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BATAVIA, a residency of Java, Dutch East Indies, under the Government of West Java, bounded east, south and west by the residencies of Krawang, Buitenzorg, and Bantam, and north by the Java sea. It also comprises small islands, including the Thousand Islands group (actually about 8o), with a total area of sq.km. Pop. (1930) 2,637,035; composed of 38,561 Euro peans and half-castes, 2,440,128 natives and 158,346 foreign Asiatics, including Chinese. The natives are Sundanese with many Malays in the north. The northern half is flat, and even marshy along the coast, and consists of a broad band of alluvium. The southern half is a mountain range with peaks along the southern border, namely Halimon mountain, the volcanoes Salak, Pangerango and Gede, and the Megamendung. The soil is fertile; rice is grown on the lowlands, and coffee, tea, tobacco, cinchona and vanilla on the highlands. Extensive coconut and rubber plantations are found in the plains, and many market-gardens near the towns. Sugar was cultivated formerly. The government of the residency of Batavia differs from that of the other resi dencies in having no native regencies, the lands being privately owned. The divisions of the residency are Batavia, town and surroundings, Tangerang, Krawang, Meester Cornelis and Bui tenzorg, the first being directly governed by a resident and the remainder by assistant residents. In the second half of the 17th century the Dutch East India Company began selling land to private persons, and granting land in reward for good services. Most of the southern or Buitenzorg division of the residency was appropriated by the governor-general in T745 and attached to that office. But in 1808, Marshal Daendels sold this section to various purchasers, including the Dutch Government, and thus the whole of the residency gradually passed into private hands. The principal towns are the seaport, Batavia (q.v.), which is the capital of the residency as well as the seat of government of the whole Dutch East Indies; Meester Cornelis (pop. 64,329), the scene of a battle between a Dutch force under Marshal Daendels and a British force in Aug. 1811; Tangerang (pop. 1I,061), and Buitenzorg (q.v.). The Buitenzorg hill-country is much visited on account of its beauty, and cool and healthy climate. Gadok is a health resort 6m. S.E. of Buitenzorg. Batavia is traversed by two lines of railway, one eastwards to Cheribon and another south wards to Buitenzorg and on through the Preanger country to Bandoeng. If has also 183m. of first class, 1o7m. of second class and 50m. of third class roads.

residency, buitenzorg, dutch and government