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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf
Baeyer, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Von (1835-1917), German Chemist, Was Born At Berlin On Oct. 31, 1835, His Father Being Johann Jacob Von Baeyer Chief Of The Berlin Geodetical Institute From 187o. He Studied Chemistry Under R. W. Bunsen And F. A. Kekule, And In 1858 Took His Degree As ...

Johann Georg Baiter
Baiter, Johann Georg Swiss Philolo Gist And Textual Critic, Was Born At Zurich And Was Oberlehrer At The Gymnasium There From 1833 To 1876. Baiter's Strong Point Was Textual Criticism, Applied Chiefly To Cicero And The Attic Ora Tors; Most Of His Works Were Produced In Collaboration With Other Scholars, ...

Johann Sebastian Bach
Bach, Johann Sebastian German Musical Composer. The Bach Family Was Of Importance In The History Of Music For Nearly 200 Years. Four Branches Of It Were Known At The Beginning Of The 16th Century, And In 1561 We Hear Of Hans Bach Of Wechmar Who Is Believed To Be The ...

Johann Wilhelm Von Archenholz
Archenholz, Johann Wilhelm Von (1743 1812 ), German Historian, Was Born At Langfuhr, A Suburb Of Dan Zig, On Sept. 3, 1743, And Died At Oyendorf, Near Hamburg, On Feb. 28, 1812. He Served In The Seven Years' War, And Then Retired From The Army. He Then Spent A Long ...

John Arbuthnot
Arbuthnot, John (1667-1735), British Physician And Wit, The Friend Of Swift And Pope, Was Born At Arbuthnot, Kin Cardineshire. The Son Of An Episcopalian Minister Who Had Been Deprived Of His Living, He Supported Himself For Some Time In London By Teaching Mathematics, And Then In 1692 Entered Uni Versity ...

John Arderne
Arderne, John (c. 1306—c. 139o), English Surgeon, Prac Tised First At Newark And Then In London, And Also In The Army In France. He Introduced Certain New Operations And Was A Bold And Skilful Surgeon And A Good Writer On His Subject. See D'arcy Power: Treatises Of Fistula In Ano, ...

John Argyropulus Or Argyropulo
Argyropulus Or Argyropulo, John (1416? 1486), Greek Humanist, A Very Active Promoter Of The Revival Of Learning In The West, Was Born In Constantinople, And Be Came A Teacher There, Constantine Lascaris Being His Pupil. He Was Teaching In Padua In 1434, Being Subsequently Made Rector Of The University. About ...

John Armstrong
Armstrong, John American Soldier, Diplomatist And Political Leader, Born At Carlisle (pa.) On Nov. 25, 1758. His Father, Also Named John Armstrong A Native Of The North Of Ireland, Who Had Emigrated To The Pennsyl Vania Frontier Between 1745 And 1748, Served As A Brigadier Gen Eral And Was A ...

John Asgill
Asgill, John (1659-1738), English Writer, Was Born At Hanley Castle, Worcestershire, The Author Of A Tract (1700) To Prove That Christians Need Not Die. He Made A Considerable For Tune In Legal Practice In Ireland, And Was Returned To The Irish Parliament For Enniscorthy (17o3), And The English Parliament For ...

John Ashburnham
Ashburnham, John (c. 1603-1671), English Royalist, Son Of Sir John Ashburnham, Entered Parliament As Member For Hastings In 1629, And Sat For The Same Borough In The Long Parlia Ment. He Was Treasurer Of The Royal Army During The Civil War, Commissioner In The Uxbridge Negotiations (5644), Escaped With Charles ...

John Aubrey
Aubrey, John (1626-1697), English Antiquary, Was Born At Easton Pierse Or Percy, Near Malmesbury, Wiltshire, His Father Being A Country Gentleman. In 1667 He Made The Acquain Tante Of Anthony A Wood At Oxford, And When Wood Began To Gather Materials For His Invaluable Athenae Oxonienses, Aubrey Offered To Collect ...

John Austin
Austin, John (179o-1859), English Jurist, Was Born On March 3 1790. His Father Was The Owner Of Flour Mills At Ipswich And In The Neighbourhood, And Was In Good Circumstances. John Was The Eldest Of Five Brothers. One Of His Brothers, Charles Obtained Great Distinction At The Bar. John Austin ...

John Aylmer
Aylmer, John (1521-94), Bishop Of London, Was Born In 1521 At Aylmer Hall, Tivetshall St. Mary, Norfolk. About 1541 He Was Made Chaplain To The Duke Of Suffolk, And Tutor To His Daughter, Lady Jane Grey. His First Preferment Was To The Archdeaconry Of Stow, In The Diocese Of Lincoln, ...

John Bacon
Bacon, John (174o-1799), British Sculptor, Was Born In Southwark On Nov. 24 1740, The Son Of Thomas Bacon, A Cloth Worker, And Apprenticed At 14 In Crispe's Porcelain Manufactory At Lambeth. Here He Was At First Employed In Painting The Small Ornamental Pieces Of China, But Soon Became Modeller To ...

John Badby
Badby, John (d. 1410), One Of The Early Lollard Martyrs, Was A Tailor (or Perhaps A Blacksmith) In The West Midlands. He Was Burned At Smithfield For His Denial Of Transubstantiation. ...

John Bainbridge
Bainbridge, John (1582-1643), English Astronomer, Was Born At Ashby-de-la-zouch, Leicestershire. He Started As A Physician And Practised For Some Years. Sir Henry Savile Ap Pointed Him In 1619 To The Savilian Chair Of Astronomy Just Founded By Him At Oxford ; Bainbridge Was Incorporated Of Mer Ton College And Became ...

John Bale
Bale, John Bishop Of Ossory, Eng11sh Author, Was Born At Cove, Near Dunwich In Suffolk, On Nov. 21, 1495. At The Age Of 12 He Entered The Carmelite Monastery At Norwich, Removing Later To The House Of "holmes' Probably The Abbey Of The Whitefriars At Hulne Near Alnwick. Later He ...

John Balguy
Balguy, John (1686-1748), English Divine And Philos Opher, Was Born At Sheffield On Aug. Io, 1686, And Became A Prebendary Of Salisbury In 1727 Through The Influence Of Hoad Ly, And In 1729 Became Vicar Of Northallerton. He Died At Harrogate On Sept. 21, 1748. His Earliest Published Works Were ...

John Ball
Ball, John (d. 1381), An English Priest Who Took A Promi Nent Part In The Peasant Revolt In 1381. Little Is Known Of His Early Years, But He Lived Probably At York And Afterwards At Colchester. He Gained Considerable Fame As A Preacher By Expounding The Doc Trines Of John ...

John Ballance
Ballance, John (1839-1893), New Zealand Statesman, Eldest Son Of Samuel Ballance, Farmer, Of Glenavy, Antrim, Ulster, Was Born On March 27, 1839. He Migrated To New Zealand, And Founded The Wanganui Herald, Of Which He Became Editor And Remained Chief Owner For The Rest Of His Life. During The Fighting ...

John Ball_2
Ball, John (1818-1889), Irish Politician, Naturalist And Alpine Traveller, Eldest Son Of An Irish Judge, Nicholas Ball, Was Born At Dublin On Aug. 20, 1818. He Was Educated At The Roman Catholic College At Oscott Near Birmingham, And At Christ's College, Cambridge. He Was Botanist, Irish Civil Servant (1846), Liberal ...

John Campbell
John Campbell, 2nd Duke Of Argyll And Duke Of Greenwich (1678-1743), Son Of The Preceding, Was Born Oct. Io 1678. In Return For His Services In Promoting The Union, He Was Created (1705) A Peer Of England, With The Titles Of Baron Of Chatham And Earl Of Greenwich. He Served ...

John De Baliol
Baliol, John De 0249-1315), King Of Scotland, Was A Son Of John De Baliol (d. 1269) Of Barnard Castle, Durham, By His Wife Dervorguila, Daughter Of Alan, Earl Of Galloway, And Be Came Head Of The Baliol Family (see Above) And Lord Of Extensive Lands In England, France And Scotland ...

John Dunning Ashburton
Ashburton, John Dunning, 1st Baron (1731 1 783) English Lawyer, Was Born At Ashburton, Devonshire, On Oct. 18, 1731. At First Articled To His Father, He Was Admitted, At The Age Of 19, To The Middle Temple, And Called To The Bar In 1756, Where He Came Very Slowly Into ...

John Jacob Astor
Astor, John Jacob ), Younger Son Of The 1st Viscount Astor, Was Born May 20 1886. Educated At Eton And New College, Oxford, In 1906 He Joined The 1st Life Guards, And, From 1911 To 1914, Was Aide-de-camp To The Viceroy Of India. In 1916 Major Astor Married Lady Violet ...

John Jacob Astor_2
Astor, John Jacob American Merchant, Was Born At The Village Of Walldorf, Near Heidelberg, Germany, On July 17, 1763. For Four Years He Was Employed In The Piano And Flute Factory Of An Uncle, Of The Firm Astor And Broadwood, London. In 1783 He Emigrated To America, And Settled In ...

John James Audubon
Audubon, John James (1785-1851), American Nat Uralist, Was Born At Les Cayes, Santo Domingo, Now Haiti, April 26, 1785. By His Father, Lieut. John Audubon, A French Naval Officer And Planter, The Boy Was Taken To The United States And Then To France. Even In His Petted Boyhood He Was ...

John Logie Baird
Baird, John Logie (1888— ), British Inventor, Was Born Aug. 13, 1888, In Helensburgh, Scotland And Was Educated At Larchfield Academy And Glasgow University. He Served Apprenticeship As An Electrical Engineer But Abandoned Engineer Ing For A Business Career. In 1922 Owing To Ill Health He Gave Up Active Business ...

John Lubbock Avebury
Avebury, John Lubbock, 1st Baron English Banker, Politician And Naturalist, Was Born In London April 30 1834, And Died At Kingsgate Castle, Kent, May 28 1913, The Son Of Sir John William Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, Himself A Highly Distinguished Man Of Science. John Lubbock Was Sent To Eton In 1845, ...

John Murray
John Murray, 2nd Earl And I St Marquess (cr. 1676) Of Atholl (1631-1703), Son Of The I St Earl Was Born May 2, 1631. In 1653 He Was The Chief Supporter Of Glencairn's Rising, But Was Obliged To Surrender With His Two Regiments To Monk, Sept. 2, After The Restoration ...

John Murray_2
John Murray, 2nd Marquess And Ist Duke Of Atholl ) , Was Born On Feb. 24, 166o. He Was A Supporter Of William And The Revolution In 1688, Raking The Oaths In Sept. 1689, But Was Unable To Prevent The Majority Of His Clan, During His Fath Er's Absence, From ...

John Stewart
John Stewart, 4th Earl Of Atholl, In The Stewart Line (d. 1579), Son Of John, 3rd Earl, Succeeded His Father In 1542. As One Of The Principal Catholic Nobles Of Scotland, He Was Especially Trusted By Mary, Queen Of Scots, But After The Murder Of Darnley In 1567 He Joined ...

Jon Arason
Arason, Jon Icelandic Bishop And Poet, Succeeded Gottskalk In The See Of Holar In 1522; But He Was Soon Driven Out By The Other Icelandic Bishop, Ogmund Of Skalholt. In 1548, When A Large Number Of The Islanders Had Accepted The Reformed Doctrines, Arason And Ogmund Joined Their Forces And ...

Jonathan Ogden Armour
Armour, Jonathan Ogden Amer Ican Merchant, Was Born In Milwaukee (wis.), Nov. 11, 1863, The Son Of Philip D. Armour (q.v.). In 1883 He Joined The Busi Ness Of Armour And Co. Made A Partner The Following Year, He Became General Manager And Head Of The Company After The Death ...

Jose Manuel Balmaceda
Balmaceda, Jose Manuel President Of The Republic Of Chile, Was Born In Santiago In 1838, Of Wealthy Parents. In His Early Days He Was Chiefly Concerned In Industrial And Agricultural Enterprise. In 1865 He Was One Of The Repre Sentatives Of The Chilean Government At The General South Ameri Can ...

Joseph Arch
Arch, Joseph (1826-1919), English Politician, Founder Of The National Agricultural Labourers' Union, Was Born At Bar Ford, A Village In Warwickshire, Nov. Io 1826, And Died There Feb. 12 1919. He Founded, In 1872, The National Agricultural Labourers' Union, Of Which He Was President. Temporary Rises In Wages Were Secured, ...

Joseph Athias
Athias, Joseph (died May 12 1700), Jewish Rabbi And Printer, Was Born In Spain And Settled In Amsterdam. His Editions Of The Hebrew Bible (1661, 1677) Are Noted For Beauty Of Execu Tion And The General Correctness Of The Text. He Also Printed A Judaeo-german Edition Of The Bible In ...

Joseph Autran
Autran, Joseph (1813-77), French Poet, Was Born At Marseilles On June 20 1813, And Died In That City On March 6 1877. His Best Known Work Is La Mer (1835), Remodelled In 1852 As Les Poemes De La Mer. Another Important Work Is His Vie Rurale (1856), A Series Of ...

Joseph Bajza
Bajza, Joseph (1804-1858), Hungarian Poet And Critic. His Earliest Contributions Were Made To Kisfaludy's Aurora, Which He Edited From Until 1837, When He Was Made Director Of The Newly Established National Theatre At Pest. In 1847 Bajza Edited The Journal Of The Opposition, Ellenor, At Leipzig, And In March 1848 ...

Joseph Simon
Joseph Simon (1687-1768), A Maronite Of Mount Lebanon. He Was Sent To The Maronite College In Rome, And Entered The Vatican Library. In 1717 He Was Sent To Egypt And Syria To Search For Valuable Mss., And Returned With About 15o Very Choice Ones. The Pope Again Sent Him To ...

Juan De Arquijo
Arquijo, Juan De (c. 1564-1623), Spanish Poet, Be Longed To The Italianate School Of Poetry At Seville. A Delicate Simplicity Characterizes His Sonetos (ed. J. Colon Y Colon, Seville, 1841) And Poesias (ed. A. De Castro, 1854). ...

Juan De I Avila
Avila, Juan De (i Soo-.1569), Spanish Saint, "apostle Of Andalusia," Was Born In Almodovar In The Diocese Of Toledo. He Studied Law At The University Of Salamanca, And Philosophy And Theology At Alcala. He Intended To Do Missionary Work In Mexico, But In 1530, The Archbishop Of Seville Persuaded Him ...

Karl Baedeker
Baedeker, Karl (1801-1859), German Publisher, Was Born At Essen, Nov. 3, 18o1. His Father Had A Printing Establish Ment And Bookshop There, And Karl Followed The Same Business In Dependently In Coblenz. Here He Began To Issue The First Of The Series Of Guide-books With Which His Name Is Associated. ...

Karl Ernst Von Baer
Baer, Karl Ernst Von (1792-1876), German Biolo Gist, Was Born At Piep, Estonia, On Feb. 29 1792. His Father, A Small Landowner, Sent Him To School At Reval, Which He Left In His 18th Year To Study Medicine At Dorpat University. The Lec Tures Of K. F. Burdach (1776-1847) Suggested ...

Karl Friedrich Bahrdt
Bahrdt, Karl Friedrich (1741-1792), German Theologian And Adventurer, Was Born On Aug. 25, 1741, At Bisch Of Swerda And Died At Halle On April 23, 17 92. At The Age Of 16 Young Bahrdt Began To Study Theology At Leipzig Under The Ortho Dox Mystic, Christian August Crusius 0715-75), Who ...

Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach
Bach, Karl Philipp Emanuel Ger Man Musician And Composer, The Third Son Of Johann Sebastian Bach, Was Born At Weimar On March 14, 1714. When He Was Ten Years Old He Entered The Thomasschule At Leipzig, Of Which In 1723 His Father Had Become Cantor, And Continued His Education As ...

Kasimir Badeni
Badeni, Kasimir, Count (1846-1909) Austrian States Man, Was Born Oct. 14, 1846, At Surochow In Galicia. He Entered The Civil Service From Which He Resigned In 1886, But Two Years Later Was Appointed Governor (statthalter) Of Galicia. In Sept. 1895 He Was Appointed Austrian Prime Minister And His Attitude Was ...

Kingdom Of Arles
Arles, Kingdom Of, The Name Given To The Kingdom Formed About 933 By The Union Of The Old Kingdoms Of Provence (q.v.) Or Cisjurane Burgundy, And Burgundy (q.v.) Transjurane, And Bequeathed In 1032 By Its Last Sovereign, Rudolph Iii., To The Emperor Conrad Ii. It Comprised The Countship Of Burgundy ...

Lady Grizel Baillie
Baillie, Lady Grizel (1665-1746), Scottish Song Writer, Eldest Daughter Of Sir Patrick Hume Or Home Of Polwarth, Afterwards Earl Of Marchmont, Was Born At Redbraes Castle, Ber Wickshire. When She Was 12 Years Old She Carried Letters From Her Father To The Scottish Patriot, Robert Baillie Of Jerviswood, Who Was ...

Landscape Architecture
Landscape Architecture Is Fully Treated Under Its Own Head Ing As Is Also Town And City Planning. Other Special Articles Are Also Given To Colour In Architecture; Ornament, Archi Tectural ; Rendering, Architectural ; Sculpture : Architec Tural; Shop Front Design ; Zoning. A Large Number Of Archi Tectural Subjects, ...

Landscape Architecture_2
Landscape Architecture Is Fully Treated Under Its Own Head Ing As Is Also Town And City Planning. Other Special Articles Are Also Given To Colour In Architecture; Ornament, Archi Tectural; Rendering, Architectural ; Sculpture : Architec Tural; Shop Front Design ; Zoning. A Large Number Of Archi Tectural Subjects, Such ...

Larsa Dynasties Of Isin
Dynasties Of Isin, Larsa, And Babylon From About 2300 B.c. Men Called "amorites" That Is "western Ers," Were Occupied In Menial Work In Babylonia. They Bear Names Of Various Types, And May Not All Have Been Of Western Origin; But A New Semitic Dialect Appears In Certain Names, And This ...

Later Assyrian Empire
Later Assyrian Empire After The Assyrian Kingdom Had Recovered From The Strain Im Posed By The Aramaean Invasion Of The Southern And Eastern Lands, Ashurnasirpal Ii. And Shalmaneser Iii. Founded The Future Assyrian Empire By Conquests East, North And West In The 9th Century. Art And Literature Were Cultivated, And ...

Lena Ashwell
Ashwell, Lena ), English Actress, Was The Daughter Of Commander Pocock, R.n. In 1896 She Married The Actor Arthur Playfair, Whom She Divorced In 1908; Later In The Latter Year She Married Dr. (later Sir H.) Simson. In 1895 She Played Elaine In Irving's Production Of King Arthur At The ...

Leo Hendrik Baekeland
Baekeland, Leo Hendrik ) , The Inventor Of Bakelite, Was Born In Ghent, Belgium. In 1889, He Came To America Where He Became Active As Research Chemist, Particularly In The Manufacture Of Photographic Materials, A Sub Ject In Which He Had Been Interested Since Student Days At Ghent. In 1893 ...

Leonard Bacon
Bacon, Leonard (1802-1881), American Congrega Tional Preacher And Writer, Was Born At Detroit, Mich., On Feb. 19, 1802, The Son Of David Bacon Missionary Among The Indians In Michigan And Founder Of The Town Of Tallmadge, O. The Son Graduated At Yale In 1820 And At The Andover Theological Seminary ...

Leopold Auenbrugger
Auenbrugger, Leopold Viennese Physician, Was Born At Graz, Steyermark, On Nov. 19, 1722. He Studied At Vienna And Was Placed In Charge Of The Spanish Mili Tary Hospital And The Hospital Of The Holy Trinity. His New Invention For Discovering Obscure Thoracic Diseases By Percus Sion Of The Chest (1762) ...

Leopold Auer
Auer, Leopold (1845-1930), Violinist And Famous Teacher, Was Born At Veszprim, Hungary, June G, 1845. He Was Trained At The Vienna Conservatoire And Later Studied With Joachim, Making The Acquaintance At The Same Period Of Brahms And Liszt, With Both Of Whom He Played. His Debut He Made At Leipzig ...

Liberty Hyde Bailey
Bailey, Liberty Hyde ), American Bot Anist And Horticulturist, Was Born At South Haven, Mich., On March 15, 1858. He Spent His Early Years On A Farm And In 1882 Graduated From Michigan State Agricultural College. In 5882-83 He Was A Student Assistant In Botany Under Asa Gray At Harvard, ...

Limited Baldwins
Baldwin's, Limited. This British Joint-stock Com Pany Amalgamated, In 1902, A Number Of Old-established Under Takings, Including Colliery Owners, Steel Manufacturers, And Makers Of Tinned, Galvanized, Leadcoated And Black Sheets; It Has Since Enlarged Its Operations By Further Amalgamations. The Company Has Many Famous Associations. The Rt. Hon. Stanley Baldwin, ...

Lization
Lization.) Hissarlik Finds.—the Earliest Specimens Of Undoubted Bronze Were Obtained By Schliemann From The Second City At Hissarlik; They Formed Part Of The Famous Hoard L. This City Was Twice Re Built And The Period Of Its Existence May Thus Be Divided Into Three Phases. It Seems Clear That Hoard ...

Loch Awe
Awe, Loch, The Longest Freshwater Lake In Scotland, Situ Ated In Mid-argyllshire, I Oft. Above The Sea, With An Area Of Nearly I6sq.m. It Is 23m. Long North-east To South-west From Kilchurn Castle To Ford, Its Breadth Varying From One-third Of A Mile To 3m. At Its Upper End, Where ...

Lodovico Ariosto
Ariosto, Lodovico , Italian Poet, Was Born At Reggio, In Lombardy, Where His Father Was Commander Of The Citadel. He Showed A Strong Inclination To Poetry, But Was Obliged By His Father To Study The Law—a Pursuit In Which He Lost Five Of The Best Years Of His Life. Allowed ...

Louis Petit De Bachaumont
Bachaumont, Louis Petit De French Litterateur, Was Of Noble Family And Was Brought Up At The Court Of Versailles. He Passed His Whole Life In Paris As The Centre Of The Salon Of Madame Doublet De Persan (1677-1771), Where Criticism Of Art And Literature Took The Form Of Malicious Gossip. ...

Louis Pierre Anquetil
Anquetil, Louis Pierre (1723-1808), French His Torian, Was Born In Paris Feb. 21 1723, And Died Sept. 6 1808. He Became Director Of The Seminary At Reims, Where He Wrote His Histoire Civile Et Politique De Reims (3 Vol., 1756-57), Perhaps His Best Work. He Was Then Director Of The ...

Louis Pierre Baltard
Baltard, Louis Pierre (1764-1846), French Archi Tect And Engraver, Was Born In Paris On July 9, 1764, And Died There On Jan. 22, 1846. He Was Selected To Prepare The Plans For Some Of The Largest Public Edifices In Paris. His Reputation, How Ever, Is Chiefly Based On His Great ...

Lower Austria
Austria, Lower, Or "austria Below The River Enns," Formerly A Province Of Austria And Now Known As The Niederdonati Gaze Of Greater Germany, Is Divided By The Danube Into A North Ern More Agricultural And A Southern More Industrial Half, And Each May Be Further Subdivided Into Structural Regions With ...

Ltd Armstrong Sir W
Armstrong (sir W. G.) Whitworth And Co., Ltd. On Nov. 24, 1845, A Solicitor, William George Arm Strong, Afterwards Lord Armstrong, Proposed The Application Of The Pressure Of Water In The Street Pipes To The Working Of The Cranes Upon The Quayside, And, In 1846, The Newcastle Cranage Company Was ...

Ltd Associated Portland Cement
Associated Portland Cement Manufac Turers, Ltd. This Company, Formed In 1900, Was One Of The Earliest Of British Industrial Combinations. It Amalgamated Some 24 Businesses, And The 32 Works Acquired, Producing Over Tons Of Cement A Year, Were Nearly All Situated On The Thames And Medway, The Cradle Of The ...

Lucas Vasquez De Ayllon
Ayllon, Lucas Vasquez De (c. Span Ish Adventurer And Colonizer In South-eastern North America, Was Born Probably In Toledo, Spain, About 1475. He Accompanied Nicolas Ovando To Hispaniola (santo Domingo) In 1502, Engaged With Profit In Various Commercial Enterprises, And Became Inter Ested In A Plan For The Extension Of ...

Lucius Apuleius
Apuleius, Lucius, Platonic Philosopher And Rhetori Cian, Was Born At Madaura, In Numidia, About A.d. 125. He Was Educated At Carthage And Athens, And Then Undertook A Long Course Of Travel, Especially In The East, Principally With The View Of Obtaining Initiation Into Religious Mysteries. Having Practised For Some Time ...

Ludolf Backhuysen Or Bakhuisen
Backhuysen Or Bakhuisen, Ludolf (1631-1708), Dutch Painter, Was Born On Dec. 18 1631, At Emden, Hanover, And Died At Amsterdam On Nov. 17 1708. He Studied Under Allart Van Everdingen And Hendrik Dubbels, And Soon Became Celebrated For His Sea-pieces. His Numerous Compositions Are Nearly All Variations Of One Subject, ...

Ludwig Achim Joachim Von
Arnim, Ludwig Achim (joachim) Von (1781-1831), German Poet And Novelist, Was Born In Berlin On June 26 1781, And Died At Dahme, Prussia, On Jan. 21 1831. From The Earlier Writings Of Goethe And Herder He Learned To Appreciate German Legends And Folk-songs. He Published A Col Lection Of These ...

Ludwig Anzengruber
Anzengruber, Ludwig (1839-89), Austrian Dram Atist And Novelist, Was Born At Vienna, Nov. 29 1839, And Died There On Dec. 1 O 1889. He Earned A Precarious Livelihood By Journalism, Then Became A Clerk In The Police Department Until 1870, When He Made A Hit With His Anti-clerical Play, "der ...

Luigi Arditi
Arditi, Luigi Italian Musical Composer And Conductor, Who, About The Middle Of The Last Century, Was A Prominent Figure In London Musical Life, As Conductor Of The Opera At Her Majesty's Theatre And In Other Capacities. He Paid Frequent Visits Also To America, Conducting The Opera In New York, Where ...

Luis De Avila Y
Avila Y Zuniga, Luis De (c. 1490—c. 156o), Span Ish Historian, Was Born At Placentia. He Married A Wealthy Heir Ess Of The Family Of Zuniga, Whose Name He Added To His Own. He Rose Rapidly In The Favour Of The Emperor Charles V., Served As Ambassador To Rome, And ...

Lupercio Leonardo De Argensola
Argensola, Lupercio Leonardo De (1559 1613 ), Spanish Dramatist And Poet, Was Baptized At Barbastro On Dec. 14, 2559. He Was Appointed Historiographer Of Aragon In And In 1610 Accompanied The Count De Lemos To Naples, Where He Died In March, 1613. His Tragedies—filis, Isabela, And Alejandra—are Said By Cervantes ...

Madeline Sophie Arnould
Arnould, Madeline Sophie Famous French Actress And Operatic Singer, Was Born In Paris, Where, From Her Debut In 1757 To Her Retirement In 1778, She Enjoyed Almost Unrivalled Popularity. In Gluck's Iphigenie En Aulide And Orphee She Created The Parts Of Iphigenie And Eurydice. She Was Renowned, Incidentally, Hardly Less ...

Madreporaria
Madreporaria The Madreporaria, Zoologically Known As "true Corals," Form A Large Group Of Anthozoa Which Are Characterized By Their Power Of Secreting A Massive Limy Skeleton. The Formation Of A Skele Ton Is Not Absolutely Universal Among Them, But The Number Of Species Which Have No Hard Parts Is Extremely ...

Magnetic Axis
Axis, Magnetic. The Axis Of A Magnet Is The Line Drawn From Its South To Its North Pole. (see Magnetism.) ...

Manoel Jose D Arriaga
Arriaga, Manoel Jose D' Portu Guese Politician, Was Born In Horta, In The Azores, July 8 1839. Educated At The University Of Coimbra, He Was Graduated In Law In 1866. Arriaga Early Showed Signs Of His Republican Sympathies, With The Result That His Father, An Ardent Royalist, Disinherited Him ; ...

Marie Henri D Arbois
Arbois De Jubainville, Marie Henri D' (1827-191o), French Historian And Philologist, Was Born At Nancy Dec. 5 1827. In He Left The L?cole Des Chartes With The Degree Of Palaeographic Archivist. He Was Placed In Control Of The Depart Mental Archives Of Aube, And Remained In That Position Until 1880, ...

Mary Astell
Astell, Mary (1668-1731), English Author, Was Born At Newcastle-upon-tyne. She Published, In 1697, A Work En Titled A Serious Proposal To The Ladies, Wherein A Method Is Offered For The Improvement Of Their Minds. A Scheme Of Hers For An Anglican Sisterhood Which Was Favourably Entertained By Queen Anne, Was ...

Mary Hunter Austin
Austin, Mary Hunter (1868-1934), American Nov Elist And Essayist, Was Born At Carlinville (ill.), On Sept. 9, 1868. After Graduating At Blackburn University In 1888 She Went To California To Teach. Later She Settled In New Mexico And Became The Friend And Chronicler Of The Nearby Indian Tribes. Her First ...

Massimo Taparelli Azeglio
Azeglio, Massimo Taparelli, Marquis D' (1798 1866), Italian Statesman And Author, Was Born At Turin Of A Noble Piedmontese Family. In Rome, Where His Father Was Special Envoy To The Vatican, He Acquired A Love Of Art And Music And Became An Artist, To The Horror Of His Narrow-minded And ...

Material And Moral Culture
Material And Moral Culture Turning To The Subject Of Material Culture, That Is, Of Arts And Crafts As Manifested In Such Appliances And Products As Are Of A Physical Nature And, So To Speak, Can Find A Place In A Museum, One May First Note That Natural Objects Embody Culture ...

Matthew Arnold
Arnold, Matthew (1822-1888), English Poet, Literary Critic, And Inspector Of Schools, Was Born At Laleham, Near Staines, On Dec. 24, 1822. He Was The Son Of The Famous Dr. Arnold, Of Rugby, And Was Educated At Winchester, Rugby And Balliol Col Lege, Oxford. After A Year At Winchester, Matthew Arnold ...

Matthew Baillie
Baillie, Matthew (1761-1823), Scottish Physician, Was Born At Shotts, Lanarkshire, On Oct. 27, 1761. He Was Edu Cated At Balliol College, Oxford, And After Studying Medicine Under His Uncle, William Hunter, Was Made Physician At St. George's Hospital, London, In 1787. Two Years Later He Received The M.d. And The ...

Matthias William Baldwin
Baldwin, Matthias William American Inventor And Manufacturer, Was Born In Elizabethtown, N.j., On Dec. Io, 1795. He Was Trained As A Jeweller But, Being Encouraged To Engage In The Manufacture Of Locomotives, Eventu Ally Founded The Baldwin Locomotive Works (q.v.). He Died In Philadelphia On Sept. 7, 1866. See W. ...

Mcc Xx Iiii
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