BAILEY, LIBERTY HYDE ), American bot anist and horticulturist, was born at South Haven, Mich., on March 15, 1858. He spent his early years on a farm and in 1882 graduated from Michigan State Agricultural college. In 5882-83 he was a student assistant in botany under Asa Gray at Harvard, and in 1884-88 he was professor of horticulture and landscape gardening in Michigan State Agricultural College. From 1888 to 1903 he was professor of horticulture and from 5903 to 1913 he was dean of the college of agriculture and director of the agri cultural experiment station, Cornell university. He rose to front rank among American botanical educators and by his achieve ments as a teacher, lecturer, writer and editor contributed sub stantially to the advancement of horticultural science. In system atic botany he made researches on North American sedges (espe cially Carex), on blackberries and raspberries (Rubes), and also on New World palms, collecting in the American Tropics much valuable material for their scientific study. In connection with his horticultural and taxonomic investigations he built up an extensive private herbarium. He also made important studies in rural economics, rural sociology and agricultural education. In 1908-09 he served as chairman of the Roosevelt commission on country life.
He was the editor of several series of books on agriculture and horti culture and also of the important Cyclopaedia of American Horti culture (19oo-o2) ; The Cyclopaedia of American Agriculture (1907) , and The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture new ed. 5927).
Besides numerous articles in scientific journals and popular mag azines and poems on country life, he was the author of The Nursery Book (1891) ; Plant Breeding (1897, rev. ed. 1915) ; The Principles of Fruit Growing (1897, loth ed., 1921) ; Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits (1898) ; Principles of Agriculture (1898, 16th ed. 191o) ; The Nature Study Idea (19o3) ; The Training of Farmers (19o9) ; Manual of Gardening (191o) ; The Outlook to Nature (191I) ; Country Life Movement in the United States (5955); Ground Levels in Democracy (191I) ; The Practical Garden Book (1913, rev. ed. 1925) ; Universal Service (1918) ; The Nursery Manual (192o) ; The Apple Tree (1922) ; Manual of Cultivated Plants (1924) ; and The Garden Lover (1928) .