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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Auricula
Auricula (primula Auricula), An Alpine Plant, Which Has Been An Inmate Of British Gardens For About Three Hundred Years, And Is Still A Favourite Spring Flower. It Thrives Best In A Cool Soil And Shady Situation. The Florists' Varieties Are Grown In Rich Composts. Auriculas Are Best Grown In A ...

Auricular Canal
Auricular Canal, The Tube Leading From The External Ear To The Ear Drum. It Is About Tin. Long And Is Lined By Thin Skin Which Is Tightly Bound To The Cartilage And Bone On Which It Rests. The Outer One-third Is Formed By Cartilage; The Inner Two-thirds By Bone. The ...

Auriga
Auriga (the "charioteer" Or "wagoner"), In Astronomy, A Constellation Of The Northern Hemisphere. It Was Symbolized By The Greeks As An Old Man In A More Or Less Sitting Posture, With A Goat And Her Kids In His Left Hand, And A Bridle In His Right. The Ancient Greeks Associated ...

Aurillac
Aurillac, Central France, Capital Of The Department Of Cantal, I4om. N.n.e. Of Toulouse, On The Orleans Railway. Pop. 14,86o. On The Right Bank Of The Jordanne, It Began With The 9th Century Abbey Of St. Geraud. The Gothic Abbey Church Was Rebuilt In The 17th Century. The Nth Th Century ...

Aurochs
Aurochs, The Name Of The Extinct Wild Ox Of Europe (bos Primigenius), Said By R. Lyddeker (i I Th Edit. E.b.) And Others To Be The Original Stock Whence The European Domestic Cattle Was Derived. It Survived In The Jaktozowka Forest In Poland Until 1627 And An Ac Count, With ...

Aurora Polaris
Aurora Polaris, A Phenomenon Of The Atmosphere, Sometimes Of Great Beauty, Known In The Northern Hemisphere As The Aurora Borealis, In The Southern Hemisphere As The Aurora Australis. Confining Our Attention To The Aurora Borealis, About Which We Have Far More Information, We Find That The Number Of Auroras Increases ...

Aurora
Aurora, The Roman Goddess Of The Dawn, Corresponding To The Greek Eos. According To Hesiod (theog. 271) She Was The Daughter Of The Titan Hyperion And Theia, And Sister Of Helios And Selene. By The Titan Astraeus, She Was The Mother Of The Winds Zephyrus, Notus, And Boreas, Of Hesperus ...

Aurora_2
Aurora, A City Of Kane County, Illinois, U.s.a., On The Fox River, 38 M. W. Of Chicago. It Is On Federal Highway 32; Is Served By The Burlington And The Chicago And North Western Railways, And For Freight Also By The Chicago, Milwaukee And St. Paul And The Elgin, Joliet ...

Aurora_3
Aurora, A Village Of Cayuga County, N.y., U.s.a., On Cayuga Lake, 16m. South-west Of Auburn, 26m. North Of Ithaca. It Is Served By The Lehigh Valley Railroad. It Is Beautifully Situated In The Heart Of The Finger Lakes District. Its Permanent Population, Which Is Stationary, Was 389 In 1930 (federal ...

Aurunci
Aurunci, The Name Given By The Romans To A Tribe Which In Historical Times Occupied Only A Strip Of Coast On Either Side Of The Mons Massicus Between The Volturnus And The Liris, Although It Must, At An Earlier Period, Have Extended Over A Considerably Wider Area. Their Own Name ...

Ausable Chasm
Ausable Chasm, A Gorge Of Scenic And Scientific Inter Est Situated In The North-eastern Part Of The State Of New York, U.s.a. At This Point, Which Is About Midway In Its Course From The Adirondack Mountains To Lake Champlain, The Ausable River Has Worn In Hard Sandstone A Series Of ...

Auscultation
Auscultation, A Term In Medicine Applied To The Method Of Determining, By The Sense Of Hearing, The Condition Of Certain Internal Organs. Strictly, It Should Include Audition Of Sounds Produced Within The Body Naturally And Sounds Induced Artificially By The Physician, But Often The Term Percussion Is Applied To The ...

Ausgleich
Ausgleich, A German Word Meaning Treaty, Compact Or Compromise. It Is Specifically Used To Describe The Compact, Finally Concluded In Feb. 1867, Which Regulated The Relations Between Austria And Hungary Following Upon The Establishment Of The Dual Monarchy. (see Austria-hungary.) ...

Austerlitz
Austerlitz (czech Slavkov), A Town Of Czechoslovakia, In Moravia, 15m. E.s.e. Of Briinn By Rail. Fop. (1921) 4,231, Mostly Czech. It Contains A Magnificent Palace Belonging To The Prince Of Kaunitz-rietberg, And A Beautiful Church. The Great Battle In Which The French Under Napoleon I. De Feated The Austrians And ...

Austin Motor Company Limited
Austin Motor Company Limited, English Motor-car Manufacturing Company, Was Founded In 1905 By Mr., Now Sir Herbert Austin (b. 1866), An Engineer And Pioneer Of Motoring. At A Time When Foreign Cars Were In The Ascendant In The United Kingdom, The Austin Motor Company Developed Its Works At Longbridge, Near ...

Austin
Austin, A City Of Minnesota, U.s.a., 9om. S. Of Minne Apolis And St. Paul, On The Beautiful Red Cedar River; The County Seat Of Mower County. It Is A Division Point Of The Chicago, Mil Waukee And St. Paul Railway, And Is Served Also By The Chicago Great Western. The ...

Austin_2
Austin, The Capital Of Texas, U.s.a., And The County-seat Of Travis County, On The North Bank Of The Colorado River, 200 Miles South By West Of Dallas And Fort Worth. It Is On Federal Highway 81, Is Connected By State Roads With Several Other Trans Continental Highways ; And Is ...

Australasia
Australasia, A Term Formerly Applied Somewhat Loosely To All The Land, Mainly Insular, Extending Eastwards And South Eastwards From The South-eastern Portion Of Asia And Occupying Approximately The South-western Quadrant Of The Pacific. In Its Widest Sense It Has Been Taken To Include, Besides Australia (with Tasmania) And New Zealand, ...

Australia
Australia Is Situated Wholly In The Southern Hemisphere Between Longitudes 113° 9' E. And 1j3° 39' E. And Latitudes Io° 41' S. And 43° 39' S. (mainland, 8' S.) . With An Area Of Nearly 3,ooo,000sq.m. (2,974,581sq.m.; Mainland Alone, 2,948,366sq.m.) It Is The Smallest Continent And The Largest Island On ...

Australian Languages
Australian Languages, The Aboriginal Dialects Of Australian Natives. There Are Two Fundamental Phonetic Features Which, As It Seems, Are To Be Found In All The Australian Tongues: In The First Place The Lack Of All Fricatives (s, F, X) Which Occur Only In The Youngest Languages And But Seldom, Though ...

Australian Literature
Australian Literature. It Has Been Described As An Ironical Commentary On Australian Literature That The First Writer On The Subject Should Have Borne The Name Of Barron Field. It Is True, However, That When Field (he Will Be Remembered As Charles Lamb's Friend Who Emigrated To Australia And Became Judge ...

Austrasia
Austrasia, The Name Given To The Easternmost Part Of The Frankish Kingdom. It Usually Had Metz For Its Capital, And The Inhabitants Of The Kingdom Were Known As The Austrasii. Retrospectively, Later Historians Have Given This Name To The King Dom Of Theuderich I. , Of His Son Theudebert ), ...

Austria As A Great
Austria As A Great Power: 1519-1740 Ferdinand I. 1526-64.—maximilian's Grandson, Charles, King Of Spain, 1516, Emperor 1519, Was Also Co-ruler Of The Habsburg Dominions In Eastern Germany, But Relinquished Them To His Brother Ferdinand By The Partitions Of Worms (1521) And Brus Sels (1522). When Louis Ii., King Of Bohemia ...

Austria Hungary
Austria-hungary. Under This Heading An Account Is Given Of The History Of Those Territories In Central And Eastern Europe, Since 1918 Partitioned Among Italy, Austria, Czechoslo Vakia, Poland, Hungary, Rumania And Yugoslavia, Which Were Accumulated By The Dynasties Of Babenberg And Habsburg Round The Nucleus Of The "ostmark" Established In ...

Austria
Austria, From Nov. 1918 To March 15, 1938, Was A Federal Republic Formed From The Predominantly German-speaking Lands Of The Old Austrian Empire. The New State Thus Returned In Some Measure To Its Original Function As The Eastmark Or Frontier Prov Ince, An Outpost Of Germanic Speech And Culture In ...

Austrian Literature
Austrian Literature. This Literature Has Been Closely Bound Up With That Of The German People As A Whole. Yet Austrian Literature Has Preserved Characteristics Of Its Own, Partly Because Of The Outlying Position Of The Country, Partly Because Of The Special Position Which The Habsburg Prov Inces Occupied In The ...

Austric Languages
Austric Languages. Conformities In Vocabulary, Phonetics, Word-formation (prefixing, Infixing), In The (post-) Position Of The Genitive In The Inclusive And Exclusive Forms Of The Pronoun, And Others, Demonstrate The Genetic Relation Of The Austronesian To The Austroasiatic Languages. By Omitting The Differentia Specific To The Two Main Divisions Schmidt Termed ...

Austroaslatic Languages
Austroaslatic Languages. This Family Of Lan Guages Must Once Have Extended Over Nearly All Indo-china And The North-east Of India. Structure.—the Phonetic System Is Very Simple. It Contains The Three Simple Explosives With Their Spirants And Nasals, Besides A Sort Of Cerebral. Final Sounds May Be Vocalic And (one–)con Sonantic; ...

Austronesian Languages
Austronesian Languages. The Name "malayo Polynesian Languages" Was Applied To This Family Of Languages By W. Von Humboldt In His Work, Ueber Die Kawi-sprache Auf Der Insel Java (2 Vols., Berlin, 1836, 1839). But When The Affinity Of The Melanesian Languages Was Ascertained, W. Schmidt In His Treatise Die Sprachlichen ...

Authentic
Authentic, Genuine (from Gr. Caivyns, One Who Does A Thing Himself), True Or Original. In Music It Is One Of The Terms Used For The Ecclesiastical Modes. The Title Of Authentics Was Also Used For Justinian's Novellae. ...

Author
Author. In Its Widest Sense The Word Means An Originator; In Practice It Connotes A Writer Of Original Books Or Articles. The Author's Calling, As Distinct From The Scribe's, Was Recog Nized From Very Remote Times In The Community. There Is A Reference In The Apocrypha (ii. Maccabees) To "the ...

Autobiography
Autobiography, The Life Of A Person Written By Him Self. The First Famous Autobiography In European Literature Is The Confessions Of St. Augustine (q.v.), Written To Show How He Discovered The Truth Of The Catholic Religion. For Many Centuries It Remained Alone As A Document Of First-hand And First-rate Psy ...

Autocephalous
Autocephalous (from Gr. Abros, Self, And Ke4 Axii, Head), Of Independent Headship, A Term Used Of Certain Ecclesias Tical Functionaries And Organizations. ...

Autochthones
Autochthones, Sons Of The Soil, The Original Inhabit Ants Of A Country As Opposed To Settlers (gr. Abros, Self, And Xec;v, Earth; Lat. Terrigenae) . The Idea That They Were Autocli Thones Was A Great Source Of Pride To The Athenians, Who Wore Golden Grasshoppers (unless Tettiges Means Pins For ...

Autoclave
Autoclave, A Strong Closed Vessel Of Metal In Which Liquids Can Be Heated Above Their Boiling Points Under Pressure. Etymologically The Word Indicates A Self-closing Vessel (abros, Self, And Clavis, Key, Or Clavus, Nail), In Which The Tightness Of The Joints Is Maintained By The Internal Pressure, But This Characteristic ...

Autocracy
Autocracy, A Term Applied To That Form Of Government Which Is Absolute And Vested In One Single Person (from Gr. Abros, Self, And 'cams, Power). ...

Autogamy
Autogamy (from Gr. Abros, Self, And Yapfa, Marriage), A Botanical Term For Self-pollination. (see Angiosperms.) ...

Autogenous Autogeny
Autogeny, Autogenous, Spontaneous Generation, Self-produced. In "autogenous Soldering" Two Pieces Of Metal Are United By The Melting Of The Opposing Surfaces, Without The Use Of A Separate Fusible Alloy Or Solder As A Cementing Material. (see Abiogenesis.) ...

Autographs
Autographs. Autograph Is A Term Applied By Common Usage Either To A Document Signed By The Person From Whom It Emanates, Or To One Written Entirely By The Hand Of Such Person (which, However, Is Also More Technically Described As Holograph), Or Simply To An Independent Signature. The Object Of ...

Autolycus
Autolycus, In Greek Mythology, The Father Of Anticleia, Mother Of Odysseus. Later Authors Make Hermes His Father. He Lived At The Foot Of Mt. Parnassus, And Was Famous As A Thief And Swindler. On One Occasion He Met His Match. Sisyphus, Who Had Lost Some Cattle, Suspected Autolycus Of Being ...

Autolycus_2
Autolycus, Of Pitane In Aeolia, Greek Mathematician And Astronomer, Flourished About 31 O B.c. His Extant Works Are : Peri Kinoumenes Sphairas, The Oldest Greek Mathematical Treatise Preserved To Us Entire, Which Contains Some Simple Propositions On The Motion Of Points On The Sphere And Its Circular Sections ; And ...

Automatic Machines
Automatic Machines, Machines Which Function Throughout Their Cycle Of Operation Without The Intervention Of Human Effort. Special Types Are Used In Many Industries For Two Main Reasons; To Reduce The Necessity For Manual Labour And To Secure Uniformity Of Product. The Rapidity With Which Automatic Machines Are Developed And Used ...

Automatic Writing
Automatic Writing, The Name Given By Students Of Psychical Research To Writing Performed Without The Volition Of The Agent. The Writing May Also Take Place Without Any Conscious Ness Of The Words Written ; But Some Automatists Are Aware Of The Word Which They Are Actually Writing, And Perhaps Of ...

Automatism
Automatism. In Philosophical Terminology This Word Is Used In Two Main Senses : In Ethics, For The View That Man Is Not Responsible For His Actions, Which Have, Theref Ore, No Moral Value; (2) In Psychology, For All Actions Which Are Not The Result Of Conscious Endeavour. Certain Actions Being ...

Automaton
Automaton, A Self-moving Machine, Or One In Which The Principle Of Motion Is Contained Within The Mechanism Itself (gr. Avros, Self, And Alto), Seize). The Word Is Generally Applied To Contrivances Which Simulate The Motions Of Animal Life. If The Human Figure And Actions Be Represented, The Automaton Has Some ...

Automorphism
Automorphism, The Conception And Interpretation Of Other People's Habits And Ideas On The Analogy Of One's Own. (see Apperception.) ...

Autonomy
Autonomy, In General, Freedom From External Restraint, Self-government (gr. Can63, Self, And V6/..cos, Law). In Philosophy, The Term (with Its Antithesis "heteronomy") Was Applied By Kant To That Aspect Of The Rational Will In Which, Qua Rational, It Is A Law To Itself, Independently Alike Of Any External Authority, Of ...

Autoplasty
Autoplasty, The Repair Of Diseased Or Injured Parts By Pieces Taken From Another Part Of The Same Body. The Practice Is Based On The Fact That Tissues Transplanted To Other Portions Of The Same Body Will Either Continue To Grow Or Will Supply A Frame Work To Support The Reparative ...

Autoplate
Autoplate, A Machine For Rapidly Casting Curved Plates For Newspaper Printing, Such Plates Being Accurate Replicas Of The Original Type Formes. Before The Advent Of This Machine, The Casting Of Stereo Plates Was Done By Various Manual Processes. The Autoplate Reduces These Manual Operations To A Single Mechan Ical And ...

Autopsy
Autopsy (syn. Post-mortem, Necropsy), The Examination Of A Dead Body With The Object Of Determining The Cause Of Death. This Examination May Be For Legal Purposes (see Coroner And ...

Autotomy
Autotomy, The Term Applied To The Self-mutilation Prac Tised By Certain Animals As A Means Of Escape From Their Enemies. Thus Many Crustacea (crabs, Lobsters, Etc.) Will Break Off A Limb If Grasped Thereby. Amongst Vertebrates Many Lizards Will Shed The Posterior Part Of Their Tail When This Is Held. ...

Autun
Autun, A Town Of East-central France, Capital Of An Arron Dissement In The Department Of Saone-et-loire, 62m. S.w. Of Dijon On The P.l.m. Railway To Nevers. Pop. (1931) It Stands On The Slope Of A Hill Above The River Arroux. Autun (augustodunum) Succeeded Bibracte As Capital Of The Aedui When ...

Autunite Or Calco Uranite
Autunite Or Calco-uranite, A Mineral Which Is One Of The "uranium Micas," Differing From The More Commonly Occurring Torbernite (q.v.) Or Cupro-uranite In Containing Cal Cium In Place Of Copper. It Is A Hydrous Uranium And Calcium Phosphate, Though Closely Re Sembling The Tetragonal Torbernite In Form, It Crystallizes In ...

Auvergne
Auvergne, Formerly A Province Of France, Correspond Ing To The Departments Of Cantal And Puy-de-dome, With The Arrondissement Of Brioude In Haute-loire. It Contains Many Mountains Volcanic In Origin (plomb Du Cantal, Puy De Dome, Mont Dore), Fertile Valleys Such As That Of Limagne, Vast Pas Ture Lands, And Numerous ...

Auxanometer
Auxanometer (gr. Aoeavecv, To Increase, .drpov, Meas Ure), An Apparatus For Measuring Rate Of Growth Of Plants. ...

Auxentius
Auxentius (fl. C. 37o), Of Cappadocia, An Arian Theolo Gian (see Arius). When Constantine Deposed The Orthodox Bishops Who Resisted, Auxentius Was Installed Into The Seat Of Dionysius, Bishop Of Milan, And Came To Be Regarded As The Great Opponent Of The Nicene Doctrine In The West. When The Orthodox ...

Auxerre
Auxerre, Central France, Capital Of The Department Of Yonne, 38m. S.s.e. Of Sens On The P. L. M. Railway, Between Laroche And Nevers. Pop. (1931) 18,988. It Stands On The Left Bank Of The Yonne, Which Is Crossed By Bridges Leading To Suburbs. Auxerre (autessiodurum) Became The Seat Of A ...

Auxiliary
Auxiliary, That Which Gives Aid Or Support (from Lat. Auxilium, Help) ; The Term Is Used In Grammar Of A Verb Which Completes The Tense, Mood Or Voice Of Another Verb; In Engineer Ing, E.g., Of The Low Steam Power Used To Supplement The Sail-power In Sailing Ships; In Military ...

Auximum
Auximum (mod. Osimo), Ancient Town, Picenum, On An Isolated Hill 8m. From The Adriatic, On The Road From Ancona To Nuceria, A Roman Fortress To Protect Settlements In Northern Picenum; The Walls Were Built 174 B.c. Of Large Squared Blocks; They Still Exist. It Was Important In The Civil Wars ...

Ava
Ava, The Ancient Capital Of The Burman Empire, Is On The Irrawaddy, On The Opposite Bank To Sagaing. Amarapura, An Other Ancient Capital, Lies 5m. N.e. Of Ava, And Mandalay, The Present Capital, 6m. N. The Classical Name Of Ava Is Yadanapura, "the City Of Precious Gems." It Was Founded ...

Avadana
Avadana, The Name Given To Collections Of Buddhist Tales Purporting To Be Told By The Buddha In Order To Show The Results Of Karma. They Exist In A Large Number Of Sanskrit (nepalese) Works Of Which The Chief Are The Avadanasataka (century Of Legends), And The Divyavadana (the Heavenly Legend). ...

Avahi
Avahi (av'a-hi), A Malagasy Lemur (avahis Laniger) Allied To The Indri (q.v.), Characterized By Its Woolly Coat, And Measur Ing About 28 In. In Length, Of Which Rather More Than Half Is Tail. The Avahi Is Nocturnal, And Is Met With Alone Or In Pairs. Very Slow In Its Movements, ...

Avalanche
Avalanche (adopted From A French Dialect Form, Ava Lance, Descent), A Mass Of Snow Usually Mingled With Ice, Soil, Pebbles And Boulders, Which Rushes Down A Mountain Side Destroy Ing Anything In Its Path. It Often Produces A Strong Wind Which Uproots Trees On Each Side Of Its Course. Above ...

Avallon
Avallon, A Town Of France, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Yonne, 34m. S.s.e. Of Auxerre On A Branch Of The P.l.m. Railway. Pop. Avallon (aballo) Was The Seat Of A Viscounty In The Mediaeval Duchy Of Burgundy. The Church Of St. Lazare (12th Century) Has Two Western ...

Avalon
Avalon (also Written Avallon, Avollon, Avilion, Avelion), In Welsh Mythology The Kingdom Of The Dead; In The Arthurian Romances, The Abode Of Heroes To Which King Arthur Was Conveyed. In Welsh The Name Is Ynys Yr Afallon, Usually Interpreted "isle Of Apples," But If The Celtic Tra Ditional Derivation, A ...

Avalon_2
Avalon, A Seaside And Sportsman's Resort, Situated On The South-east Coast Of Santa Catalina Island, Calif., About 5om. S. Of Los Angeles And 3om. By Steamer From San Pedro And Long Beach On The Mainland. The Town Is Picturesquely Built In A Narrow Valley And On The Slopes Of An ...

Avalon_3
Avalon, Formerly West Bellevue, A Residential Borough Of Allegheny County, Pa., U.s.a., 6m. N.w. Of Pittsburgh, On The Ohio River And The Pennsylvania Railroad. The Population In 1930 Was ...

Avars
Avars Of Europe, Sometimes Called "pseudo-avars," Were Probably A Turkish Tribe, Named Uigurs, Who Were Subjected By The True Avars—a Nation Akin To The Huns, Perhaps Identical With The Yuan-yuan, When The Latter Were Driven Out Of Central Asia About A.d. 461. The Avar Confederation Dominated The Volga Steppes Till ...

Avatar
Avatar, An "incarnation," Especially The "descent" Of A Deity To Save The World. Thus, The 1 O Avatars Of Vishnu Were In The Later Epics, As (i) A Fish, (2) A Tortoise, (3) A Boar, (4) A Monster, Half Man, Half Lion, To Destroy Hiranyakasipu, The Infidel Worshipper Of Siva, ...

Avebury
Avebury, Village Of Wiltshire, England, On The Upper Kennet, Among The Marlborough Downs, Six Miles W. Of Marl Borough. Population (19 21) 525. The Name Is Famous As That Of A Stone Circle, Perhaps The Largest In The World, Upon Which The Village, Which, As Avreberie Or Abury, Dates At ...

Aveia
Aveia, An Ancient Town Of The Vestini, On The Via Claudia Nova, 6m. S.e. Of Aquila And N.e. Of The Modern Village Of Fossa, Italy. Some Remains Of Ancient Buildings Still Exist. Paintings In The Church Of Sta. Maria Ad Cryptas Of The 12th To 15th Cen Turies Are Important ...

Aveiro
Aveiro, Port And Episcopal See, North-western Portgual, On The Lisbon-oporto Railway. Pop. (1930) 12,735. Aveiro Is Built On The Southern Shore Of A Marshy Lagoon, Containing Many Small Islands, And Measuring About 15m. From North To South, With An Average Breadth Of About One Mile. The Barra Nova, An Artificial ...

Avella
Avella (anc. Abella), City Of Campania, Italy, Province Of Avellino, 23m. N.e. Of Naples By Rail. Population (1931) 4,082. It Is In Fertile Territory And Its Nuts And Fruit Were Renowned In Roman Days. About 2m. N.e. Lies Avella Vecchia, The Ancient Abella, Regarded By The Ancients As A Chalcidian ...

Avellaneda
Avellaneda, A City In The Argentine Republic, Pop. 46,277 In 1914, And Estimated To Be About 160,000 In A Suburb Of Buenos Aires, On The Southern Side Of The Riachuelo Which Separates It From Buenos Aires Proper. It Is Virtually A Part Of The Capital But Is Organized As A ...

Avellino
Avellino, Episcopal See, Campania, Italy, Capital Of Prov Ince Of Avellino, Soft. Above Sea-level, 28m. Direct And 59m. By Rail E.n.e. Of Naples, At The Foot Of Mt. Vergine. Pop. (1931) 20,176 (town) ; (commune). It Is The Junction For Bene Vento And Rocchetta S. Antonio. The Name Derives From ...

Avempace
Avempace (abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya, Known As Ibn Baj Ja Or Ibn Sa`igh; I.e., Son Of The Goldsmith, The Name Being Corrupted By The Latins Into Avempace, Avenpace Or Aben Pace), The Earliest And One Of The Most Distinguished Of The Arab Philoso Phers Of Spain. Little Is Known ...

Avenger Of Blood
Avenger Of Blood, The Person, Usually The Nearest Kinsman Of The Murdered Man, Whose Duty It Was To Avenge His Death By Killing The Murderer. In Early Societies Crimes Of Vio Lence Were Regarded As Injuries Of A Personal Character To Be Punished By The Sufferer Or His Kinsfolk. This ...

Avengers Or Vendicatori
Avengers Or Vendicatori, A Secret Society Formed About 1186 In Sicily To Avenge Popular Wrongs. The Society Was Finally Suppressed By King William Ii., Who Hanged The Grand Mas Ter And Branded The Members With Hot Irons. ...

Aventail Or Avantaille
Aventail Or Avantaille (o.fr. Esventail, Presum Ably From A Latin Word Exventaculum, Air-hole), The Mouthpiece Of An Old-fashioned Helmet, Movable To Admit The Air. ...

Aventinus
Aventinus , Whose Real Name Was Johann Turmair, Author Of The Annales Boiorum In Seven Books, Was Born At Abensberg (aventinum) July 4, And Died At Regens Burg Jan. 9, 1534. He Studied At Ingolstadt, Vienna, Cracow And Paris, And From 1509-17 Was Tutor To Two Of The Bavarian Princes. ...

Aventurine Or Avanturine
Aventurine Or Avanturine, A Variety Of Quartz Spangled With Scales Of Mica Or Haematite. Most Aventurine Quartz Is Of Yellow Or Brown Colour, But A Green Variety Containing Scales Of The Chrome-mica, Fuchsite, Is Also Known. The Name Aventurine Is Also Applied To Certain Iridescent Felspars. The Principal Of These ...

Avenue
Avenue. Way Of Access, An Approach To A Country House, Bordered By Trees ; It Is Now Much Used As A Name For Streets, With Or Without Trees, E.g., Fifth Avenue, New York; Shaftesbury Ave Nue, London. ...

Avenzoar Or Abumeron
Avenzoar Or Abumeron (abu Merwan `abdal-malik Ibn Zuhr) (d. I162), Arabian Physician, Was Born At Seville, Where He Exercised His Profession With Great Reputation. He Was A Con Temporary Of Averroes, Who, According To Leo Africanus, Heard His Lectures, And Learned Physic Of Him. He Belonged, In Many Re Spects, ...

Average Adjuster
Average Adjuster. The Problems Involved In Giv Ing Effect To The Ancient Law Of General Average Are Very Complex, And Hardly Less Difficult Are Those Arising Out Of The Application Of The Law Of Marine Insurance. The Professional Average Ad Juster Undertakes The Duties Of Applying These Laws, Subject To ...

Average
Average, A Legal Term (for Mathematical Meaning, See Law Of Probabilities), May Be Either Particular Or General. Par Ticular Average Signifies Damage Or A Partial Loss Sustained By Ship, Goods Or Freight Through Some Accidental Cause. According To S. 64 (i) Of The Marine Insurance Act 1906, Particular Average Is ...

Avernus
Avernus, Lake Of Campania, Italy, About 1 Km. N. Of Baiae. It Is An Old Volcanic Crater, Nearly 2m. In Circumference, Now, As In Roman Times, Filled With Water. Its Depth Is 213ft., And Its Height Above Sea-level 3-ft. ; It Has No Natural Outlet. In Ancient Times It Was ...

Averroes
Averroes (abul-walid Mohammed Ibn-ahmad Ibn-mo Hammed Ibn-rushd) (1126-1198), The Greatest Arabian Philos Opher In The West, And The Famous Commentator On Aristotle, Was Born At Cordova. His Early Life Was Occupied In Mastering The Ology, Jurisprudence, Mathematics, Medicine And Philosophy. Through Ibn-tofail, He Became Acquainted With Yusuf, A Prince Famous ...

Averruncator
Averruncator, A Long Shears Used In Arboriculture For "averruncating" Or Pruning Off The Higher Branches Of Trees. ...

Aversa
Aversa, Episcopal See, Campania, Italy, Province Of Naples, I2im. N. By Rail From Naples, From Which There Is Also An Electric Tramway. Population (1931) 2 5, 296 (town) ; 3 5,003 (commune) . Aversa Was The First Settlement Granted To The Normans In 1027 For Help To Duke Sergius Of ...

Avesnes
Avesnes, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Department Of Nord, North France, On The Helpe, 28m. S.e. Of Valenciennes By Rail. Pop. (1930 Avesnes Was Founded In The 11 Th Cen Tury And Formed A Countship Which In The 15th Century Passed To The House Of Burgundy And Afterwards To ...

Aveyron
Aveyron, A Department Of The South Part Of The Massif Central, In South France, Stretching From The Cevennes Across The Wild Causse Noir, The Causse Ste. Affrique And The Plateau Of Larzac To Include Portions Of The Valleys Of Tarn, Aveyron And Lot On The West Side Of The Massif. ...

Avezzano
Avezzano, A Town In Italy, Province Of Aquila, 67m. E. Of Rome By Rail And 38m. S. Of Aquila By Road. Population (1931) 14,665 (town) ; 15,610 (commune). Its Fine Castle, Built In 1490 By Gentile Virginio Orsini, Was, With The Rest Of The Town, Much Damaged By The Disastrous ...

Avianus
Avianus, A Latin Writer Of Fables, Placed By Some Critics In The Age Of The Antonines, By Others As Late As The 6th Century A.d. He Appears To Have Lived In Rome And To Have Been A Heathen. The 42 Fables Which Bear His Name Are Dedicated To A Certain ...

Aviary
Aviary, Called By Older Writers "volary," A Structure In Which Birds Are Kept In Captivity. While The Habit Of Keeping Birds In Cages Dates From A Very Remote Period, It Is Probable That Structures Worthy Of Being Termed Aviaries Were First Used By The Ancient Romans, Who Called Them Ornithones. ...

Avicenna
Avicenna (abu `ali Al-husain Ibn `abdallah Ibn Sina) (9 7 9—i O3 7 ), The Greatest Of Arabian Philosophers In The East, And A Physician In Whom Arabian Medicine Reached Its Culmina Tion. Born In The Province Of Bukhara Of A Family Connected With Public Service, Avicenna At The Age ...

Avigliana
Avigliana, A Town Of Piedmont, Italy, 14m. W. By Rail From Turin. Pop. (1931) 3,934. It Has Mediaeval Build Ings And A Large Dynamite Factory. ...

Avignon
Avignon, Capital Of The Department Of Vaucluse, South-east France, 143m. S. Of Lyons On The Railway To Marseilles. Pop. 45,089. It Lies On The Left (east) Bank Of The Rhone Where Rising Ground Banks The River On Both Sides And Gives De Fensible Sites (avignori' On The East And Villeneuve-les-avignon ...

Avila
Avila, A Province Of Central Spain, Astride The Central Sierras From The Plaza De Almanzor (2,592m.), The Culminating Point Of The Sierra De Gredos, To The Sierra De Malag6n. Pop. 221,386; Area, 3,1 O9sq.m. ; Density, 67.3 Per Sq.m. South Of The Sierra De Gredos, Avila Extends To The River ...

Avila_2
Avila (rom. Abula, Avela, Etc.), Capital Of The Province Of That Name; 54m. W. By N. Of Madrid. Pop. (193o) 15,223. The Old Walled City, On The Broad Back Of A Ridge Sloping West To The River Adaja, Commands Both The Approach To The Pass Across The Central Sierras In ...

Aviles
Aviles, A Town Of Spain, Province Of Oviedo; On The Bay Of Aviles, A Winding Inlet Of The Bay Of Biscay, 24m. By Rail W. Of Gijon. Pop. (193o) 16,077. The Bay, Crossed By A Fine Bridge At Its Narrow Landward Extremity, Is The Headquarters Of A Fishing Fleet, And ...