appointed By Hera To Watch The Cow Into Which Io (q.v.) ...

Argyll Rooms
Argyll Rooms, Famous London Entertainment Resort In The Earlier Part Of The Nineteenth Century And One Of The Head Quarters Of The Best Public Music In London For Many Years. They Were Situated Near Oxford Circus In Argyll Street (whence The Name), On A Site Now Occupied By 246 Regent ...

Argyllshire
Argyllshire, A County On The West Coast Of Scotland, The Second Largest In The Country, Embracing A Large Tract On The Mainland And A Number Of The Inner Hebrides Including Coll, Tiree, Mull, Iona, Colonsay, Jura, Islay, Gigha, Etc. The Main Land Portion Is Bounded On The North By Inverness-shire ...

Argyraspids
Argyraspids, "silver Shields" A Corps Of Macedonian Shield-bearers (hypaspists) Which, After The Death Of Alexander, And Still More After The Death Of Antipater (319) Played An Im Portant Part, Under Their General Antigenes, In The Division Of The Empire. They Consisted Of ,;,000 Veterans. They Were The Sole Body Of ...

Argyrodite
Argyrodite, A Mineral Which Is Of Interest As Being That In Which The Element Germanium Was Discovered. It Is A Silver Sulpho-germanate, And Crystallizes In The Cubic System. The Botryoidal Crusts Of Small Indistinct Crystals First Found In A Silver Mine At Freiberg In Saxony Were Originally Thought To Be ...

Argyrokastro
Argyrokastro (albanian Egir Castri), A Town Of Southern Albania. Pop. (1924) 14,000, Of Whom Nearly 75% Are Muslims And The Remainder Greek-speaking Orthodox Chris Tians. It Was Practically Depopulated By The Plague In 1814. It Is Situated 1,06o Ft. Above Sea-level On The Aoroceraunian Moun Tains And Possesses The Ruins ...

Aria
Aria, A Musical Term, Equivalent To The English "air," Signi Fying A Melody Apart From The Harmony, But Especially A Musical Composition For A Single Voice Or Instrument, With An Accompani Ment Of Other Voices Or Instruments. The Classical Aria Developed From The Expansion Of A Single Vocal Melody, Generally ...

Ariadne
Ariadne, In Greek Mythology, The Daughter Of Minos, King Of Crete, And Pasiphae, The Daughter Of Helios The Sun-god. When Theseus Landed On The Island To Slay The Minotaur (q.v.), Ariadne Fell In Love With Him And Gave Him A Clue Of Thread To Guide Him Through The Mazes Of ...

Ariano Di Puglia
Ariano Di Puglia, Town And Episcopal See, Now In The Province Of Avellino, Campania, Italy, 1,5o9ft. Above Sea-level, On The Railway Between Benevento And Foggia, 24m. E. Of The Former By Rail. The Pop. Of The Commune In 1931 Was 22,855. It Lies In The Centre Of A Fertile District, ...

Arica San Iviarcos De
Arica (san Iviarcos De Arica), A Town And Port Of The Chilean-governed Province Of Tacna, Situated In 18° 28' O8" S. And 20' 46" W. Pop. (1930 Census), 13,14o. It Is The Port For Tacna, The Capital Of The Province, 38m. Distant, With Which It Is Connected By Rail. The ...

Aricia
Aricia (mod. Ariccia), An Ancient City In Latium, On The Via Appia, 16m. S.e. Of Rome. The Nucleus Of The Old Town, Now The Modern, Lay High (1,35oft. Above Sea-level) Above The Circular Valle Aricciana, Probably An Extinct Volcanic Crater; Re Mains Of Its Walls Are Traceable. The Lower Town ...

Ariege
Ariege, A Department In Southern France, Bounded On The South By Spain, West And North By Haute Garonne, North-east And East By Aude, South-east By Pyrenees Orientales. Area 1,893 Sq.m. Pop. (1931) 161,265. The South Includes The Old Folded Rocks Of The Pyrenean Axis With Snow Peaks (p. De Montcalm, ...

Ariel
Ariel, The Name Of A Moabite Mentioned In The Old Testament (ii. Sam. 23; I. Chron. Ii. R.v.). In Shakespeare's Comedy The Tempest The Spirit Of The Air Delivered From Captivity By Prospero, And Henceforward His Devoted Familiar, Is Called Ariel. Milton Used The Name For One Of The Fallen ...

Aries
Aries (the "ram"), In Astronomy, The First Sign Of The Zodiac, Denoted By The Sign 'f, In Imitation Of A Ram's Head. Accord Ing To A Greek Myth, Nephele, Mother Of Phrixus And Helle, Gave Her Son A Ram With A Golden Fleece. To Avoid The Evil Designs Of Hera, ...

Arietta
Arietta (ital.), Diminutive Of Aria, An Air, And Hence Signifying, In Music, An Aria Of A Shorter And Simpler Kind Than One Fully Developed. (see Aria.) ...

Arikara
Arikara, A Semi-sedentary Plains Tribe Of Indians, The Northernmost Offshoot Of The Caddoans, Combining Maize Farming With Bison Hunting. Traditionally And By Speech They Are A Branch Of The Pawnee. During The 19th Century They Were Affiliated With The Siouan Mandan And Hidatsa, The Three Groups Living In Per Manent ...

Arimaspi
Arimaspi, An Ancient People In The Extreme North-east Of Scythia (q.v.), Probably The Eastern Altai. All Accounts Of Them Go Back To A Poem By Aristeas Of Proconnesus, From Whom Herodotus (iii. 116, Iv. 27) Drew His Information. They Were Supposed To Be One Eyed And To Steal Gold From ...

Ariminum
Ariminum (modern Rimini), A City Of Aemilia, N.e. Italy, 69m. S.e. Of Bononia. Founded By Umbrians, In 268 B.c. It Became A Roman Colony. It Was Reached From Rome By The Via Flaminia, Constructed 220 B.c., And Became The Bulwark Of The Roman Power In Cisalpine Gaul, To Which Province ...

Ariobarzanes
Ariobarzanes, The Name Of Three Ancient Kings Or Satraps Of Pontus, And Of Three Kings Of Cappadocia. Of The Pontic Kings The Most Famous Is Ariobarzanes I. He Succeeded His Father Mithridates In The Satrapy In 363 B.c., Revolted From Arta Xerxes In 362, And Founded The Independent Kingdom Of ...

Arioso
Arioso (ital.), A Musical Term Denoting A Piece Or Passage Of A Melodious And Song-like Character, But Lacking The Design And Form Of A Regular Aria Or Air. ...

Ariovistus
Ariovistus, A German Chief Who Commanded The Mixed Force Of German Tribes Which Entered Gaul At The Invitation Of The Arverni And Sequani In 71 B.c. After Years Of Warfare He Defeated The Aedui At Admetobriga On The Middle Rhine In 6r, And Re Duced Them To A Client Kingdom. ...

Aristaenetus
Aristaenetus, Greek Letter-writer, Flourished In The 5th Or 6th Century A.d. He Was Formerly Identified With Aristaenetus Of Nicaea, Who Perished In An Earthquake At Nicomedia, A.d. 358, Hut Internal Evidence Points To A Much Later Date. Under His Name Two Books Of Love Stories, In The Form Of Letters, ...

Aristaeus
Aristaeus, A Divinity Whose Worship Was Widely Spread Throughout Ancient Greece, But Concerning Whom The Myths Are Somewhat Obscure. The Name Is Derived From The Greek Aptoros, "best." According To The Generally Received Account, Apollo Car Ried Off The Nymph Cyrene From Mount Pelion In Thessaly, And Conveyed Her To ...

Aristagoras
Aristagoras (d. 497 B.e.), Brother-in-law And Cousin Of Histiaeus, Tyrant Of Miletus. He Acted As Regent While Histiaeus Was Detained At The Court Of Darius. In 500 B.c. He Persuaded The Persians To Join Him In An Attack Upon Naxos, But He Quar Relled With Megabates, The Persian Commander, Who, ...

Aristander
Aristander, Of Telmessus In Lycia, The Favourite Sooth Sayer Of Alexander The Great. See Philopatris, 21; Arrian, Anabasis, Ii. 26, Iii. 2, Iv. 4; Plutarch, Alexander; Curtius Iv. 2, 6, 15, Vii. 7. ...

Aristarchus Of Samos
Aristarchus Of Samos, Greek Astronomer, Flourished About 270 B.c. He Is Famous For Having Been The First To Maintain That The Earth Revolves Round The Sun. On This Ground Cleanthes The Stoic Declared That He Ought To Be Indicted For Impiety. His Only Extant Work Is A Short Treatise On ...

Aristarchus
Aristarchus, Of Samothrace (c. 220-143 B.c.), Greek Grammarian And Critic. He Settled Early In Alexandria, Where He Studied Under Aristophanes Of Byzantium, Whom He Succeeded As Librarian Of The Museum. On The Accession Of Euergetes Ii. He Found His Life In Danger And Withdrew To Cyprus, Where He Died. Aristarchus ...

Aristeas
Aristeas, A Mythical Personage In Ancient Greece, Said To Have Lived In The Time Of Cyrus And Croesus, Or According To Some C. 690 B.c. His Poem Arimaspeia Describes His Travels In Countries N. And E. Of The Euxine; He Visited The Hyperboreans, Issedonians And Arimaspians, Who Fought Against The ...

Aristeas_2
Aristeas, The Pseudonymous Author Of A Famous Letter In Which Is Described, In Legendary Form, The Origin Of The Greek Translation Of The Old Testament Known As The Septuagint (q.v.). Aristeas Represents Himself As A Gentile Greek, But Was Really An Alexandrian Jew Who Lived Under One Of The Later ...

Aristeides
Aristeides (c. 530-468 B.c.), Athenian Statesman Called "the Just," Was The Son Of Lysimachus, And A Member Of A Family Of Moderate Fortune. Of His Early Life We Are Told Merely That He Became A Follower Of The Statesman Cleisthenes And Sided With The Aristocratic Party In Athenian Politics. He ...

Aristeides_2
Aristeides, Of Miletus, Generally Regarded As The Father Of Greek Prose Romance (c. 150-100 B.c.) . He Wrote Six Books Of Erotic Milesian Tales (mrxrlotaua) Which Enjoyed Great Popu Larity, And Were Translated Into Latin By Cornelius Sisenna (i 19 67 B.c.) . They Are Lost, With The Exception Of ...

Aristippus
Aristippus (c. 435-356 B.c.), Greek Philosopher, The Founder Of The Cyrenaic School. At An Early Age He Came From Cyrene To Athens, And He Became The Pupil Of Socrates. After Travelling Through A Number Of Grecian Cities, He Founded His School At Cyrene (see Cyrenaics). Starting From The Two Socratic ...

Aristo Or Ariston
Aristo Or Ariston, Of Chios (c. 250 B.c. ), A Stoic Phi Losopher And Pupil Of Zeno, Though He Approximated More Closely To The Cynic School. He Considered Only Ethics Worthy Of Study, And In That Only General And Theoretical Questions. He Rejected Zeno's Doctrine Of Desirable Things, Intermediate Between ...

Aristo
Aristo, Of Pella, A Jewish Christian Writer Of The Middle Of The And Century, Who Like Hegesippus (q.v.) Represents A School Of Thought More Liberal Than That Of The Pharisaic And Essene Ebionites. He Is Cited By Eusebius (hist. Eccl. Iv. 6, 3) For A Decree Of Hadrian Respecting The ...

Aristobulus
Aristobulus, Of Cassandreia, Greek Historian, Accom Panied Alexander The Great On His Campaigns, Of Which He Wrote An Account, Mainly Geographical And Ethnological. His Work Was Largely Used By Arrian. ...

Aristobulus_2
Aristobulus, Of Paneas (c. 16o B.c.), A Jewish Philos Opher Of The Peripatetic School. Gercke Places Him In The Time Of Ptolemy X. Philometor (end Of And Century), Anatolius In That Of Ptolemy Ii. Philadelphus; But The Middle Of The And Cen Tury Is More Probable. He Was Among The ...

Aristocracy
Aristocracy, A Form Of Government Variously Defined At Different Times And By Different Authorities (gr. "best"; "power"). In Greek Political Philosophy, Aris Tocracy Is The Government Of Those Who Most Nearly Attain To The Ideal Of Human Perfection. Aristocracy Is Thus The Govern Ment By Those Who Are Superior Both ...

Aristodemus
Aristodemus (8th Century B.c.), Semi-legendary Ruler Of Messenia In The Time Of The First Messenian War. In The 13th Year Of The War, The Messenian King Died Childless, And Aristo Demus Was Chosen As His Successor. As A Ruler He Was Mild And Conciliatory. He Was Victorious In The Pitched ...

Aristolochia
Aristolochia, A Genus Of Shrubs Or Herbs Of The Family Aristolochiaceae, Often With Climbing Stems, Found Chiefly In The Tropics. The Flower Forms A Tube Inflated At The Base. The Name (gr. Apcaros, Best; Xoxeia, Child-birth) Alludes To Its Repute In Aiding Parturition. The Birthwort (a. Clematitis) Is A Central ...

Aristomenes
Aristomenes Of Andania, The Semi-legendary Hero Of The Second Messenian War. He Was A Member Of The Aepytid Family, The Son Of Nicomedes (or, According To Another Version, Of Pyrrhus) And Nicoteleia, And Took A Prominent Part In Stirring Up The Revolt Against Sparta And Securing The Co-operation Of Argos ...

Aristonicus
Aristonicus Of Alexandria, Greek Grammarian, Lived During The Reigns Of Augustus And Tiberius. His Chief Work Was Iiepi X Ri . €icop 'oµn Pov, In Which He Gave An Account Of The "critical Marks" Inserted By Aristarchus In His Recension Of The Iliad And Odyssey. Important Fragments Are Preserved In ...

Aristophanes
Aristophanes (c. 448-385 The Great Comic Dram Atist And Poet Of Athens. His Birth-year Is Uncertain. He Is Known To Have Been About The Same Age As Eupolis, And Is Said To Have Been "almost A Boy" When His First Comedy (the Banqueters) Was Brought Out In 427 B.c. His ...

Aristophanes_2
Aristophanes, Of Byzantium, Greek Critic And Gram Marian, Was Born About 257 B.c. Early In Life He Removed To Alexandria, Where He Studied Under Zenodotus And Cal Limachus. At The Age Of 6o He Was Appointed Chief Librarian Of The Museum. He Died About 185-18o B.c. Aristophanes Produced A Text ...

Aristotle
Aristotle, Philosopher, Psychologist, Logician, Moralist, Political Thinker, Biologist, The Founder Of Literary Criticism—was Born At Stagira, A Greek Colonial Town On The North-western Shores Of The Aegaean, In 384 B.c. He Was The Son Of Nicomachus, A Doctor, Belonging To The Guild Of The "sons Of Aesculapius," Who Had Acted ...

Aristotles Lantern
Aristotle's Lantern, The Name Applied To The Com Plex Masticatory Apparatus Of Sea-urchins. (see Echinoder ...

Aristoxenus
Aristoxenus Of Tarentum (4th Century B.c.), A Greek Peripatetic Philosopher And Writer On Music And Rhythm. He Studied Under The Pythagoreans And Later Under Aristotle, And Wrote On Philosophy, Ethics And Music. The Empirical Tendency Of His Thought Is Shown In His Theory That The Soul Is Related To The ...

Arisugawa
Arisugawa, The Name Of One Of The Royal Families Of Japan, Going Back To The Seventh Son Of The Mikado Go-yozei (d. 1638). After The Revolution Of 1868, When The Mikado Mutsu Hito Was Restored, His Uncle, Prince Taruhito Arisugawa 94), Became Commander-in-chief, And In 1875 President Of The Senate. ...

Arithmetic
Arithmetic, Originally The Science Or Theory Of Numbers; At Present, As Commonly Understood In The English Language, The Art Of Computation And The Applications Of This Art (gr. &pi6,usirircs, From Apeoµos Number). In Certain Other Languages The Word Still Retains Some Of Its Early Meaning And Applies Not Only To ...

Arius
Arius (d. 336), Name Celebrated In Church History, Not So Much On Account Of The Personality Of Its Bearer As Of The "arian" Controversy Which He Provoked (gr. "apaos). Our Knowledge Of Arius Is Scanty, And Nothing Certain Is Known Of His Birth Or Of His Early Training. We First ...

Arizona
Arizona, The "apache State," Is A State Situated In The Southwestern Part Of The United States Of America, Between 31° 20' And 37° N. And 109° 2' And 114° 45' W. It Is Bounded North By Utah, East By New Mexico, South By Mexico And West By California And Nevada, ...

Arjuna
Arjuna, In Post-vedic Hindu Mythology Son Of Indra, A Hero Of The Mahabliarata; And The Central Figure In The Part Of That Epic Called The Bliagavadgita. In Modern Hinduism He Is Unimportant. See E. Washburn Hopkins, Epic Mythology, Strasbourg (1915) . Ark, A Word Meaning Properly A Chest Or Box, ...

Arkadelphia
Arkadelphia, A City Of Arkansas, U.s.a., On The Ouachita River, About 65m. S.w. Of Little Rock; The County Seat Of Clark County. It Is On Federal Highway 67, And Is Served By The Missouri Pacific Railroad. The Population In 1920 Was 3,31i, In Federal Census. Arkadelphia Is Picturesquely Located Among ...

Arkansas City
Arkansas City, A City Of Cowley County, Kan., U.s.a., 200m. S.w. Of Kansas City, On The North Bank Of The Arkansas River, Just Above The Mouth Of The Walnut. It Is Served By The Santa Fe, The Frisco, The Missouri Pacific, And The Midland Valley Railways. It Has A Municipal ...

Arkansas
Arkansas (ahr'kan-saw), Popularly Known As The "wonder State," Is One Of The South-central States Of The United States Of America. It Is Situated Between 33° And 36° 3o' N. Lat. And 89° 4o' And 94° 42' W., And Its Boundaries Are North Missouri, East The Mississippi River, Separating It From ...

Arkansas_2
Arkansas, A River Of The United States Of America, Rising In The Mountains Of Central Colorado, Near Leadville, In Lat. 20' N., Long. 1o6° 15' W., And Emptying Into The Mississippi, At Na Poleon, Ark., In Lat. 33° 4o' N. Its Total Length Is About 2,000m., And Its Drainage Basin ...

Arklow
Arklow, Urban District, Co. Wicklow, Ireland, 49m. S. Of Dublin, By The Great Southern Railway. Pop. (1926) 4,526. There Are Oyster-beds On The Coast, But The Oysters Require To Be Freed From A Peculiar Flavour By The Purer Waters Of The Welsh And English Coast Before They Are Fit For ...

Arlberg Tunnel
Arlberg Tunnel, Part Of The Arlberg Railway Con Necting The Vorarlberg (q.v.) With Innsbruck In The Tirol. It Was Opened In Pierces The Arlberg Alp From Langen To St. Anton, Is Over 6m. Long, And Ascends As High As 4,3ooft. It Cost Ł1,5oo,000 To Construct, And Was Electrified In 1923. ...

Arles
Arles, South-east France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Bouches-du-rhone, 54m. N.w. Of Marseilles By Rail. Pop. (1931) 18,548. A Canal Unites The Town With The Harbour Of Bouc On The Mediterranean. Arles Stands On The Left Bank Of The Rhone Where The River Divides To Form Its ...

Arlington House
Arlington House, An Historic Mansion Situated In Virginia, On The Heights Overlooking The Potomac River, Opposite Washington, D.c. The Property Once Belonged To George Wash Ington And Descended To His Adopted Son, Parke Custis, Who Began His Residence There In 1802. Later It Became The Home Of Robert E. Lee, ...

Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery Occupies A Beautiful Site Of 4o8ac. In Virginia On The Banks Of The Potomac, Directly Opposite Washington, District Of Columbia. The Central Feature Of The Cemetery Is The Mansion, Built In 1802 Of Stuccoed Brick On The Estate Of R,looac. By George Washington Parke Custis, The Adopted ...

Arlington
Arlington, A Township Of Middlesex Co., Mass., U.s.a., Immediately W. Of Somerville And Cambridge, And 6-8m. N.w. Of Boston. It Is Traversed By Massachusetts Avenue, And By The Lexington Branch Of The Boston And Maine Railroad, Which Has Stations At The Villages Of Arlington And Arlington Heights. Its Area Is ...

Arlon
Arlon, Chief Town, Province Of Luxembourg, Southern Belgium, On A Hill (1,24of T.) Above The Headwaters Of The Semoise. Pop. (1930) 11,658.the Orolaunum Of The Romans Was A Station On The Antoninian Way Connecting Reims And Treves, And The Name Is Probably Celtic. Extensive Views Are Obtainable F Rom The ...

Arm
Arm, The Human Upper Limb From The Shoulder To The Wrist, And The Fore Limb Of An Animal. (see Anatomy : Superficial And Artistic, And Skeleton : Appendicular.) The Word Is Also Used Of Any Projecting Limb, As Of A Crane, Or Balance, Of A Branch Of A Tree, And ...

Armadillo
Armadillo, A Mail-clad Mammal (order Edentata, Fam Ily Dasypodidae) Closely Allied To The Sloths And Ant-eaters. Its Armour Consists Of A Bony Case, Partly Composed Of Solid Buckler Like Plates, And Partly Of Movable Transverse Bands. Armadillos Are Omnivorous, Feeding On Roots, Insects, Worms, Reptiles And Carrion, And Are Mostly ...

Armagh
Armagh, An Inland County Of Northern Ireland (act Of 1920), Bounded North By Lough Neagh, East By County Down, South By Louth, And West By Monaghan And Tyrone. The Area Is Or About 512sq.m. Pop. 110,070. The Northern Low Lying Area Is Made Up Of Tertiary Basalts, Pliocene Deposits And ...

Armagh_2
Armagh, Urban District And County Town, Co. Armagh, Ire Land, 891m. N.n.w. Of Dublin By Great Northern Railway, At Junction Of The Belfast-clones Line. Pop. (1926) 7,356. The City Is Of Great Interest Because Of Its Religious Associations, Some Claim Ing That It Was Founded By St. Patrick In The ...